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AN 



ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY, 



Classical aalr Sacreb. 



By S. AUGUSTUS MITCHELL, 



AUTHOR OF A SEBIEB OF GEOOBAPBICAL WORKS. 



AN ENTIRELY NEW EDITION, DRAWN FROM THE BEST 
AUTHORITIES, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

OESIGNZD FOR TBI U8H OF 

SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. 



Illiuftiattlt b»Ui Numtitus Snjfta&Cnji*. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED BY E. H. BUTLER & CO. 

1860. 









Entered, aooonUng to the Act of Gongreas, in the year 1850, by 

8. AUGUSTUS MITCHELL, 

In the Qerk'i Office of the District Conrt of the United States for the Eastern District 
of Pennsylyania. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The following work was undertaken with a view to 
furnisli a manual, omitting the minute details of com- 
plete treatises on the subject, but embracing all the in- 
formation commonly required, and at the same time by 
simplicity and distinctness of arrangement well adapted 
to the use of teacher and learner. Much has been intro- 
duced relating to politics, antiquities, and literature, but 
only what was conceived to be appropriate, noteworthy, 
and interesting. The discussion of the etymology of 
the principal proper names has been allowed a special 
place ; the authorities that have been mostly relied on 
in this matter, being Passow, Gesenius, and the writers 
of the articles in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and 
Eoman Geography, whose views are partly original and 
partly drawn from sources of the highest character. It 
is hoped that no apology will be thought necessary for 
introducing into this little work the opinions of scholars 
on the origin and connection of these geographical terms, 
as these opinions are not simply curious, but often have 
an important historical bearing. The accentuation of 
the Latin forms of the proper names has received careful 
attention. The place of the accent has been marked in 
nearly all cases not determined at sight by the three 
simple rules relating to the position of the vowel of the 
penultima, and also in a few other instances which it 
was thought would be likely to receive a false accent. 

(3) 



IV ADVERTISEMENT. 

The sign of the accent should invariably have been put 
over the vowel or diphthong of the accented syllable, 
but in some words it has been left over the consonant 
following such vowel or diphthong. Many passages and 
expressions illustrative of the text have been adduced 
from those Greek and Latin writers whose works are 
most generally read by young persons, and still more 
might have been added, had space allowed. 

The authorities and the editions of the Greek and 
Latin writers chiefly consulted for the present work, are 
the following : — 

CLUVBBiuSy Introductio in Universam Geographicam. Leyden, 1670. 

FoRBiGBR, Handbuch der alien Geographie. 8 vols. Svo. Leipsic^ 
1842-47. 

Frbund, Latin Lexicon. 

Gbsbniub, Hebrew Lexicon. 

Grotb, History of Greece. New York, 1854-56. 

HoRATius ; ed. Stallbaum, Leipsic, 1854. 

Humboldt, Aspects of Nature. 1849 

Cosmos. 1845-58. 

Leakb, Tour in Asia Minor. 8yo. London, 1824. 

LiDDBLL AND ScoTT, Greek Lexicon. New York, 1846. 

Mela, De Situ Orbis. Leipsic, E. Tauchnitz, 1881. 

MtJLLER, Lexicon Geographicam Antiquam Illustrans. 8to. Leipsio^ 
1881. 

Nibbuhr, Vortrage Uber alte L'ander- und Volkerkunde. Berlin, 1851. 

Otidius ; ed. Merkel. 12mo. Leipsic, Teubner, 1852. 

Passow, Greek Lexicon. 5th ed. 1841-52. 

Plimius, Naturalis Historia; ed. Janus. 12mo. Leipsic, Teubner, 1854. 

RiTTBR, Die Erdkunde, u.s.w. Berlin, 1834. 

ScHMiTZ, Manual of Ancient Geography. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1857. 

ScHWBGLER, Romische Geschichte. Tubingen, 1856. 

Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 2 vols. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1858-67. 

Strabo, Geographica; ed. Meineke. 12mo. Leipsio. 1852. 

Thirlwall, History of Greece. 

ViRGiLius ; ed. Wagner. 8to. Leipsic, 1848. 

^ORDswoRTH, Greece: Pictorial, Descriptive, HiBiorioal. Boy. 8vo. 
London. 
iXLADiLPHiA, December, 1859. 



CONTENTS. 





PAGK 1 


SKcnoir 


PAQS 


Introductiov .... 


5 


18. 


Cappadocia ad Tauram — 












Cappadocia ad Poutum 


40 








19. 


Paphlagonia . 


42 




ASIA. 




20. 


Bithynia 


43 


BBcnox 




21. 


GalatU 


45 


1. 


General View, Name, 




22. 


Phrygia with Lycaonia . 


48 




Boundaries . 


11 


23. 


Pisidia with Isauria 


51 


2. 


Divisions, Seas, Lakes, 
Mountains, Bivers 

Asia Minor. 


12 




Asia Obibntalis. 










24. 


Divisions 


53 


3. 


General View, Divisions . 


14 


25. 


Sarmatia Asiatica . 


53 


4. 


Mysia : Name, Boundaries, 




26. 


Colchis, Iberia, Albania . 


54 




Divisions, Mountains, 




27. 


Armenia Major 


55 




Rivers 


15 


28. 


Mesopotamia 


57 


5. 


Mysia: Productions, In- 




29. 


Babylonia and Chaldsaa . 


58 




habitants, Towns . 


16 


30. 


Babylon 


60 


6. 


Troas .... 


17 


31. 


Syria: Name, Boundaries, 




7. 


Pergamum 


19 




Divisions . 


62 




Grecian Colonies . 


21 


32. 


Cities .... 


64 


8. 


^olis .... 


21 


33. 


Palmyra 


66 


9. 


Ionia .... 


22 


34. 


Phoenioe 


67 


10. 


Ionia: Cities . 


25 


35. 


Sidon and Tyrus . 


69 


11. 


Doris .... 


26 


36. 


PalsBstina: General View, 




12. 


Lydia: Boundaries, Moun- 






Name, Boundaries, Di- 






tains, Rivers, Capes, 






visions 


72 




Ae 


28 


37. 


Mountains, Valleys, Riv. 




13. 


Caria .... 


30 




ers, Lakes, Produc- 




14. 


Lycia .... 


31 




tions, Climate, Inhab- 




15. 


Pamphylia 


33 




itants 


74 


1«. 


CUicia .... 


34 


38. 


Galilsea 


76 


17. 


Cappadocia : Extent, 




39. 


Samaria 


79 




Mountains, Rivers, 




40. 


Judiea 


82 




Productions, Ac. 


38 


41. 


Peraoa 


84 




1 


2 


V 


(^) 





VI 



CONTKNT8. 



42. 
43. 



44. 

45. 

46. 

"•! 

48. 

-{ 

60. 
61. 
62. 

53. 



JeniMlem . 

Arabia: Boandaries, In- 

habitants, Climate^ 

Ac . 
Arabia Petraea, Deserta, 

and Felix . . 

Auyria 
Media 
Persia 
Sasiana 
Ariana 
India 
Serica 
Scythia 

Islands of Asia. 

Names of the different 

islands 
Cyprus 
Rhodus 
Cos . 
Samos 

Chios .... 
Lesbos 
Smaller Islands in the 

Mediterranean . 
The Islands of the Pro- 

pontis 
The Islands of the Pon- 

tus Euxinus 
The Islands of the Ooe- 

anus Indicus . 



86 



89 

90 

93 

95 

96 

97 

97 

100 

101 

101 



103 
103 
105 
106 
106 
107 
107 

108 

110 

110 



LIBYA. 

54. Extension, Divisions 



Eastern Libya. 

55. iEgyptas : General View, 

Name, Boundaries, Ac. 

56. Mountains, Rivers, 

Lakes, Productions, 
Ac. 
\ Lower Egypt 

Middle and Upper Egypt 



59. 
60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 
64. 



NUui . 

Lake Moeris and the Py 

ramids 
Tbebss 
Alexandria 
Ethiopia 
MeroS 
Marmariea 
Cyrenaica 



Westxrh Libya. 



65. 


Africa 


66. 


Carthago 


67. 


ArsB Philssnorum 


Numidia . 


68.. 


Mauritania . 


GsBtulia 



TJMM 
118 

120 
122 
123 
126 
127 
128 
129 



130 
132 
134 
135 
136 
137 



EUROPA. 



69. 



70. 



138 



Name, Boundaries, 

Straits, Gulfs . 

Extent, Mountains, Riv- 
ers, Climate, Ac. . 139 

South-Eastern Europe. 





71. 


GrsBcia : Name, Bounda- 




110 




ries, Extent, Ac. 


141 




72. 


Capes, Gulfs, Rivers 


143 




73. 


Lakes, Productions, Cli- 








mate, Divisions 


144 




74. 


Epirus 


146 




75. 


Thessalia . 
' Hellas : Boundaries, 


148 


111 


76. 


Mountains, Divisions . 


149 




1 Acarnania . 


150 






[iEtolia 


160 




77. 


Locris 


151 




78. 


Doris 
Phocis 


163 


112 


153 




79. 


Delphi 


165 




80. 


Boeotia : Boundaries, 




113 




Extent, Inhabitants, 




114 




Climate, Ac. . 


157 


115 


81. 


Boeotia: Cities 


159 







CONTENTS. 




BKOnOX 


VMl 


sionoK 




82. 


Attica : Name, Bounda- 
ries, Extent, Climate, 




107. 


Macedonia : Bounda- 
ries, Divisions, In- 




Productions 


160 




habitants, Language, 


83. 


Attica : Inhabitants, 






Ac. . . . 




Towns 


162 


108. 


Macedonia: Towns 


84. 


Athen», Acropolis, Arei- 




109. 


Thracia : Boundaries, 




opagus, Pnyx . 


168 




Climate, Inhabitants, 


85. 


Atbense: Theatres 


166 




Ac. . . . 


86. 


Athenae : Schools, Gene- 




110. 


Thracia: Towns 




ral View . 


167 


111. 


Illyrioum . 


87. 


Megaris 


169 






88. 


Peloponnesus: Bounda> 






Italta. 




ries. Extent, Moun- 








tains, Divisions 


170 


112. 


General View, Name, 


89. 


Arcadia 


171 




Boundaries, Extent . 


90. 


Laconica 


173 


113. 




91. 


Messenia : Boundaries, 




114. 


Lakes 


' 


Extent, Mountains, 




115. 


Rivers 




Rivers, Climate 


176 


116. 


Climate, Productions, 


92. 


Messenis : Productions, 






Inhabitants . 




Inhabitants, Towns . 


178 


117. 


Gallia Cisalpina: Name, 


93. 


Elis .... 


179 




Boundaries, Divi- 


94. 


Olympia 




180 




sions 


95. 


Achaia 




183 




Istria 


96. 


Corinthia . 




185 


118.- 


Camia 


97. 


Phliasia . 
Sicyonia 




188 




Venetia . 




189 


119. 


Gallia Transpadana . 


98. 


Argolis : Name, Bound- 




120.. 


Gallia Cispadana 




aries, Inhabitants, 




Liguria 




Towns . 


190 




Italia Propria: Bound- 


99. 


Argolis: Towns . 
Cynuria 


191 




aries, Divisions 


193 


121.. 


Etruria : Boundaries, 


100. 


Islands of Greece 


194 




Inhabitants, Lan- 




List of Grecian islands . 


194 




guage, Ac. . 




Corcyra 


195 


122. 


Etruria: Cities . 


101. 


• Leucas 




195 


123. 


Umbria 




Echinades . 




196 


124. 


Picenum . 




Ithaca 




196 


12k 


Sabini 


102. 


Cephallenia . 




197 


126. 


Latium Antiquum 


Zacynthus . 




197 


127. 


Latium A^jectum 




Sphacteria . 




197 


128. 


Roma: Conflagrations, 




' Cythera 




198 




Population, Ac. 


103. 


Calauria . , 




198 


129. 


Roma: Mons Capitoli- 


iBgina 




198 




nus 




Salamis 




199 


130. 


Roma: Mons Palatinus, 


104. 


Euboea 




200 




Aventinus, Esquili- 


105. 


Creta 




201 




nus 


106. 


Cyclades . 




203 


131. 


Roma : The Three Nor- 


Sporades 




205 




thern Hills . 



Vll 



206 
209 



210 
212 
214 



216 
217 
220 
221 

223 



225 
226 
227 
227 
229 
232 
233 

234 



234 
236 
238 
240 
241 
244 
246 

249 

250 



252 



254 



viU 



CONTENTS. 



•RltlOM 



133. 



134. 

135. 
130. 
137. 
138. 



130. 

140. 
141. 

142. 

143. 
144. 
145. 
146. 



Roma, Tranttiberina 

Kegio, Pont««» Ac. . 266 
Campania . . .258 
I Magua Urieoia : Name, 
i UouDdariei,DivUioos 261 
(Apulia . .262 

Calabria . . .263 
Luoanla . . 264 

Bruttil . . .267 
Iilands of Italy . . 269 
Sioilia : Bituation, Ex- 
tent, MounUinit, Jko. 269 
SioiHa : Inhabitants, 
Towns between Pclo- 
rus and Pachynum . 272 
Slcilia : The coast- towns 273 

(Sioilia: The towns in 
the interior . . 275 
Smaller islands near 
SicUia . . .276 
SyracnssB : Situation, 

History . . .277 
SyraoussB : Topography 279 
Sardinia . . .281 
Corsica . . . 282 
Smaller islands near 
Italy . . .283 



Wkstkrr Subops. 

147. Hispania : Situation, 
Boundaries, Capes, 
Mountains • • 285 



saonoir 
148. 



149. 
150. 

151. 
152. 



153. 
154. 
155. 



Hispania : Climate, 
Productions, Inhab- 
itants, Divisions . 287 

Hispania Tarraconensis 288 

iLusitania . .291 

BsBtica : Boundaries, 
Nations, Towns . 291 
BsBtica : Towns . . 292 
Islands near Hispania. 293 
Qallia Transalpina: 
Names, Boundaries, 
Mountains, Capet, 
Ac. . . . 294 

Gallia Narbonensis . 295 
r Aquitania . . .298 
I Qallia Lugdunensis . 299 
GaUiaBelgica . . 301 



I. 



156. 
157. 
158. 

159. 

160. 
161. 

162. < 



NORTHSIUr £UBOPS. 

Germania . . . 803 
Germania: Nations and 

Towns . . 306 
InsulsB ScandisB . . 309 
The Dannbian pro- 
vinces . . . 309 
Dacia . . .312 
Sarmatia Europsea . 313 
Taurica Chersonesus . 314 
InsuUe BritannicsB . 317 
Britannia . . . 317 
Hibemia . . . 323 
Smaller Islands . . 324 
Atlantis . . .325 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ancient Geography is a description of that portion of the 
earth known to the inhabitants of the ancient world, from the 
remotest times to the final overthrow of the Western Empire. 

There is a striking uniformity in the earliest notions enter- 
tained by the nations of antiquity in reference to the form of the 
earth. The general opinion held by each nation was that its 
inhabitants occupied the exact centre of an immense plane 
surrounded by water, and that the earth itself was the centre 
of the visible universe. An examination of the views of 
Hebrew, Hindoo, Chinese, Persian, and Grecian authorities, 
proves conclusively the general recognition of this predominant 
idea. 

The history of ancient geography may be divided into four 
periods : 

I. The mythical period, extending from the remotest ages to 
the time of Hebo'dotus, about 450 b. o. 

In regard to this period but little is known definitely, the 
principal source of information on the subject being tradition 
ftnd fabulous tales. 

According to Homer, who flourished probably about 1000 b. c, 

Questions.— What is Ancient Geography ?— What is said of the 
notions held by ancient nations in reference to the earth's surface ? — 
Into how many periods may ancient geography be divided ? — What is 
the first period? — Why so called? — Oyer what time does it extend ? 
1* (9) 



X IMTttODUOTION. 

the suppoeed flattened dbk of the earth was sarrouaded bj the 
riyer Ooe'aDiia. Hesiod (c. 700 B.o.) places the source of 
Oce'aDus in the Cimmerian rock Leaoas in the West. The 
shores on the further side of this supposed river, Oce'anus, are 
conceived as supporting the heavens, which are supposed to 
form a metallic dome above the earth. Homer, without 
drawing any distinct boundary line, divides the whole suiface 
into two halves, one of which contained Euro'pa, and the other, 
Asia with Libya. These ideas received gradual correction with 
the progress of Grecian colonization and Orecian civilization. 
IIboat^us of Mile'tus, one of the earliest and most distin- 
guished of the Greek geographers, who flourished 525 b. o., by 
the exorcise of a cultivated and independent judgment, did 
much to separate fable from fact, and to give definite form to 
the geographical knowledge of the period : 

II. The historical period^ extending from the time of Hero'- 
DOTUS to that of Erato'sthenes, that is, from 450 b.o. to 
276 B. 0. 

During this period geography may be said to have first derived 
its materials from the actual observation and inquiries of travel- 
lers and men of science. 

Hero'dotus, of Halicarnassus in Caria (born about 484 b. c), 
ranks as the first of Grecian historians who devoted himself, 
with the spirit of a true inquirer, to the improvement and 
arrangement of the geographical knowledge of his countrymen. 
He was a thorough enthusiast in travel, and made personal 
explorations of Egypt and the northern coast of Africa. He 
also visited Phoenicia, Palestine, and Babylon, and explored 
with considerable care the Propontis and the Euxine. His 
knowledge of Europe is, on the whole, very correct, and of the 

Questions. — ^What was Homer's idea of the earth ? — How did he di- 
vide it? — What distinguished geographer flourished about 525 b. c ? 

What was the second period ? — Over what time does it extend ? — On 
what was geography based during this period ? — What historian devoted 
himself to improving geographical knowledge ? — When and where was 
he born ? — What countries did he visit ? — What seas did he meai^re ? 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

soath-eastern portion, Greece, Macedonia and Thrace, are de- 
scribed with a familiarity which could only be employed by one 
thoroughly acquainted with their geographical features. His 
description of Asia, though not equally precise, contains an 
interesting account of Persia, Assyria, and Arabia. Egjrpt and 
Libya, which he had personally visited, are described very fully. 

Subsequent to the time of Hero'dotus, Thtjct'dides of Athens 
(born 471 B.C.), the author of the history of the Peloponnesian 
War, and Xe'nophon (born at Athens about 444 b. c), in the 
Ana'basis and Ct/ropedi^a, added much valuable and accurate 
information to the sum of geographical knowledge. Nearchus, 
who accompanied the Asiatic expedition of Alexander the Great 
(325 B. c), sailed down the Indus, and from its mouth round 
the southern coast of Asia as far as the mouth of the Euphra'tes. 
The results of his observations during the voyage, which lasted 
five months, were taken down and preserved. The expedition, 
of which he formed the directing chief, furnished a vast amount 
of information in regard to India, its extent and its resources. 

During this period, the erroneous opinions, which had pre- 
vailed in regard to the earth's form, were successfully dissipated 
by the various schools of philosophy, and the idea of the earth 
having the form of a globe was gradually adopted by persons 
of education : 

III. The period of systematic geography , extending from the 
time of Erato'sthenes to the era of Claudius PTOLEMiEUS, 
that is, from 275 B. c. to A. d. 161. 

The extension of the Eoman Empire at this epoch over almost 
the entire known surface of the globe, was a great spur to 
geographical inquiry. The progress of scientific study in the 

Questions. — What countries particularly does he describe ftilly ? — 
What historians after him contributed much to geography? — When and 
where were they born ? — ^Who accompanied Alexander on his expedition 
to India ? — ^What did he write, and what information did he furnish ? — 

What progress was made in geographical science ? What was the 

third period ? — Why so called ? — Oyer what time does it extend ? — What 
led to the increase of geographical knowledge ? 



zii INTRODUCTION. 

yarious pbilosophie schoola led to the commenoement of the 
applioation of mathematics to geographic data, and to the fonna- 
tion of a definite and rational theory in regard to the earth's 
surface. The advance in geographical knowledge was far more 
rapid and more marked than at any previous period. 

Erato'sthenss of Cyre'ne, bori^276 B.o., composed a great 
geographical work, which contained a summary of all that had 
been written on the subject up to that time. He first brought 
astronomy and geometry to his aid in calculating the measure- 
ments of the earth, and thus enjoys the honor of being the first 
to make geography a science. He determined approximately the 
circumference of the earth. He recognised the division of the 
globe into two hemispheres by the cequator, and this equator he 
divided into three hundred and sixty degrees, reckoning each 
degree at seven hundred stadia. He calculated the length of the 
inhabited earth at seventy-eight thousand stadia, and its breadth 
at thirty-eight thousand stadia. A line parallel to the equator, 
and passing through the island of Rhodos, Caria, Lycaonia, Cata- 
onia, Media, and the Caspian gates as far as the Indian Cau'casus, 
divided, according to him, the inhabited earth into two equal 
parts, the Northern half being Europa, and the Southern, Asia. 

Geography is much indebted to Polybius, the historian (bom 
about 204 b. o.), who collected a great deal of information during 
his extensive travels. He, like his predecessors, regarded the 
earth as a globe, and recognised the three grand divisions of Asia, 
Libya, and Europa. He divided the surface of the earth into 
six zones. 

The most important, however, of all the ancient geographers 
was Strabo, born at Amasei'a in Pontus, who flourished about the 

Questions. — ^Who was the most distinguished geographer of this 
period? — ^When and where born? — ^What peculiar honor belongs to 
Eratosthenes? — State what results he arrived at. — What did he give as 
the measurement of the inhabited portion of the earth ? — ^What line did 
he suppose divided Europe and Asia into halves ? — What historian of 
eminence flourished subsequently ? — When and where was he born ? — 
How did he divide the earth ? — ^Who was the most important of ancient 
geographers ? — ^Where born ? — When did he flourish ? 



INTBO0UOTION. xiil 

beginniDg of the OhristiaD era. He adopted the system of Era- 
to'sthenes as his basis, but availed himself of the corrections of 
later authors and of his own observations. 

PoMPONius Mela (who probably flonrished about A. d. 40), 
a Spaniard, published the first formal manual of geography in the 
Latin tongue, entitled De Situ Orbis, in which he describes with 
considerable accuracy the most important countries, mountains^ 
lakes, and towns. He furnishes more information in regard to 
ancient Britain than any of his predecessors. 

The elder Pliny, born, it is supposed, at Vero'na, in A. d. 23, 
in his great work, NataralU JSistoria, devotes five, out of thirty- 
seven, books to the subject of geography. This work is a vast 
storehouse of learning, though many of its statements are not 
trustworthy, on account of the credulity of the author, and his 
carelessness in the compilation of his materials : 

• 

IV. The period of mathematical geography, extending from 
the time of Claudius PTOLEMiEUS to Ste'phanus of Byzan- 
tium, that is, from A. D. 161 to A. d. 500. 

Although Erato'sthenes and Strabo had reduced geography to 
a regular and natural system, yet Claudius ProLEMiEUS (born 
at Pelusium in Egypt) was the first to regard geography from a 
geometrical point of view. He was the first to calculate and 
employ the terms latitude and longitude, the degrees of which he 
carefully marked for each country and town he described. He 
not only assumed, but proved, the spherical form of the earth. 
He calculated, by the most accurate measurement, the earth's 
circumference at a hundred and eighty thousand stadia. In the 
amount of his geographical knowledge he was in advance of any 

Questions. — ^Who wrote the work De Situ Orbie f — ^Of what country 
does he speak most fully? — What writer on Natural History added 
much information to the stock of geographical kntwledge? — ^What 

character for trustworthiness does he bear? What was the fourth 

period? — Why so named? — ^Who first applied geometry to geography? 
— Where was he bom? — For what is he distinguished? — What did he 
prove in regard to the shape of the earth ? — ^What did he estimate its 
circumference ? 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



preyioos writers, and his work remained the standard book on 
geography until the revival of letters in the fifteenth century. 

After the time of Ptolemy, no geographer of importance is 
known in antiquity. Pausanias, who flourished about A. D. 174| 
wrote a description of Greece, in ten books. Ste'phanus of By- 
zantium, about A. D 470, was the author of a large geographical 
encyclopedia, the materials of which were compiled from earlier 
authors. Of this work only a portion of an abridgment remains. 
With the decay of the Roman Empire, all the sciences declined, 
and geography ceased to be cultivated to any extent until the 
gradual awakening of the world from the lethargy of the dark 
ages. 

Questions. — What writers after the time of Ptolemy contributed to 
geographical knowledge ? 




ASIA. i^'A<ria,Ana.) 

r 

§ 1. AsTA, the largest division of the earth, is situated in three 
distinct zones, and is superior to the other divisions in wealth, 
magnificence, and variety of productions in the animal, and still 
more in the vegetable kingdom. Barley and wheat here grow 
spontaneously; and animals domesticated with us, such as the 
horse, the ox, and the dog, roam wild. Asia is the cradle of the 
human race, and from the Orient the first rays of true religion 
and of civilization appeared. 

Name. — The term Asia has been thought to have anciently 
designated Lydia only, but the statements of Greek writers point 
to a wider use of the name in the west of Asia Minor, and indicate 
that it was employed by the Asiatics themselves. In Trojan, 
and other Asiatic names, as ^asa'racus, ^scania, ^scanius, among 
various nations whose origin may be traced to Asia, the root as 
often appears, in such connections as make it probable that the 
primary reference is to the Suny especially as an object of worship, 
and that the Asians QA<TtavoC) are the people of the Suriy or of the 
East. Asia and Euro' pa (jEreb, evening ; see pp. 138 and 89) 
would thus be correlative designations, and by this view we are 
brojight back to Homer's division of the old world into two parts : 
7r/>dc yi& r ijiXidv re, and i:pb<: Z^^ov, the Land of Sunrise, and 
the Evening Land, 

Boundaries. — After the time of Strabo (c. a. d. 25), the 
boundaries recognised were as follows : — 

I. On the side toward Europe: — Tanais (Don); Palus 
MiBo'Tis (Sea of Azov); Bo'sPORUS Cimmerius (Strait of 
Kaffa) ] PoNTUS or Euxi'ntjs (Black Sea) ; Bo'sPORUS Thra- 
Cius (Channel of Constantinople); Propontis (Sea of Mar- 

QuBSTiONS. — J 1. For what is Asia distinguished ? — What is probably 
the signification of the name Asia? — ^What would be the correlatiye 
term ? — How was Asia bounded on the west ? 

(11) 



12 ASIA. 

mora) ; Hellespontus (^Dardanelles) ; Mare Mqmum (Archu 
pelago) ; and the Mediterranean, 

II. On the side toward Libya : — Sinus Ara'bious (Red Sea) ; 
and the Isthmus of Arsi'noe (Suez). 

III. The eastern and northern portions were supposed to be 
surrounded by an ocean. According to some of the old poets, 
the south-eastern parts of Asia and of Libya were united by 
continuous land, enclosing the Indian Ocean on the East and 
South. According to the authority of Hero'dotus, the Greeks re- 
cognised the Nile as the dividing line between Asia and Libya. 

§ 2. Divisions. — The Asiatic continent was subdivided into two 
grand divisions, varying in extent of territory at different his- 
torical epochs, and known in history under different distinct 
names. The earliest division of the Greek writers was into 
Upper Asia, and Lower Asia : the former title being applied 
to the region east of the river Halts. At a later period, the 
river Euphra'tes was regarded by Greek authorities as the 
boundary between the two divisions. 

The Roman writers divided Asia into (1.) Asia intra Tau- 
RUM (Asia this side of the Taurus), or the western portion north 
and north-west of the Taurus : (2.) Asia extra Taurum (Asia 
beyond the Taurus), which embraced the remaining portion of 
the continent. 

Subsequent to the fourth century of the Christian era, the 
divisions recognised were (1.) Asia Minor, or, simply, Asia; 
and (2.) Asia Major, or, Orienta'lis. The former was bounded 
on the east by mountain-ranges; the latter on the west by the 
northernmost branch of the Euphra'tes. 

Questions. — How was Asia separated from Libya? — ^What was 
known to the Ancients about the Eastern and Northern boundaries ? — 
What wrong notion concerning the Indian Ocean was entertained by 
the ancient poets ? — What rive* formed the boundary between Asia and 

Libya ? — Who makes this statement ? J 2. Into how many parts was 

Asia divided ? — How many different divisions of Asia do we know ? — 
Where did the ancient Greeks mark the boundary between the two parts? 
— What boundary did they afterward adopt ? — ^What was the Roman 
boundary ? — How long since the term **A8ia Minor" came into use ? — What 
was the boundary of Asia Minor on the east ? — Of Asia Major on the west? 



ASIA. 18 

Seas. North: Ooe'anub Septentriona'liS; or Hyperbo- 

BEXJS. 

JSast : Oce'anus Orienta'lis, or Eo'us. 

South: Oce'anus I'ndicus; Mare RuBRUM,or Erythrjeum, 
with its two gulfs, the Sinus Pe'rsicus, and the Sinus Ara'bi- 
cus (Red Sea), 

West: Mare Internum or Intesti'num (Mediterranean), 
subdivided into (1.) Mare Ph<enicium, the portion washing 
the Syrian and Phoenician coast; (2.) Mare Cilicium (the Gvlf 
of Scanderoon)) (3.) Mare Pamphylium (the Bay of Adalia)\ 
Mare ^q^um (the Archipelago)] Hellespontus (Darda- 
nelles)', Propontis (Sea of Marmora) ; Bo'sPORUS Thraoius 
(Channel of Constantinople) ; PoNTUS orEvxi'N US (Black Sea) ; 
Bo'sPORUS Cimmerius (Strait of Kaffa) ; Palus M^o'tis 
(Sea of Azov), 

Lakes. — Mare Caspium or Hyrganium. Much confusion 
existed among the ancients with regard to this sea, and it is not 
a little remarkable that the earliest account of it, which is to be 
found in Hero'dotus, is by far the most accurate : OxiA Palus 
(Lake of Karakoul), which has been supposed to be the Sea 
of Aral. 

Kouutains. — ^Taurus, and Anti-taurus ; Ima'us ( Western 
Himalaya) ; Montes Emo'di (Eastern Himalaya) y Paropa- 
Mi'sus or Cau'oasus I'ndicus (Hindu-Kusch) ; Cau'casus ; 
Montes Hyperborei (the Ural Mountains), 

Elvers. — Paropami'sus (Obi?); Bauti'sus (Hoang-Ho); 
Ganges; Indus; Tigris; Euphra'tes; Halys (Kisil Irmak)-, 
Tanais (Don)', Rha (Wolga); Rhymnus (Gasurt) -, Daix 
(Ural); Iaxartvs (Sihon) ; Oxvs (Gihon), 

Questions. — ^What seas surround Asia on the north and east ? — ^What 
are the southern seas of Asia ? — How many gulfs does the Mare Rubrum 
contain ? — Their names ? — By what different names was the Mediterra- 
nean known? — How was it subdivided ? — The names of the other seas? 
— What is said about Mare Caspium ? — What about Oxia Palus ? — ^What 
are the principal mountains of Asia ? — The principal riyers ? 
2 



14 ASIA. 



ASIA MINOR. 

§ 3. General View.— The term " Asia Jfinor" was not used by 
the ADcients, the simple desigaatioD of Asia alone being applied 
by them to the entire region. The modem name is Anatolia, 
or Natolia, a designation directly derived from the Greek 
word ^AvaroXTj, which signifies rising , hence the East. Many 
portions of this extensive peninsula are enriched with scenery of 
exquisite loveliness, and contain many points admirably fortified by 
nature. The luxuriant and enchanting plains of the interior are 
agreeably diversified and fertilized by many water-courses, some of 
considerable size, such as the Tigris and Euphra'tes; while on 
the sea-coast are commodious and secure harbors which naturally 
attracted, at an early period, a large and enterprising population. 

Divisions. — It embraced the following countries : 

a. Three countries on the ^OJBAN Sea : (1.) Mtsia. The 
^gsean coast south of the Hellespont was called Tboas. (2.) 
Ltdia. The Northern coast, with the Southern coast of Mysia, 
was called ^'olis, or JEohiA, The remaining portion of the 
coast, with a small part of Caria, was called Ionia. (3.) Cabia. 
Its south-west coast was called Doris. 

b. Three countries on the Southern Coast: (1.) Lycia; 
(2.) Pamphylia; (3.) Cilicia. 

c. Three countries on the Euxine: (1.) Cappadocia; (2.) 
Paphlagonia; (3.) Bithynia. 

d. Three countries in the interior: (1.) Galatia; (2.) 
Phrygia, with Lygaonia ; (3.) Pisidia, with Isauria. 

Questions. — { 8. What is the modern name of Asia Minor ? — ^Whence 
is the name derived ? — ^What is said of Asia Minor ? — How many countries 
does it comprise ? — The names of the three countries on the JSgean Sea? 
— ^What countries are on the Mediterranean? — ^What on the Euxine? — 
What were the countries of the interior ? 



MYSIA. 15 

At the close of the fourth century of our era, Asia was divided 
into six parts, viz. : 

I. Asia proconsula'ris, a strip of territory extending along 
the coast from Arsus to the Maeander: its capital^ Ephesus. 
II. Hellespontus : capital^ Cy'zicus. III. Lydia: capi- 
tal^ Sardes. IV. Phrygia Saluta'ris: the north-east part 
of Phrygia : capital^ EucARPiA. V. Phrygia Pacatia'na : 
the weg#part of Phrygia: capital^ Laodige'a. VI. Caria: 
capital^ Aphrodisias. 



DIVISION I. 
MYSIA. (^Moffta, or Motrin ala,) 

§ 4. Name. — The original signification of this name is marshy 
country. The name is identical with that of McBsia, a country 
on the Danube. From this latter region Moesians emigrated; 
who made settlements in the north-western part of the country to 
the whole of which, in the time of the Roman Empire, the name 
of J^i/8ia was applied. 

Boundaries. — On the North, Hellespontus and Propontis; 
on the East, Bithynia and Phrygia; on the South, Lydia; 
on the West, the ^g^an Sea. 

Divisions. — During the earliest periods of the Roman Empire, 
it was subdivided into the following districts : (1.) Mysia minor, 
or Hellespontus, the northern part of the coast; (2.) Mysia 
MAJOR, the southern part of the interior; (3.) Troas, the north- 
em part of the Western coast ; (4.) JS'oLis, the southern part 
of*the coast; (5.) Teuthrania, the southern frontier. 

Under the Persian dominion, the term Mysia was used to 
designate only the north-eastern division of the country ; the 



Questions. — Into how many parts was Asia dmded at the end of the 

fourth century? { 4. How is Mysia bounded? — What does the name 

mean ? — Into how many parts was Mysia divided ? — The names of the 
diyisions? — ^What did the term Mysia comprise during the Persian 
dominion ? 



u 



ASIA. 



««4iUrro pftit of the coast was called Phbtgia Mixoe, and the 
iM/uth«;rD part of the coaH TftOA8. Uuder the Chn>uaii Eiupe- 
r'/m of IVjiue, the Ur^er part of Mtsia belonged to the proTince 
of if fclXfctoWiiVTLH, while the soatbem distiicU were attached to 
th<{ pruviuce of Asia. 

XoUtailU. — The grcat'T part of Mjsia is mouutain^u^; it is 
travenKMl by the oorth-weMern branches of the Taurus. Its 
um'iu braoc'hc'S, wbich inclioe toward the west, are Ida; ^mkus 
(^DftnirJi.OtHjhj'f Olympus {Tumandji-Dagh). 

Ei?MV« — 51 yhiA has many small rivers which are not naTigaUe; 
the tiumi celebrated are, (L) GaANi'cus, which takes its rise from 
orie «^ the h^'i^rhu of Mount Ida, and flows in a northerly direc- 
tion Into the Propontis, which it reaches east of Parinm. It is 
couiuiemorated io the Iliad, and immortalized by the finst victory 
of Alexander over the armies of Darios Codomannos, last king 
of Persia (May 22, B.C. 834) : (2.) Si'mois and Scamander, or 
XAMTliC/ff (see f 6): (3.) Kht'ivdacus {Lupad); MstfpVB 
(HtiltdiUre)'f KviifHVn (filandarli)', C aVcv 8 (Ak-Su). 

f 0« Prodnotions. — It was distiognished for its excellent wheat 
and oysters — Puntu§ et onirlferi favAX% tentantur Abydi (ViRO. 
Oeorg. I. 207). Of minerals^ the most noted was the lapU 
A»$iui, a species of limestone, found in great abundance in 
AssuS; a township of Troas, whence it derived its name. It was 
used for coffins on account of its peculiar property of causing a 
rapid decomposition of the human body. 

InhaMtanti. — The Mtbians had immigrated into Asia from 
Europe either before, or soon after, the Trojan war. They were a 
race of peace-loving and inoffensive shepherds. By the incursions 
of such warlike tribes as the Phbtgianb, the Trojans, aild 
^OLiANS; they were forced to retire further toward the inte- 
rior. 



QuiSTioxs. — To what provinces did Mysia belong under the Christian 
Emperors of Rome? — What mountains traverse Mysia? — ^What were its 
main branches ? — ^What is said of the rivers ? — ^Who was slain near the 
Granicus? — { 6. What is said aboat the productions of Mysia? — ^What 
about its inhabitants?— Where did they come from? 



TROAS AND ILIUM. 17 

Cities. — ^1. AsyDOS (^Apodoq), at the narrowest point of the 
Hellespont, nearly opposite to Sestos, the scene of the romantic 
story of Leander and Hero. 

2. Lamp'sacus (Adfi<paxo^')f on the Hellespont. Alexander 
resolved to destroy this city on acconnt of the vices of its inhabit- 
ants; but it was saved by Anaxi'menes, who, knowing that 
Alexander had sworn to deny any request he might make, begged 
him to destroy it. 

3. Perco'te (IIspxittTri). Artaxerx^s bestowed three rich cities 
on Themis'tocles, to supply his wants : Pergo'te to furnish him 
with supplies of meat ; Magnesia, with bread ; and La'mpsagus 
with wine. 

4. Scepsis (Sxr^tptt:), In this city the original writings and 
library of Aristotle were discovered. The library was ultimately 
removed by Sylla to Athens. 

5. Chrysa (XpiKTo), or Sminthium, contained the temple of 
Apollo Smintheus. 

6. Dar'danus (^Jdpdavo<;'), at the entrance of the Hellespont, a 
point which still retains the ancient name altered into Darda- 
nelles. 

7. Other noted cities were Parium, Cyz'icus, Apollonia, 
Zelia, Alexandria Troas, Assus, Adramyttium, These, 
Troja, Per'gamum, and the JSolian cities. (See § 8.) 

§ 6. TROAS AND ILIUM. (Tpwd^) "IXtoq, "IXtov.) 

The north-west part of Mysia received the name of Troas, 
from Troia, Troja, a place of great importance in the annals 
of the human race, whose name has been made immortal in the 
verse of Homer. 

The chieftains engaged in the long and memorable siege of 
Troy, have been for three thousand years objects of admiration 

Questions. — Name six celebrated cities of Mysia. — Where is Abydos 
situated ? — What is said of Lampsacus ? — How many cities were given 
to Themistocles ? — Who was Themistocles f — ^What is said of Scepsis? — 

Where was Dardanus situated ? { 6. Where was Troas situated ? — 

What is said concerning it ? 

2* B 



IS 



ASIA. 



urn) intortvst among all ciriliied nadons. By their magnanimity, 
tlu'ir her\n»m» their physical power, and their friendships, they 
richly morit4>d the reoown which Homer has conferred upon 
th<!tm. Through their means, Asia and Europe formed their 
6n»t dunihlo reUtions, and the Grecian tribes were first united in 
th0 bondu of a common enterprise. The extensive region of 
Thoas M'oma to include the territory west of an imaginary line, 
(Irtiwn fh)m tho north-east comer of the Adramyttian gulf to the 
l^^•|Htntis nt 1\iriam. The whole territory is intersected by the 
mouiiuiu opum iHinnootcd with Mount Ida, two of the summits 
of which bitro the special names of Cot'tlus and Oar'qara. 




BOJAH WAS. 



The coast lying between Sige'um (^Tamb of Achilles) and 
Bhcets'um {Tomb of Ajax) was the nayal station of the Greek 



QussTiONS. — ^Name the boondaries of Troas. — What mountains inter- 
sect the country ? — Where was the nayal station of the Greeks ? 



PERGAMUM. 19 

squadrons during the siege. Here emptied the united rivers 
Si'MO'is and Soamander^ the latter of which, according to 
the representation of Homer, was called hy the Gods Xanthus: 
*ov Savdov xaXioofft ^eot, oifdpeq d^ Zxdfiavdpov. — ^Iliad xx. 74. 
The Soamander had its source in two springs, rising near the 
city of Ilium, one of which was warm and the other cold. It 
was a large and deep stream, which, after its junction with the 
SiMOis, still retained the name of Sgamander. The SiMOis 
took its rise in Mount Co'tylus. Its present name is Dumhrek- 
Chaif and its course is now so much altered that it is no longer a 
tributary of the Scamander, but flows directly into the Hellespont. 
The city of Ilium wbs situated on a small eminence command- 
ing the plain lying between the rivers Sgamander (or Xanthus) 
and SiMOis, at a distance of 42 stadia from the coast of the Hel- 
lespont. South-east of the city stood a hill, surmounted by the 
Acropolis, called Per'oamum. Troy was more than once rebuilt 
under the names of Troja and Ilium, and on a site nearer to 
the sea than the ancient city is supposed to have occupied. 



PER'GAMUM OR PER'GAMUS. (Jlipyafiov, mpyafioq,') 

§ 7. An ancient town of Teuthrania (a division of Mysia), 
built on a hill overlooking the plain and river of the Cai'cus, 
near its junction with the Seli'nus and Cetius, at a distance 
of 120 stadia from the sea. It was strongly fortified both by 
nature and art. On this account, Lysi'maghus, one of the 
generals of Alexander the Great, chose Pe'rgamum as a place of 
security for the royal treasures, the care of which he intrusted to 
Philet^rus; the latter, in anger at a slight received from 
Alexander's wife, declared himself independent (b. g. 283), and 

Questions. — ^What rivers emptied there ? — What is said about the Si*, 
mois and Scamander? — Where was Ilium situated? — ^Where was Perga- 
mum situated ? — Who destroyed the city of Troy ? — Was it ever rebuilt ? 

{ 7, Where was Pergamum situated ? — Who selected this city for 

the safe-keeping of royal treasures? — To whose custody were these 
treasures intrusted ? — Did he remain faithful to Alexander ? 



20 ASIA. 

remained master of the loncn andof a small pari of the snmmnd- 
ing oountry until his death (b. 0. 263). He was suooeeded by 
his nephew, Eu'iiBNis, who ineraased his dominions, and left 
a prosperoos eoantry to his ooosini A'ttalub I., who assomed 
the title of '* King.'' This kingdom was enlarged by the Romans 
(b.o. 197-159) so as to embrace all the coimlrtet in Am, wbst 
or THB Taurus. This extension of limits was made for the 
special benefit of Eu^MBNXs XL, son of A'ttalns I., who assisted 
the Romans to defeat Anti'ochns III. of Syria. Eu'menes III. 
was a liberal patron of the fine arts and the sciences, and founded 
a famous library in oppoeition to that of Ptolemy at Alezandri'a. 
Ptolemy, having, from motiyes of national jealousy, forbidden the 
exportation of pap/rus, Eu'menes inyented parchment, which, 
from the residence of its illustrious inyentor, deriyed its name 
of pergamina charta. The library founded by Eu'menes III., 
containing two hundred thousand volumes, was transported to 
Alexandria by Antony, and presented by him to Cleopa'tra. 

A'ttalus III. (the second in succession after Eu'menes) be- 
queathed his kingdom to the Romans in b. o. 133, and after 
Aristoni'cus, a natural son of Eu'menes II., was overthrown by 
the Consul Perpenna, the kingdom of Pe'rgamum became a 
Roman province, under the name of Asia (b. c. 130). 

The city continued to be in a flourishing condition even as late 
as the time of Pliny, who styled it ^^hngt darunmum Asia 
Pergamum!* Pe'rgamum was one of the seven churches men- 
tioned in the book of Bevdationy ii. 11. It was also the birth- 
place of the celebrated physician Galen. 

QuKBTiONS. — ^Who assumed the title of king? — By whom was this 
kingdom enlarged ? — ^Wbat is said of Eumenes II. ? — ^What led to the 
invention of parchment? — What is said of one of the most celebrated 
libraries of antiquity? — ^When did Pergamum become a Roman pro- 
yince ? — How is Pergamum mentioned in the Sacred Writings ? — ^Who 
was bom at Pergamum? — ^Who was Galen? 



JEOLIS. 21 



DIVISION II. 

GRECIAN COLONIES. 

Before giving an account of Ljdia, we shall defloribe the three 
celebrated confederacies, which adorned with their thirty cities 
the coast of Asia Minor, extending from the Sige'an promontory 
in the north to Cnidus in the south. The three oonfedeiacies 
were, jE'olis, Ionia^ and Doris. 



§ 8. MOLLS, 

The territory of the old JBolian cities extended northward from 
the river Hermus to the Cai'cus (embracing the northern coast of 
Lydia and the southern coast of Mysia), comprising the sea-coast 
and a narrow tract of land reaching ten or twelve miles inland. 
Twelve cities, eleven of which were clustered round the Eladitic 
Gulf, rose to importance here, the names of which were as fol- 
lows: Cumaa, Larissa, Neon Teichos, Temnus, Cilia, Notium^ 
-^giroessa, Pit'ane, ^gasae, Myri'na, Gryne'um, and Smyrna. 

(1.) Cyme, or Cum^ (iTw/ny), was the most powerful of the 
^olian colonies. A colony from this city founded the city of 
Cumae on the coast of Campania in Italy, the residence of the 
Cumaean Sibyl. 

(2.) Smyrna (Iiiopva)^ the twelfth and most southerly, was 
situated to the south of Mount Si'pylus. At an early period it 
fell into the hands of the lonians, and the city was subsequently 
(B. c. 627) destroyed by the Lydian king, Alyattes ; for a period 
of 400 years, it was deserted and in ruins, when it was rebuilt 
(twenty stadia southward of the former city) by Anti'gonus, king 

Questions. — Name the three Greek confederacies on the Asiatic coast. 

— How many cities did they comprise ? § 8. V\rhere was JSolis ? — 

How many confederate cities did ^olis contain? — V\rhat colony was 
founded by colonists from the city Cumse? — ^Where is Smyrna situated? 
— ^What is said of the city ? 



•^•J ASIA* 

«<f -t Y lU Afior lu 0«t«n«i(>o and embdluluBeBt by Tjif^hMi^ 
N»w Kmvhn^ Uh>4Ui« » city of extreme mipiiicracw 
(i» ... iwuUv oiti«««, iii(Mi pf which were new the cqmI, tkcrei 
Ml ^ I. •)! tM t>i(it«4 III hk^tiHiM (nee § 62), and oxs im tlie 
i«l li'U iwt.14 ( (titii«i« llourijihtHi on Monot Idm, tloog tlw HcDcs- 
I* .III mill nM llm (himI of Thnice. The DAme jBoiic m oAes 
<«l*l«)»>»l U* n (IuUh^I of Ihtf GrtH^k laDgtuge; bat no entire wk 
^liUt'U U( U U (i%Uul. 

I $. IONIA. 

U i'%»«»tnKHl h\»iu |hi» TvM.^AN UvuT 00 the north to Mount 
UHt( 4 ^Mil lt«^ ||^lr IIv«u/k'v» MMith of MUe'tuB, a distance of 
M>t| H«i*tv M«^M ^04^ huuUivU I4«U0« in a straight Une^ bat with a 
isu4til ilovM IUmvsi OuI lvut^(ki 041 aiHHMint of the many gnlTs which 
WsU^ksS U lVwm\| ih^ mMil, Ionia extended only forty miles. 

'{%^ v«4\ik«Uwi wviv i^MMdvd aboul 1044 B. 0., by Attic lonians, 
I\»mUm« 0^^^ k\w lVI\»)HmM^'iiM«t aud emigrants from other parts 
i^t Uhhhh» wh\»m \^haMsH» dinK»t«K) lo th«se rery beautiful and 
W\k\W H'^Umim, Yhvy dr\»vt^ iHil th« i.\rian shepherds, who fed 
ihvU mH'k« (t« lh<i» m«»avlowttof lh<^ MaMuder. The Cayster flowed 
ItmmM^^ a iMarah» vmiIM lh« Avian mafsh| maoh frequented by 
waiter l\»wl \ 

l>i<A'«^M« m Ht«y«i«« ^«Mi<*i«|i«r |w^<« C'l^y^^— Virf . Qtorg. L 888. 

Thi» lii^itla) oHmat<» of lonia^ its verdant hillsides which were the 
iourv^ k4 numerous streams, and its coast abounding in safe har- 
bors, attracted a numerous population, who in time became wealthy, 
refined, and luxurious* The remains of their monuments giye 
evidence of a fine taste for the arts. Greek literature may be 
said to have originated on this coast of Asia; for poets, philoso- 
phers, historians, and artists flourished in the Ionian cities long 

QVKBTIOSB, — How many JEolian cities were in Lesbos ? — ^Wliat is 8«id 

ftbottt the ^Bolio dialect? { 9. Where was Ionia situated? — ^Wben 

were its colonies founded? — ^What is said of the eountrj? — ^What in 
regard to its civiliiation ? 



IONIA. 23 

before A'ttica attained to any eminence in intellectual pursuits. 
There existed^ at the commencement of historical Greece (777 
B. c), TWELVE Ionian cities of note, on or near the coast of 
Asia Minor, beside a few others of less importance. Enumerated 
from north to south, they stand thus : PHOOiEA, CLAZOM'ENiE, 
Chios, Eb'ythr^, Teos, Leb'edus, Col'ophon, Eph'esus, 
Samos, Prie'ne, Myus, Mile'tus. 

They all formed independent republics with democratic consti- 
tutions; but aflfairs connected with the general government were 
discussed at regular meetings held at Panionium, the primitive 
centre of the older Ionian settlements, on the northern slope of 
Mount Mtc'ale, near Priene, about three stadia from the coast. 

(1.) PHOCiE^A (0<oxata)y was built at the end of a peninsula 
which formed part of the territory of the ^olio CumaB. The 
Cumaeans were induced to cede it amicably, and to permit the 
building of the new town. Its inhabitants afterwards deserted 
it, in order to avoid being subjected to the power of Cyrus. 
Having sworn never to return till a mass of iron which they had 
sunk in the sea should rise to the surface, they founded the city 
of Massuja in Gaul (b. o. 540). 

Nulla tit hoc potior sententia : Phoecdorum 

Velut profugU exsecrata civitas — 
« « « « « 

Sed juremw in hate ; nmul imit saxa renarint 

Vadia levata, ne redire tit nefat, — Hor. Epod. 16 : 17, 26. 

(2.) Clazom'en^ (KXaZofisvai)y situated on the south side of 
the Bay of Smyrna. The original settlement was on the main- 
land, but the fear of attacks from the Persians caused its removal 
to the island. It was distinguished for being the birthplace of the 
philosopher Anaxag'oras. 

(3.) Chios (^cb?), an island of the iBgasan Sea, opposite to 
the peninsula in which Erythrae was situated, five miles from the 

Questions. — How many cities were embraced in the confederacy ? — 
What was the political goyemment ? — Name the twelve Ionian cities. — 
Where was Phocaea situated ? — For what reason was it abandoned by 
its citizens ? — To what point did they emigrate and settle ? — Where was 
Anax.agoras born ? 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

preyioos writers^ and his work remaiDed the standard book on 
geography until the reyival of letters in the fifteenth century. 

After the time of Ptolemy, no geographer of importance is 
known in antiquity. Pausanias, who flourished about A. D. 174; 
wrote a description of Greece, in ten books. Ste'phanus of By- 
zantium, about A. D 470, was the author of a large geographical 
encyclopedia, the materials of which were compiled from earlier 
authors. Of this work only a portion of an abridgment remains. 
With the decay of the Roman Empire, all the sciences declined, 
and geography ceased to be cultivated to any extent until the 
gradual awakening of the world from the lethargy of the dark 



Questions. — What writers after the time of Ptolemy contributed to 
geographical knowledge ? 




ASIA. (ii'AaCa,Ana.) 

r 

% 1. AsTA, the largest diyision of the earth, is situated in three 
distinct zones, and is superior to the other divisions in wealth, 
magnificence, and variety of productions in the animal, and still 
more in the vegetable kingdom. Barley and wheat here grow 
spontaneously; and animals domesticated with us, such as the 
horse, the ox, and the dog, roam wild. Asia is the cradle of the 
human race, and from the Orient the first rays of true religion 
and of civilization appeared. 

Name. — The term Asia has been thought to have anciently 
designated Lydia only, but the statements of Greek writers point 
to a wider use of the name in the west of Asia Minor, and indicate 
that it was employed by the Asiatics themselves. In Trojan, 
and other Asiatic names, as ^ssa'racus, ^scania, ^scanius, among 
various nations whose origin may be traced to Asia, the root AS 
often appears, in such connections as make it probable that the 
primary reference is to the Sun^ especially as an object of worship, 
and that the Asians QA<navoC) are the people of the Sun, or of the 
East. Asia and Euro* pa (^Ereb, evening; see pp. 138 and 89) 
would thus be correlative designations, and by this view we are 
brojight back to Homer*s division of the old world into two parts : 
'Ttpdq ijctt T T^iXtdv re, and npof: ^o^ov, the Land of Sunrise, and 
the Evening Land, 

Boundaries. — After the time of Strabo (c. a. d. 25), the 
boundaries recognised were as follows : — 

I. On the side toward Europe: — Tanais {Don); Palus 
MiEo'TiS (Sea of Azov); Bo'sPORUS CiMMERlUS (Strait of 
Kaffa) ; PoNTUS or Euxi'nus (Black Sea) ; Bo'sPORUS Thra- 
Cius (Channel of Constantinople); Propontis (Sea of Mar- 

Questions. — J 1. For what is Asia distinguished ? — What is probably 
the signification of the name Asiaf — What would be the correlative 
term ? — How was Asia bounded on the west ? 

(11) 



12 ASIA. 

mora) ; Hellebpontus (^Dardanelles) ; Mare iEoJBUM (Archu 
pdago) ; and the Mediterranean, 

II. On the side toward Libya : — Sinus Aba'bious (Red Sea) ; 
and the Isthmus of Arsi'noe (Suez). 

III. The eastern and northern portions were supposed to be 
surrounded by an ocean. According to some of the old poets, 
the south-eastern parts of Asia and of Libya were united by 
continuous land^ enclosing the Indian Ocean on the East and 
South. According to the authority of Hero'dotus,the Greeks re- 
cognised the Nile as the dividing line between Asia and Libya. 

§ 2. Divisions. — The Asiatic continent was subdivided into two 
grand divisions, varying in extent of territory at different his- 
torical epochs, and known in history under different distinct 
names. The earliest division of the Greek writers was into 
Uppeb Asia, and Loweb Asia : the former title being applied 
to the region east of the river Halts. At a later period, the 
river Euphra'tes was regarded by Greek authorities as the 
boundary between the two divisions. 

The Roman writers divided Asia into (1.) Asia intba Tau- 
BUM (Asia this side of the Taurus), or the western portion north 
and north-west of the Taurus : (2.) Asia extra Taurum (Asia 
beyond the Taurus), which embraced the remaining portion of 
the continent. 

Subsequent to the fourth century of the Christian era, the 
divisions recognised were (1.) Asia Minor, or, simply, Asia ; 
and (2.) Asia Major, or, Orienta'lis. The former was bounded 
on the east by mountain-ranges; the latter on the west by the 
northernmost branch of the Euphra'tes. 

Questions. — How was Asia separated from Libya? — ^What was 
known to the Ancients about the Eastern and Northern boundaries ? — 
What wrong notion concerning the Indian Ocean was entertained by 
the ancient poets ? — ^What rive* formed the boundary between Asia and 

Libya ? — Who makes this statement ? J 2. Into how many parts was 

Asia divided ? — How many different divisions of Asia do we know ? — 
Where did the ancient Greeks mark the boundary between the two parts? 
— What boundary did they afterward adopt ? — What was the Roman 
boundary ? — How long since the term **Asia Minor" came into use ? — What 

^s the boundary of Asia Minor on the east? — Of Asia Major on the west? 



ASIA. 18 

North: Ooe'anus Septentriona'lis, or Hypebbo- 

REUS. 

East : Ocb'anus Orienta'lis, or Eo'us. 

South: Ooe'anus Tndicus; Mare RuBRUM,or Ertthr^um^ 
with its two golfs, the Sinus Pe'rsigus, and the Sinus Ara'bi- 
cus (Red Sea), 

West: Mare Internum or Intesti'num (Mediterranean), 
subdivided into (1.) Mare PhcbniciuM; the portion washing 
the Syrian and Phoenician coast; (2.) Mare Cilioium (the Gulf 
o/Scanderoon)*, (3.) Mare Pamphylium (theBai/o/Adalia); 
Mare Mqmvm (the Archipelago); Hellespontus (Dardor 
nelles) ; Propontis (Sea of Marmora) ; Bo'sPORUS Thraoius 
( Channel of Constantinople) ; PoNTUS orEuxi'NDS (Black Sea) ; 
Bo'sPORUS Cimmerius (Strait of Kaffa); Palus M^eo'tis 
(Sea of Azov). 

Lakes. — Mare Caspium or Hyrcanium. Much confusion 
existed among the ancients with regard to this sea, and it is not 
a little remarkable that the earliest account of it, which is to be 
found in Hero'dotus, is by far the most accurate : OxiA Palus 
(Lake of Karakoul), which has been supposed to be the Sea 
of Aral. 

Mountains. — ^Taurus, and Anti-taurus; 1^a!v& (Western 
Himalaya) ; Montes Emo'di (Eastern Himalaya) ; Paropa- 
Mi'sus or Cau'casus rNDicus (Hindu'Kusch) ; Cau'casus ; 
Montes Hyperborei (ike Ural Mountains), 

Elvers. — Paropami'sus (OUf)) Bauti'sus (Hoang-Ho); 
Ganges; Indus; Tigris; Euphra'tes; Halys (Kisil Irmak); 
Tanais (Don); Kha (Wolga); Khymnus (Gamri); Daix 
(Vrat); Iaxartvs (Sihon) ; Oxvs (Gihon), 

Questions. — ^What seas surround Asia on the north and east ? — ^What 
are the southern seas of Asia ? — How many gulfs does the Mare Rubrum 
contain ? — Their names ? — By what diflFerent names was the Mediterra- 
nean known ? — How was it subdivided ? — The names of the other seas ? 
—What is said about Mare Caspium ? — What about Oxia Palus ? — ^What 
are the principal mountains of Asia ? — The principal riyers? 
2 



14 ASIA. 



ASIA MINOR. 

§ 3. General View.— The term " Asia ifinor" was not used by 
the Ancients, the simple designation of Asia alone being applied 
by them to the entire region. The modem name is Anatolia, 
or Natolia, a designation directly derived from the Greek 
word ^AvaroXjjj which signifies rising, hence the East, Many 
portions of thb eztensiye peninsula are enriched with scenery of 
exquisite loveliness, and contain many points admirably fortified by 
nature. The luxuriant and enchanting plains of the interior are 
agreeably diversified and fertilized by many water-courses, some of 
considerable size, such as the Tigris and Euphra'tes; while on 
the sea-coast are commodious and secure harbors which naturally 
attracted, at an early period, a large and enterprising population. 

IHyisions. — It embraced the following countries : 

a. Three countries on the ^qjean Sea : (1.) Mtsia. The 
^gaean coast south of the Hellespont was called Tboas. (2.) 
Lydia. The Northern coast, with the Southern coast of Mysia, 
was called ^'oLis, or ^OLIA. The remaining portion of the 
coast, with a small part of Caria, was called Ionia. (3.) Caeia. 
Its south-west coast was called Doris. 

b. Three countries on the Southern Coast: (1.) Ltcia; 
(2.) Pamphylia; (3.) Cilicia. 

c. Three countries on the Euxine: (1.) Cappadocia; (2.) 
Paphlagonia; (3.) Bithynia. 

d. Three countries in the interior: (1.) GrALATiA; (2.) 
Phryoia, with Lycaonia; (3.) Pisidia, with Isauria. 

Questions. — J 8. What is the modern name of Asia Minor ? — ^Whence 
is the name derived ? — What is said of Asia Minor ? — How many countries 
does it comprise ? — The names of the three countries on the ^gean Sea? 
— ^What countries are on the Mediterranean? — ^What on the Euxine? — 
What were the countries of the interior ? 



MYSIA. 15 

At the close of the fourth century of our era, Asia was divided 
into six parts, yiz. : 

I. Asia proconsula'ris, a strip of territory extending along 
the coast from Arsus to the Maeander: its capital^ Ephesus. 
IL Hellespontus : capital, Cy'zicus. III. Lydia: capi- 
tal, Sardes. IV. Phryqia Saluta'ris: the north-east part 
of Phrygia : capital, EucARPiA. V. Phryqia Pacatia'na : 
the wefi# part of Phrygia : capital, Laodice'a. VI. Cabia : 
capital, Aphrodisias. 



DIVISION I. 
MYSIA. {Moffia, or Moff\<; a7a.) 

§ 4. Name. — The original signification of this name is marshy 
country. The name is identical with that of Moesia, a country 
on the Danube. From this latter region Moesians emigrated, 
who made settlements in the north-western part of the country to 
the whole of which, in the time of the Boman Empire, the name 
of Mysia was applied. 

Boundaries. — On the North, Hellespontus and Propontis; 
on the East, Bithynia and Phryqia; on the South, Lydia; 
on the West, the Mqma^ Sea. 

Divisions. — ^During the earliest periods of the Boman Empire, 
it was subdivided into the following districts : (1.) Mysia minor, 
or Hellespontus, the northern part of the coast; (2.) Mysia 
MAJOR, the southern part of the interior ; (3.) Troas, the north- 
ern part of the Western coast; (4.) JE'oLis, the southern part 
of*the coast; (5.) Teuthrania, the southern frontier. 

Under the Persian dominion, the term Mysia was used to 
designate only the north-eastern division of the country ; the 



Questions. — Into how many parts was Asia divided at the end of the 

fourth century? J 4. How is Mysia bounded? — ^What does the name 

mean ? — Into how many parts was Mysia divided ? — The names of the 
divisions? — ^What did the term Mysia comprise during the Persian 
dominion ? 



10 ASIA. 

western part of the coast was called Phbtqia Minor, and the 
southern part of the coast Troas. Under the Christian Empe- 
rors of Rome, the larger part of Mtsia belonged to the province 
of Hellebpontus, while the southern districts were attached to 
the province of Asia. 

Mountains. — The greater part of M jsia is mouDtainous ; it is 
traversed by the north-western branches of the Taurus. Its 
main branches, which incline toward the west, are Ida ; 3b:MNUS 
(^Demirji-Dagh) *, Olympus (^Tumandji-Dagh). 

Bivers. — Mtsia has many small rivers which are not navigable; 
the most celebrated are, (1.) Grani'cus, which takes its rise from 
one of the heights of Mount Ida, and flows in a northerly direc- 
tion into the Propontis, which it reaches east of Parium. It is 
commemorated in the Iliad, and immortalized by the first victory 
of Alexander over the armies of Darius Codomannus, last king 
of Persia (May 22, B.C. 334) : (2.) Si'mois and Scamander, or 
Xanthus (see § 6): (3.) Rhy'ndaous {Lupad)) jEse'pus 
{Satoldere)) Eyifavs (^Sandarlt) ; CaI'cvs (Ak-Sii), 

§ 5. Productions. — ^It was distinguished for its excellent wheat 
and oysters — Pontm et ostri/eri fauces tentantur Ahydi (ViRa. 
Oeorg. I. 207). Of minerals^ the most noted was the lapis 
Amuty a species of limestone, found in great abundance in 
Assus, a township of Troas, whence it derived its name. It was 
used for coffins on account of its peculiar property of causing a 
rapid decomposition of the human body. 

Inhabitants. — The Mtsians had immigrated into Asia from 
Europe either before, or soon after, the Trojan war. They were a 
race of peace-loving and inoffensive shepherds. By the incursions 
of such warlike tribes as the Phrygians, the Trojans, aiid 
^OLIANS, they were forced to retire further toward the inte- 
rior. 



Questions. — To what provinces did Mysia belong under the Christian 
Emperors of Rome? — What mountains traverse Mysia? — ^What were its 
main branches ? — ^What is said of the rivers ? — ^Who was slain near the 
Granicus? — 2 ^' ^^at is said about the productions of Mysia? — ^What 
about its inhabitants? — Where did they come from? 



TBOAS AND ILIUM. 17 

Cities. — ^1. Aby'dos (^Afio^o<;), at the narrowest point of the 
Hellespont; nearly opposite to Sestos^ the scene of the romantic 
story of Leander and Hero. 

2. Lamp'sacus (AdfupoLxo^'), on the Hellespont. Alexander 
resolved to destroy this city on account of the vices of its inhabit- 
ants; but it was saved by Anazi'menes^ who^ knowing that 
Alexander had sworn to deny any request he might make^ begged 
him to destroy it. 

3. Perco'tb (Ilepxmrri). ArtaxerxQs bestowed three rich cities 
on Themis'tocleS; to supply his wants : Perco'te to furnish him 
with supplies of meat ; Magnesia, with bread ; and La'mpsacus 
with wine. 

4. Scepsis (Ixij^cc). In this city the original writings and 
library of Aristotle were discovered. The library was ultimately 
removed by Sylla to Athens. 

5. Chrysa (Xpuffo), or SminthiuM; contained the temple of 
Apollo Smintheus. 

6. Dar'danus (Adpdavoq), at the entrance of the Hellespont, a 
point which still retains the ancient name altered into Dardd- 
ndles, 

7. Other noted cities were Parium, Cyz'icus, Apollonia, 
Zeua, Alexandri'a Troas, Assus, Adramyttium, These, 
Troja, Per'qamum, and the ^olian cities. (See § 8.) 

§ 6. TROAS AND ILIUM. (Tpwd<:) ''IXto^, miov.) 

The north-west part of Mysia received the name of Troas, 
from Troia, Troja, a place of great importance in the annals 
of the human race, whose name has been made immortal in the 
verse of Homer. 

The chieftains engaged in the long and memorable siege of 
Troy, have been for three thousand years objects of admiration 

Questions. — Name six celebrated cities of Mysia. — Where is Abydos 
situated ? — ^What is said of Lampsacus ? — How many cities were given 
to Themistooles ? — Who was ThemistocUsf — What is said of Scepsis? — 

Where was Dardanus situated ? J 6. Where was Troas situated ? — 

What is said concerning it ? 

2* B 



IH 



ASIA. 



and iutoroHt among all oiviliied nations. By their magnanimity, 
(huir heroism, their physical power, and their fricDdships, they 
richly merited the renown which Homer has conferred upon 
theiu. Through their means, Asia and Europe formed their 
fimt durable relations, and the Grecian tribes were first united in 
the bonds of a oommon enterprise. The extensive region of 
Truas seems to include the territory west of an imaginary line, 
ilrawn from the north-east comer of the Adramyttian gulf to the 
I'ropontis nt Parium. The whole territory is intersected by the 
muuiituin ppurs connected with Mount Ida, two of the summits 
of which bore the special names of Cot'tlus and Oar'qara. 




ISOJAH WAR. 



The coast lying between Sige'um {Tomh of Achilles) and 
Bhcete'um {Tomb o/Ajax) was the naval station of the Greek 



QuBSTiONS. — ^Name the boundaries of Troas. — ^What mountains inter- 
sect the country ? — Where was the nayal station of the Greeks ? 



PERGAMUM. 



19 



squadrons daring the siege. Here emptied the united rivers 
Si'MO'is and Soamandeb^ the latter of which, accordin^^ to 
the representation of Homer, was called by the Gods Xanthus : 
%v SavSov xciXioofft ^eot, dvdpe^ dk Sxdfiavdpov. — Iliad xx. 74. 
The SoAMANDER had its source in two springs, rising near the 
oity of Ilium, one of which was warm and the other cold. It 
was a large and deep stream, which, after its junction with the 
SiMO'is, still retained the name of Sgamander. The SiMOis 
took its rise in Mount Co'tylus. Its present name is Dumbrek- 
Chaiy and its course is now so much altered that it is no longer a 
tributary of the Scamander, but flows directly into the Hellespont. 
The city of Ilium was situated on a small eminence command- 
ing the plain lying between the rivers Sgamander (or Xanthus) 
and SiMOis, at a distance of 42 stadia from the coast of the Hel- 
lespont. South-east of the city stood a hill, surmounted by the 
Acropolis, called Per'gamum. Troy was more than once rebuilt 
under the names of Troja and Ilium, and on a site nearer to 
the sea than the ancient city is supposed to have occupied. 

PER'GAMUM OR PER'GAMUS. (Jlipyafiov, Hiprafio^.) 

§ 7. An ancient town of Teuthrania (a division of Mysia), 
built on a hill overlooking the plain and river of the Caucus, 
near its junction with the Seli'nus and Getius, at a distance 
of 120 stadia from the sea. It was strongly fortified both by 
nature and art. On this account, Lysi'machus, one of the 
generals of Alexander the Great, chose IVrgamum as a place of 
security for the royal treasures, the care of which he intrusted to 
Philet^rus; the latter, in anger at a slight received from 
Alexander's wife, declared himself independent (b. o. 283), and 

Questions. — What rivers emptied there ? — What is said about the Si-- 
mois and Scamander? — Where was Ilium situated? — ^Where was Perga- 
mum situated ? — ^Who destroyed the city of Troy ? — Was it ever rebuilt ? 

J 7. Where was Pergamum situated ? — Who selected this oity for 

the safe-keeping of royal treasures? — To whose custody were these 
treasures intrusted ? — Did he remain faithful to Alexander ? 



^ A«1A. 

iMiiiifJ ■MtCTof tketo^»«^of>— JpMtef Ifcei 
ioi; c^MuUy matil kb devlk ^B. e ^63). He wm wmoo&edtd by 
k» »epKew» £v'mk5IS» wbo ian—jj kk dwrnk—t, and left 
a pnvpetoM ccoatij to k» coosu, A'ralcs I^ vko 
Ike title of ** KiBf:/* Tk» kia^doB vaa cnkiged hj Ae ] 
(^B.c 197-159^ so aa to «dbnee a9 Ae comHrtet n Amoj WWBT 
C4r THB Tavkcs. Tkb extB—ioB «f fiaula vaa ande fer tke 
ifwcuJ k««<&i of Kv^Mncs II.. an of A'mkm U «^ »wtod 
Um K.^niaM la def^t Aati'ockw UL of Sjiia. Ea'aeMS m. 
w»» a hb«^ palnM of tke iae aita wmd Ike acwBcea. aad fmiided 
a IkuHms Uhnor ia opp^^tkni lo ikat of Ptdeaij al Akxandri'a. 
IV^iUY, kaYia^. ft^Ma uk^ktw of" matioaal jeakwflj, foi ki dden Ike 
icxiH^rlaik^ of |hapx'n»» KWaMoes iarealed pardmeBl, vkidi, 
ft\uii tk<» ivicMdecK^ of ila illttstnoos iaTciitor» domd its name 
1^ |4«''yiitt*<r^%i cJkiHu. Tke libimij fo«iid«d bj En'neaeB HE., 
%\«t«min^ lw» kuadi^ Ikoosaad v\>himeft, was Hanqtorted to 
AWxaudria bv AatonT. and pceeatipd bj kirn to Cleopa'm. 

A'TTAtv» II Iv (^tk<» seeoad in snccessioB after En^neoeB) be- 
«)U<Mlkt4 ki9 kitt^oni to tke Romans in n. c 133, and after 
Aai$Y\VNiVv^ a natural son of Ea'nencs II., was oT»tkrovn bj 
the t.\^v»ul IVrpeuna, Ike kingdom of Fc'rgamnm became a 
Koman proTinoe* nnd<^r tke name of Asia (n. c. 130). 

Tke oU^Y ooutinued to be in a ftonrisking condition eren aa late 
a» lk«» time of IHinj, wko styled it ^^hmge daristhmmm Anas 
J\r%jf\%m^m.** Po^rgamnm was one of Ike seren ekniekes moi- 
tioned in tke book of S^irthiiomy ii. 11. It was ako Ike biilk- 
place of tke edebrated pkjsician Oaukx. 

QVKSTIOHS. — ^Wbo assamed tlie title of kui|r? — Bj whom was this 
kingdom eaUrg^d ?— What is said of Evmenes II.?— What led to the 
UkTention of parehment? — ^What is said of one of the most celebrated 
libraries of antiquity? — When did Pergamnm bceome a Roman pro- 
Tince ? — ^How is Pergamom mentioned in the Sacred Writings ? — ^Who 
was bom at Pcrgamum ? — ^Who was Galen? 



iEOLIS. 21 



DIVISION II. 

GRECIAN COLONIES. 

.Before giyiDg an account of Lydia^ we shall describe the three 
celebrated confederacies, which adorned with their thirty cities 
the coast of Asia Minor, extending from the Sige'an promontory 
in the north to Cnidus in the south. The three confederacies 
were, iB'oLis, Ionia, and Doris. 



§ 8. ^OLIS. 

The territory of the old ^olian cities extended northward from 
the river Hermus to the Ca'i'cus (embracing the northern coast of 
Lydia and the southern coast of Mysia), comprising the sea-coast 
and a narrow tract of land reaching ten or twelve miles inland. 
Twelve cities, eleven of which were clustered round the Elaeitio 
Gulf, rose to importance here, the names of which were as fol- 
lows : Cumas, Larissa, Neon Teichos, Temnus, Cilia, Notium, 
.^giroessa, Pit^ane, MgsQSdj Myri'na, Gryne'um, and Smyrna. 

(1.) Cyme, or Cum-SJ (^Kufjn^), was the most powerful of the 
iEolian colonies. A colony from this city founded the city of 
Cumsd on the coast of Campania in Italy, the residence of the 
CumsBan Sibyl. 

(2.) Smyrna (Sfiupua), the twelfth and most southerly, was 
situated to the south of Mount Si'pylus. At an early period it 
fell into the hands of the lonians, and the city was subsequently 
(b. c. 627) destroyed by the Lydian king, Alyattes ; for a period 
of 400 years, it was deserted and in ruins, when it was rebuilt 
(twenty stadia southward of the former city) by Anti'gonus, king 

Questions. — Name the three Greek confederacies on the Asiatic coast. 

— How many cities did they comprise ? § 8. Where was JEolis ? — 

How many confederate cities did JSolis contain? — What colony was 
founded by colonists from the city Cumse? — ^Where is Smyrna situated? 
—What is said of the city ? 



22 ASIA. 

ofSjriJL Aficf ite cxtcnaott mmd tmhdJaAmt ■! by Lj ri^iMfciliM% 
New Smtksa became a citj ol' extreme mi^wiiwmcw Beside 
tbfr4<e twelre cities, most of wbicb were aeer ihtt tmgk, tbiii were 
mx i&>liao cities io Lesbos (see § 52), and asm ia tbe Uaad 
of Teo'edof ; ocben floarisbed on Moont Ida, along tbe Heiles- 
pooi aod oo tbe coast of Tbnce. Tbe name JBolie is oAeii 
^plied to a dialect of tbe Greek language; b«t ao entire work 
written in it is extant 

S 0. loiaA. 

It extended from tbe Cum^bah Gulf on tbe nortb to Mount 
OftlLH and tbe golf Basil'icus soatb of ^lik'tosy a distanee of 
orA more tban one bnndred miles in a straigbt line^ bat witb a 
coast tbree times tbat lengtb, on acoonnt of tbe manj golfs wbick 
indent it Toward tbe east, Ionia extended only forty miles. 

Tbe eolooics were founded aboot 1044 b. c, by Attic looians, 
loDians from tbe Peloponne^sos, and emigrants from otber parts 
of Greece wbom ebanee directed to tbese very beautifnl and 
fertile regions. Tbey drove oat tbe Carian sbepberds, wbo fed 
tbeir ilocks in tbe meadows of tbe Mseander. The Cajfster flowed 
through a marshy called tbe Asian mafsb, mneb freqaented by 
water-fowl : 

Jam variaspelagi volueret ei qwg Ana drcum 

DuUUmt in itagnU rimanlur prata CaystrL — ^Vlrg. Georg. L 888. 

The genial climate of Ionia, its yerdant hillsides which were the 
sources of numerous streams, and its coast aboanding in safe har- 
bors, attracted a numerous population, who in time became wealthy, 
refined, and luxurious. The remains of their monuments give 
eridence of a fine taste for the arts. Greek literature may be 
said to haye originated on this coast of Asia; for poets, philoso- 
phers, historians, and artists flonrished in the Ionian cities long 

QuESTiovs. — How many ^olian cities were in Lesbos ? — ^What is said 

about the .^Solic dialect? J 9. Where was Ionia situated? — ^When 

were Its colonies founded? — ^What is said of the country? — ^What in 
regard to its ciyilization ? 



IONIA. 23 

before A'ttica attained to any emiDence in intellectual pursuits. 
There existed, at the commencement of historical Greece (777 
B. c), TWELVE Ionian cities of note, on or near the coast of 
Asia Minor, beside a few others of less importance. Enumerated 
from north to south, they stand thus : Phoo.£A, CLAZOM'ENiE, 
Chios, Eb'tthr-®, Teos, Leb'edus, Col'ophon, Eph'esus, 
Samos, Prie'ne, Myus, Mile'tus. 

They all formed independent republics with democratic consti* 
tutions ; but a£fairs connected with the general government were 
discussed at regular meetings held at Panionium, the primitive 
centre of the older Ionian settlements, on the northern slope of 
Mount Mtc'ale, near Priene, about three stadia from the coast. 

(1.) PHOCiE'A (0wxata)j was built at the end of a peninsula 
which formed part of the territory of the ^olio CumsB. The 
Cumseans were induced to cede it amicably, and to permit the 
building of the new town. Its inhabitants afterwards deserted 
it, in order to avoid being subjected to the power of Cyrus. 
Having sworn never to return till a mass of iron which they had 
sunk in the sea should rise to the surface, they founded the city 
of Massilia in Gaul (b. o. 540). 

Nulla ait hac potior sententia : PhoccBorum 

Vdut profugit exseerata civitat — 
« « « « « 

Sed juremw in hate ; simul imit saxa renarint 

Vadia levata, ne redire ait nefaa, — Hor. Epod. 16 : 17, 26. 

(2.) CLAZOM'ENiE (KXa^ofisvai), situated on the south side of 
the Bay of Smyrna. The original settlement was on the main- 
land, but the fear of attacks from the Persians caused its removal 
to the island. It was distinguished for being the birthplace of the 
philosopher Anaxag'oras. 

(3.) Chios (^«o?), an island of the -ZEgaean Sea, opposite to 
the peninsula in which Erythrse was situated, five miles from the 

Questions. — How many cities were embraced in the confederacy ? — 
What was the political goyemment ? — Name the twelve Ionian cities. — 
Where was Phocaea situated ? — For what reason was it abandoned by 
its citizens ? — To what point did they emigrate and settle ? — Where was 
Anaxagoras born ? 



24 A8TA. 

mainknd of Asia. It is one of the twelve reputed birthplaces 
of Homer, and has, perhaps, next to Smyrna, the best claim 
to the honor: on the northern coast of the island, a grotto, 
known as Homer's School, is yet pointed out. The places which 
contended for the honor of being the birthplace of Homer are 
.enumerated in those well-known lines : 




Septem urbes eertant de atirpe insignU Eomeri, 

Smymaj RhodtUy Colophony Salamu, ChioSf Argot, Athena, 

(4.) Er'tthr-S! ('Epu^pai), situated on a capacious bay, on 
the west side of the Erythraean peninsula, opposite to the island 
of Chios. It was celebrated as the residence of one of the Sibyls. 

(5.) Teds (7Va>?), on the coast of Lydia, on the south side of 
the isthmus connecting the Ionian peninsula of Mount Mimas 
with the mainland. In the time of the Persian dominion the 
greater part of its inhabitants abandoned the city and removed to 
Abde'ra in Thrace. It was the birthplace of Anacreon, who 
on this account is called the Teian bard. 

QuBSTiONS. — How many cities disputed the honor of being the birth- 
place of Homer? — Their names? — What two most justly? — Who was 
Homer f — Where was Erythree? — For what celebrated? — Where was 
Teos ? — ^Why is Anacreon called the Teian bard ? 



IONIA. 26 

(6.) Leb'edus (^Ai.3efio(i), about fourteen miles north-west of 
Ccl'ophon in Lydia. It was nearly destroyed by Lysi'machus, 
who transplanted its population to E'phesus. In the time of 
Horace it was entirely in ruins : 

Sci8 Lebedus quid sity Oabiis deteriiar atque 
Fidenis vicus. — Epist. 1. 11, 6. 

§ 10. (7.) Col'ophon (KoXo^tov), about fifteen miles north of 
E'phesus, and divided from the territory of the latter by a preci- 
pitous mountain-range, called Gallesium. It was the native place 
of Mimnermus and Nicander. The Colophonians at one time 
possessed an extensive navy and mounted force. This cavalry 
generally turned the scale on whichever side they fought : hence, 
Colophonem addere, '* to put the Co'lophon to it," became, among 
the Komans, a proverb equivalent to our English expression, 
" to give the finishing stroke." In the early period of the art 
of printing, the statement which the printer subjoined at the end 
of a book, giving the place and date of the edition, being the last 
thing required to finish the volume, was called the Cdlophon. 

(8.) E'phesus (^E^stroq), in Lydia, on the south side of the 
Oaystrus, and situated near its mouth. Its port was called 
Panormus. It was celebrated for its temple of Ar'temis, or 
Dia'na (Artemisium), one of the great holy places of the Ionic 
Helle'nes. This temple was burnt down by Hero'stratus on the 
night on which Alexandei^was born (b. c. 356). The temple 
was rebuilt, but 220 years' elapsed before it was finished. The 
city is often mentioned in the writings and travels of St. Paul, 
and also in Rev^etfioriy ii. 1. 

(9.) Samos (Idfio^), a large island in that part of the ^gaean 
called the Icarian Sea, at the distance of about a mile from the 
promontory of Trogylium. It was the birthplace of Pythag'oras. 
Here Hera (Juno) was worshipped in a very large temple (He- 
Questions — ^What is said of Lebedus? J 10. Where was Colophon 

situate i ? — ^>Vhat is the meaning of the proverbial expression, Colophonem 
adderef — What celebrated temple was in Ephesus ? — What is said con- 
cerning it ? — Where was Pythagoras born ? — Where was Samos ? 
3 



S6 ASIA. 



\. 



asCM ), vitb pecoliar boooms. \ti^ speaking of Guthage, 
my: 

Qu jm J'!.^* frrtmr tgrru mtf%M »w « » 3«t mmam 
I^ \€,m:a tUiutm 5aaM. — JEa. v. 15. 

(10/) PuiK^!CE (/7^'^), Mtf the eosst of Quia, near the aoath- 
euteni slope of Mouot M/cale, oo a small stream, called Gaesoo. 

(11.) Mtts (Jf:M>r*;X north of 3Iiletii8 in CarijL, on the aoathem 
hank of the Mnander, and the snuU^^t amoo^ the Ionian cities^ 
became incorporated with Mile'tns, to which citj finally the 
Mynsians transferred themselTcs. 

(120 Milk'tus {MOr^ro;:), on the northern part of the coast ^ 
Caria, opposite the moath of the 3laBandery was once an inportmnt 
and flonrbhing state, which sent oat no leas than seveotj-five colo- 
nies. The most remarkahle of these were Abt'dos, Lamp^sacus, 
and Paeium, od the Hellespont; Peoooxne'scs and Ctx^i- 
cuSyOQ the Propontis; Sino'pb and Ami'scs, on the Enzide. 
IIoweTcr extensive and beantifiil the city of Mile'tns may have 
been, we have now no means of forming any idea ^ its topogra- 
phy, since its site and its wh<Je territory have been changed into 
a pestilential swamp by the mnddy depodts of tho Maeander. 
ThaleSi one of the wisest of the seven contemporary Grecian 
sages, was a native of this place, as were also Anazi'menes, 
Anaximander, the historian Hecataeos, and several other dis- 
tinguished men. 

S IL DORIS. 

An Amphictyony, or federal repablie, on the Triopian pro- 
montory, or sonth-westem comer of Asia Minor, constituting an 
hexapolis, including Halicabnassus, Gnidus, Gos, Lindus, 
Ial'tsus, Cami'rus. 

(1.) Haligarnas'svs (AXtxafl)fatr4r6^), on the Gerami'cus 
Sinus, or Ceramic Gulf, built <m the slope of a precipitous rock, 

Questions. — ^Wkere were Priene and Mjos sitoated? — ^Where was 
MUetua situated ? — How many colonies did it send out T — ^Name some 

of them. — ^What great men were bom at Miletus ? { 11. Where was 

-is situated? — How many cities did it contain? — Name them. 



\ 



BOBIS. 27 

the largest and most powerful city of Caria, and once the residence 
of the Carian kings. Here was the splendid tomh, built by Arte- 
misia, queen of Oaria, ft)r her husband Mauso'lus (^Mausol^um), 
It was the birthplace of the two historians, Hero'dotus and Dio- 
nysius. It was excluded from the Doric league in consequence 
of the bad conduct of one of its citizens, who, having gained a 
tripod as a prize, carried it home to adorn his own house, and 
thus violated the municipal regulation, which required that the 
tripod should always be consecrated as an offering in the Triopian 
temple. The city is memorable also for the long siege it maintained 
against Alexander, under the skilful command of Memnon, the 
general of Darius. 

(2.) Cnidus {Kvidoq)y at the western extremity of a long penin- 
sula, which forms the southern side of the Cerami'cus Sinus. It 
was the birthplace of Ctesias, the historian of Persia. Here was 
the celebrated statue, the Aphbodi'te ( Venvs) of Praxi'teles^ 
the most exquisite creation even of Grecian genius : 

QucB [i. e., Venus] Cnidon 
Fulffentesque tenet Cyclades et Paphon 
Junctis visit oloribw. — Hor. Od. iii. 28, 13. 

(3.) Cos (Kai<;)y an island in the Myrto'an sea, nearly opposite 
the Gulf of Halicarnassus. Here was the Asclepie'um, or temple 
of ^sculapius, to which was attached a kind of Medical College. 
It was the birthplace of Apelles and Hippo'crates. It was known 
in the old world for its ointment and purple dye, but more 
especially for its wines. 

(4.) LiNDUS, Ial'ysus, and Cami'bus were three ancient 
cities on the island of Rhodus, Rhodes, which afterward 
(b. c. 408) became united under the name of Rhodus. (See 
Rhodus.) 

Questions. — What city was the birthplace of Herodotus ? — Where was 
Halicarnassus? — What was the Mausoleum? — Why was Halicarnassus ex- 
cluded from the Doric league ? — Where was the Aphrodite of Praxiteles ? 
— What is said of Cos ?— What three towns formed the oily of Rhodus ? 



28 



ASIA. 



DIVISION ra. 

LYDIA. {Audia,) 

§12. Boundaries. — Nortb, Mtsia; East, Phrtoia; South, 
Caria ; and West, Io'nia. Id the time of CroDsus, it embraced 
the whole of Asia Mioor, between the ^gsean sea and the river 
Haljs, with the exception of Cilicia and Lycia. 

Hoimtain8. — It was intersected by mountain chains, running 
from east to west. The Messo'qis and Tmolus, both outlying 
ranges of the Taurus, divided it into two extensive valleys. 

Siven. — Through the southern valley (between the Messo'gis 
and Tmolus) flows the Catstrus; through the northern the 
Hermus, with its tributaries, the Htllus and Pacto'lus. 



.-wia 




NATAL BATTLK. 



Questions.-— J 12. How was Lydia bounded ? — ^Name the chief moun- 
ffiins. — Name the largest rivers. 



LYDIA. 29 

Capes. — Mtg'ale is the most distiDguished, where the Per- 
sians were defeated by the Grecian fleet under Leoty^chides and 
Xantippus, on the same day that Pausanias conquered at Plata^ad 
(September, 479 b. c). 

Productions. — Wine, saffron, and gold. The fertility of Lydia, 
and the salubrity of its climate, are frequently mentioned by 
ancient writers, and thb account is confirmed by the reports of 
modern travellers. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Lydians were a gifted nation ; they culd- 
vated the arts, and differed in refinement but little from the 
Greeks. They are said to have been the first to establish inns 
for travellers, and to coin money. Their commercial industry 
was the great source of their national prosperity. 

Cities. — (1.) Sardes (Sdpdet<:)y the ancient capital, situated 
at the foot of Mount Tmolus, in a fertile plain, twenty stadia from 
the river Hennus. The river Pacto'lus flowed through the 
a'gora^ or public market-place. After the overthrow of the 
kingdom of Lydia, it became the residence of the Persian Sa- 
traps of Western Asia. The attack on this city by the lonians, 
assisted by the Athenians (504 B.C.), was the origin of the 
Persian wars. In its neighborhood was Gygaeus Lacus (liiiv^ 
Ftrfairi), an artificial lake surrounded by the tombs of the Lydian 
kings. 

(2.) Magnesia, near Mount Sip'ylus (MayyT^tria bitb StnuXa}) ; 
to be distinguished from the iBolian city of the same name in 
Ionia. It is celebrated for the victory gained by the two Scipios 
over Anti'ochus the Great (190 b. c), who was forced from the 
last foothold in Western Asia. 

(3.) Thtati'ba and Philadelphi'a, both mentioned in the 
Revelation. 



Questions. — ^Who were defeated at the cape of Mycale ? — Name the 
principal productions of Lydia. — What is said of the Lydians ? — What 
was the capital of Lydia ? — ^What were the consequences of the attack 
made on this city by the lonians and Athenians ? — Who conquered at 
Magnesia ? — What cities are mentioned in the book of Revelation ? 
8* 



80 A81A. 

DIVISION IV. 
CARIA. {Kapia.) 

§ 13. Boimdariet. — North, Ltdia; East, Phbtoia and Lycia ; 
South and West, the iEoiSAN Sea. It is separated from Lydia 
by the Mseander. Its southern coast was colonized by, and be- 
longed to, the Rhodians, and was hence called Pcrsea Rhodiorum 
(Jlipaia rwv *Podiwv). 

Hountains. — Messo'ois on the north. The Cadmus range 
runs through its entire length, rendering the face of the country 
extremely rugged and broken. 

Riven. — Meander and Calbis. 

Productions. — Excellent grain, figs, olives, wine, and oil. It 
was noted also for its sheep and for its limestone. 

Inhabitaxits. — The Carians were a warlike and mercenary 
nee, selling their services in time of war to the highest bidder. 
They lived in small towns or villages, and formed a general 
confederation, common religious rites being paid to Zeus Chry- 
ba'oreus. The confederacy was called Chrysaoreum. 

Towns. — On the southern coast, Caunus (^Kauvo^), the chief 
town of the Caunii, who differed in manners and customs from 
the Carians and from every other people ; Phcenix ; Alabanda ; 
Stratonice'a (Zrparovixeta), on the south of the river Marsyas, 
founded by Anti'ochus Soter, was one of the most important 
towns. 



QUX8TION8. — 2 18. Name the boundaries of Caria. — What river sepa- 
rates it from Lydia ? — Name the principal mountains and rivers. — What 
are its productions ? — What is said of the inhabitants ? — ^What was the 
name of the confederacy formed by the inhabitants? — What is said 
of the Caunii ? — ^Who was the founder of Stratonicea ? 



LTCIA. 31 

DIVISION V. 
LYCIA. (Auxta.) 

§ 14. Boundaries.— North, Phrygia and Pisidia; East, 
PisiDiA and Pamphylia; South, Mediterranean, and to a 
great extent also on the West and East ; West, Caria. 

Monntaiiis. — It is a mountainous country. The Taurus has 
numerous connecting chains of mountain-spurs, the principal of 
which are D^d'ala, Cragus, Massicy'tes rising to the height 
of 10,000 feet, and Climax. 

Capes. — ^Promontorium Sacrum; Promontorium Cheli« 

DONIUM. 

Bivers. — Most of the rivers flow in a southerly direction. The 
most important are Xanthus in the West, and Lim'yrus or Ari- 
CANDUS in the East. 

Productions. — ^Lycia was the smallest, hut, in proportion to 
its extent, the richest and most fertile country of Asia Minor. 
It produced wine and corn in great ahundance ; its cedars, firs, 
and plane trees were particularly celebrated. 

Inhabitants. — ^They are said to have come from Crete, and 
to have subdued the ancient native tribes of the Sol'ymi and 
MuLY-ffi. A portion of the population was of Greek origin. The 
Lycians were a peaceable and honorable race, and took no part in 
the piracies of their maritime neighbors. They adopted and 
practised to a great extent the Grecian arts. 

Cities. — Lycia contained formerly as many as seventy cities, 
thirty-two of which belonged to the Lycian confederacy. The 
six largest were, Xanthus, Pat'ara, Pin'ara, Olympus, 
Myra, and Tlgs. 

Questions — § 14. What are the boundaries of Lycia? — What are the 
principal mountains ? — Name the capes. — What is said of the rivers ?— 
Name the principal ones. — Describe the productions of the country. — 
Who were the earliest inhabitants ? — ^Who conquered them ? — What is 
said about the inhabitants ? — How many towns did Lycia formerly con- 
tain? — How many of them belonged to the Lycian confederacy? — Name 
the six largest towns. 



82 



ASIA. 



(1.) Xanthus (SaEy^o?) was destroyed by Har^pagns, general 
of Cyrus (540 b. c). It was gubsequently rebuilt; and five 
centuries later, it was burned by its inhabitants, who took this 
patriotic course rather than permit the city to fall into the 
hands of Brutus. 

(2.) Pat'ara (Jldrapa) was m little south of the former city. 
During one-half of the year (the six winter months), it was the 
reputed residence of Apollo, who there had a celebrated temple 
and oracle : Phcebe, q%U Xantho lavu amne crines, — Hor. Od. iy. 
6, 26. Delim et Fatareus Apollo.— Hot. Od. iii. 4, 64. 

(3.) Oltmpus (^OkoiiKo^^y is near the Promontorium Sacrum. 
Above it is the Dorian colony, Phass'lis. Near this point, a 
steep ridge of the Taurus, called Climax^ juts into the sea. The 
army of Alexander was, by reason of the narrow pass, placed in 
the utmost danger, and compelled to wade a whole day, waist 
deep, in^ater. 




ALEXANDER'S ARMY PASSING CLIMAX. 



Questions. — Who destroyed Xanthus for the first time ? — Who for the 
fieeond time ? — ^What is said of Patara ? — What celebrated ridge touches 
the sea-coast near Phaselis ? 



PAMPHYLIA. 



33 



(4.) Myra (Mupa)y the capital of all Lyoia, when part of the 
Roman Empire. St. Paul touched there on his voyage to Rome. 



DIVISION VI. 
§ 16. PAMPHYLIA. (nafi^okia.) 

Pamphylia was a narrow strip of coast, extending in a sort 
of semi-circle around the bay, which is called after it, Mare 
Pamphylium (Bay of Adalia), 

Boundaries. — North, Pisidia; East, Ciligia; South, Gulf 
OF Pamphylia; West, Lycia. 

Mountains. — The country is generally very mountainous. It 
is traversed by connecting ridges of the Taurus. 

Sivers. — Catabrhagtes, Oestrus, Melas, and Eurym'e- 
DON. At the mouth of the last named, Cimon destroyed the 
fleet and army of the Persians (469 B. c.). 

Inhabitants. — The Pamphy'li (Ud/x^uXotf i. e. aU races, or 
all kinds of races) were a mixture of different Semitic and Hel- 
lenic races. They were daring navigators and notorious robbers. 

Towns. — (1.) Perge (^Ilippf), a town in the interior of the 
country, situated between the rivers Catarrhactes and Oestrus. 
It was renowned for the worship of A'rtemis (^Dia'na), A 
temple sacred to her stood on a hill outside the town, and in 
her honor annual festivals were celebrated. It was the first town 
in Asia visited by St. Paul. 

(2.) Side (J^i(hi, i. e. a pomegranate)^ the most ancient colony 
founded by Oumae in ^'olis. The colonists soon forgot the Greek 
language, and formed an idiom peculiar to themselves. Side 
became, at one time, a principal seaport for the resort of pirates. 



Questions — What was the capital of Lycia under the Roman sway? 

{ 15. Describe Pamphylia. — What are the boundaries of Pamphylia? 

— ^What is the face of the country ? — Name the rivers. — Who conquered 
the Persians at the Eurymedon? — And when? — What are the chief cities 
of Pamphylia? — ^Where was Perge situated? — What was Perge cele- 
brated for ? — What is said of Side ? 

C 



34 



ASIA. 




TJiMPL£ Of DU.NA. 



It was one of the principal seats of the worship of Athe'na (^Mi- 
nerva), 

(3.) The other towns of note were Olbia^ Attalia^ Aspendns, 
Syllium. 

Under the Koman Empire, Pamphylia formed a Roman pro- 
vince in connection with Pisidia, Isauria, and a part of Lycia. 



DIVISION VII. 
CILICIA. (^Kdtxta.) 

§ 16. Boundaries. — North, Lycaonia and Cappadocia; 
East, range of Ama'nus; South, Mare Cilicium; West, Pam- 
phylia and PisiDiA. 

Divisions. — I. Cilicia proper, or Cilicia beyond the Tau- 
rus, was divided in two parts : Cilicia As'pera or Trachi'a 

Questions. — What were the names of the remaining towns? 

2 16. How is Cilicia bounded ? — How is it divided ? — How is Cilicia 
Proper subdivided ? 



C I L I C I A. 



35 



(KtXtxta yj Tpa/sla)y the western and mountainous part ; Cilicia 
CAMPESxais or Pedias (KtXtxia 7/ Usdidq), a considerable extent 
of level country. 

II. Cilicia within the Taurus belonged to Gappadocia. 

Monntaiiis. — The ridges of the Taurus, of which the most 
important is the Ama'nus. Above Tarsus, the Cjdnus forms the 
famous pass called the Pyl-SJ CiLiciiE, or the gates of Cilicia. 
By this pass the younger Cyrus penetrated to Tarsus (401 B. c), 
and Alexander the Great to Cilicia (333 B.C.). 

Capes. — Myl^, or Mylas (Cavaliere)-, Magarsus (Kara- 
dash). 

Bivers. — Cydnus, the stream in which Alexander the Great 
nearly lost his life, and on which Cleopatra, in her royal barge, 
paid her celebrated visit to Antony (34 B.C.); Calycadnus, 
Sarus, and Pyr'amus, which is the largest of the Cilician rivers. 




CLK0PATRA*8 BARGE. 



Questions. — What part belonged to Cappadocia? — What is said about 
tiie mountains? — Describe the Pylse Cilicise.— What historical events 
are connected with it ? — Name the capes. — Name the rivers. — What is 
said of the Cydnus ? 



86 



ASIA. 



Climate. — ^The climate of Cilicia was generally warm and 
sultry. During the season of winter the temperature was un- 
usually mild. Hence the amazing fertility of the eastern plains. 

Prodaotiont. — Timher, saffron, and cloth made from goats' 
hair ( Ci/icium). 

Inhabitanti. — ^The Cilicians belonged to a branch of the 
Arame'an, or Chaldean, race. When their country fell under 
the sway of foreigners (Greeks and Romans), they mabtained 
themselves in the mountains under the name of Free Cilicians 
(Eleu'thero-cClices), Cicero, who was pro-consul of Cilicia, de- 
scribes them as a fierce and warlike race. 

Cities. — (1.) Tarsus (Taptrdq), on the Cydnus, the birthplace 
of St. Paul, and so celebrated for the learning and refinement of 
its citizens, that it rivalled the fame of Athens and Alexandria. 




Questions.— Describe the climate. — The productions. — What is said 
of the Eleuthero-cilices ? — Who was once pro-consul in Cilicia ? — Who 
~'cerof — Name five towns of Cilicia. — Where was St. Paul born?— - 
said of Tarnus ? 



CILICIA. 



37 



(2.) Seleuci'a Trachi'a {SeXeuxeta), anciently the principal 
city of Cilicia Trachi'a, and noted for a celebrated temple 
of Apollo. 

(3.) Seli'nus (^leXtvouq). The emperor Trajan died here 
(a.d. 117), in consequence of which it was afterward called 
Trajano'polis. 

(4.) SoLCE or Soli (loXot). Pompey here settled the Cilician 
pirates, to whom he had granted an amnesty. He gave it the 
name of Pompeio'polis. It was the birthplace of the philosopher 
Chrysippus, and of the poet Ara'tus. The patois of the inhabit? 
ants, which was Greek corrupted by the language of Cilicia, per- 
haps gave rise to the grammatical term solecism; but by some the 
origin of this term is connected with the town of Soli, in Cyprus. 




ALEXANDER'S ABMT. 



(5.) Issus Qlaad^), situated close upon the borders of Syria, a 
little to the north of the river Pin'arus. It was the scene of the 
victory of Alexander over Darius (333 B. c). 



Questions. — What is said of Seleucia Trachia ? — For whose temple 
was it celebrated ? — On what occasion did Soloe change its name into 
Pompeiopolis ? — What distinguished characters were born in Soloe ? — 
What is the origin of the word ** solecism ?" — Where was ^ 
quered ? — And when ? 
4 



88 ASIA. 

(6.) Of the other towns worthy of mentioD may be noteci 
C0RACE8IUM, Celen'deris. Cor'tcus, Claudiop^olis, Max.- 
Lus, Mopsucre'nE; Ada'nA; Mopsuvestia, Anazarbus. 

DIVISION VIII. 
CAPPADOCIA. {Kaitizadozia.) . 

§ 17. Originally it comprised the whole of the north-eastern 
part of Asia Minor, between the eastern bank of the Halys and 
Mount Taurus. Under the Persian dominion, this extensive 
country was subdivided into two satrapies, which after Alex- 
ander's death became separate kingdoms. 

(A.) The northern part formed the satrapy of Cappadocia ad 
Pontum, or, simply, Pontus. 

(B.) The southern part formed the satrapy of Cappadocia ad 
Taurum, or, simply, Cappadocia. 

In A. D. 16, the two parts again were united, and a part of 
Armenia, lying between the Anti-taurus and Euphra'tes, was 
incorporated with them. 

Mountains. — The principal mountain-chain is the Taurus, 
which forms the southern boundary. Two other important 
chains, the Anti-taurus and Pary'adres, run in nearly parallel 
lines from Armenia into the centre of Cappadocia. Th« highest 
point in the country is MoNS Aro^us, from the summit of 
which both the Euxine and Mediterranean seas might, it was 
said, be seen. 

Bivers. — (1.) Cap'padox, from which the whole country was 
said to have derived its name. 



Questions. — Name some of the other towns. J 17. Give the origi- 
nal boundaries of Cappadocia. — How was it divided under the Persian 
dominion? — What kingdoms arose afterward from those divisions? — 
At what time were they re-united?— -What was the southern boundary 
of Cappadocia? — What other important mountain chains run through it? 
—What are the two most important rivers ? 



cappAdocta 39 

(2.) Thebmo'doN; the banks of which stream were frequented 
by the far-famed Amazons : 

Cum flumina Hiermodontia 
PuUant et pietit bellantur Amazones armis. — Virg. iBn. XI. 659. 

(3.) There were other rivers of some importance, viz. : Halts, 
Ibis, Lycus, Soylax, Cakme'lus, Euphra'tes, Sarus, Pyr'a- 

MUS. 

ProdnctionB. — Cappadocia was one of the richest territories 
of Asia Minor, and characterized by extensive plains of great 
fertility. It was in general deficient in timber, but well adapted 
for the cultivation of grains of all kinds. Some parts of it pro- 
duced excellent wine. 

Inhabitants. — By the Persians they were called Cappadocians; 
by the Greeks, Leuco-Syrians (^White Si/rians), because they 
resembled the inhabitants of Syria and spoke the same language, 
but were of lighter complexion. They are remarkable as a 
nation, for having refused independence when it was offered to 
them, preferring to live under the rule of their own kings. 
The tribes of the interior were wild and ferocious in disposition. 
Cappadocia was noted as one of tJie three bad kappas, the 
remaining two of the infamous trio being Cilicia and Crete, the 
iaitial letter of which, in Greek, was K, kappa. The coast of 
the Euxtne was dotted with many Greek colonies, who diffused 
the light of culture and civilization around them. 

SivisioiL — (A). The southern part; Cappadocia ad Taurum. 
(B.) The northern part; Cappadocia ad Pontum, 



Questions. — ^Who lived on the shores of the Thermodon ? — ^What are 
the principal productions ? — ^What name was giyen to the ancient inha- 
bitants by the Persians? — ^What name was giyen them by the Greeks? — 
Why? — What were they remarkable for? — What three countries were 
designated as **the three bad kUppasf" — What is said of the coast of 
the Euxine ? — ^What are the diyisions of Cappadocia ? 



40 ASIA. 



§ 18. (A.) Cappadocia ad Taubum. 

To this part were added, aboat 333 b. c, 

I. Cataonia, a district situated between Gilicia and ComnuL^- 

gCDC. 

II. McLiTB^NE, a tract of land along the Euphrates^ between 
the Anti-taubus and Ama'nus. 

III. Abmenia minob, added to it a.d. 16. 

Boimdariei. — North, Galatia and Pontus; East, Ajimenia 
majob; South, CiLiciA and Stbia; West, Ltgaonia and 
Oalatia. 

Towns. — (1.) Tt'ana (T^ova), by Xenophon called Dana; 
the birthplace of the impostor, Apollonins (A.D. 90). On the 
borders of a lake, in its immediate neighborhood, was a famous 
temple of Jupiter Asbamseus, thus called from a bubbling spring 
of hot water (A$bafnctum) which had no visible outlet. 

(2.) Goma'na, (^K6fjLava)f which contained a large and rich 
temple of Bello'na. 

(8.) Melite'ne (MtXt-n^viDf situated between the rivers Melas 
and Euphra'tes. Constantino the Great made it the capital of 
Abmenia minob. 

(4.) Nlcop'oLls {Nix6i:oXt<;y i. e. City of Victory) was built by 
Pompey after he had forced M ithridates across the Euphrates. 

(5.) Maz'aoa, the ancient residence of the Cappadocian 
kings, called CiESABE^A (^Kattrdpeta) in the time of Tiberius. 

(6.) The names of other towns are Ctbistba, Castaba'la^ 
Abohbla'is, Nazianzus, Nysa, Noba, Pabnassus, Sat'ala. 

(B.) Cappadocia ad Pontum. 
Commonly called Pontus (//(Jvto?). It is first mentioned in 



Xe'nophon (Anab. 5, 6, 15). 



Questions. — § 18. What coantries were added to Cappadocia ad 
Taurum? — What were its boundaries? — Its chief towns? — What is said 
of Tyana ?-—0f Melitene?-~Of Nicopolis ?— Of Mazaca ?--How was Cap- 
padocia ad Pontum generally designated ? 



CAPPADOCIA AD PONTUM. 41 

Boundaries. — ^It formed a long and narrow tract of land on 
the sea-coast in the extreme north-east of Asia, extending from 
the river Halys to the river Ophis ; bat in the western part it 
extended somewhat further south, or inland. 

Divisions. — I. The North-west : Pontus Gala'ticus, be- 
stowed (65 B. c.) on the Galatian Deio'tanis. 

II. The North-east : Pontus Polemoni'acus, given to Pole- 
mon, grandson of Mithrida'tes. 

III. The South-east: Pontus Cappadocius, being transferred 
by Polemon's widow to Archela'us of Cappadocia. 

Under Constantine the Great, Pontus was divided into two 
parts: 

I. The Western part : Helenopontus, in honor of the em- 
peror's mother. 

II. The Eastern part : Pontus Polemoni'acus. 

Towns. — (1.) Ami'sus QAfit(r6^)y a flourishing Greek colony, 
besieged by LucuUus (69 b. c). 

(2.) Amasi'a QAfjLd(T£ta)y situated in the interior, upon the 
banks of the Iris. It was the birthplace of Mithrida'tes and Strabo. 

(3.) Zela (rd. ZrjXa)y where CaBsar overcame Phar'naces, the 
SOD of Mithrida'tes, in reference to which he sent to Rome the 
famous despatch : venij vidi, vici. 

(4.) Coma'na (K6fiava)j celebrated for the great temple of Ma 
(M0., the mooTi-goddess ; comp. Mijv, the moo7t-god); to this 
temple were attached several thousand female slaves (hierodu'li), 

(5.) Ceb'asus (^Kepa(Tou(:)y from whence Lucullus introduced 
the first cherries (cerast) into Italy, about 70 B. 0. 

(6.) Trape'zus (Tpaizs^ooq, Trebisond), a branch of the Greek 
colony SiNO'PB. It was the first Greek city entered by Xeno- 
phon on his famous retreat, and afterwards (till A. D. 1460) the 
capital of the Greek empire of the Comneni. 

(7.) Other cities were Polemonium, Coty'ora, Pharnacia, 
Sebastia, Cabi'ra, or Neo-caesare'a. 

Questions. — Name its boundaries. — Its divisions? — How was it divided 
by Constantine the Great ? — Name its chief towns. — For what is Zela 
celebrated in history ?—Comana ?— What is said of Cerasus?— Of Tra-* 

pezns ? 
4* 



42 ASIA. 



DIVISION IX. 
PAPHLAGONIA. (JlafXaywla.') 

§19. Boimdaries. — North, Pontxjs Euxi'nus; East, Pon- 
Tus; South, Galatia; West, Bithynia. The river Parthe- 
Nius divided it from Bithtnia; the Halts, from Pontus. 

MountailLl, — It is traversed by three chains of mountains 
running in nearly parallel lines from west to east. The highest, 
and most southerly, is called the Oloassts. 

Biven. — ^The rivers, with the exception of the Halts, are 
inconsiderable in size; they are Si/sAMUS, Am'nius, and others. 

FroduotionB. — Timber was abundant. Numbers of mules and 
sheep were reared. Paphlagonia was particularly famous for its 
horses. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Paphlagonians are of Syrian origin, and 
the inhabitants of the interior are described as superstitious, 
ignorant, and coarse in manners. They were, however, brave 
soldiers, and fought particularly well on horseback. The coast 
was inhabited by Greek colonists. To the north were the Hen'eti, 
who are said to have passed over into Italy, after the Trojan war, 
where they established themselves under the name of Ye'neti. 

Towns. — The chief towns were the Greek colonies situated on 
the coast of the Euxine. 

(1.) SiNO'pE (Ztvwini, Sinmih), a colony of the Milesians, for 
many centuries one of the most flourishing commercial towns in 
the Euxine, itself the parent city of several colonies, such as 
Trapezus, Ce'rasus. Mithrida'tes the Great made it the 

Questions. — J 19. Name the boundaries of Paphlagonia. — ^What 
bounded it on the side of Bithynia ? — On the side of Pontus ? — What is 
said of the mountains? — Of the riyers? — For what was the country 
particularly famous? — ^What is said of the Paphlagonians? — ^Who inha- 
bited the coast ? — ^Who lived toward the north ? — ^Where did they estab- 
lish themselyes afterward ? — Where were the chief towns of Paphlagonia 
situated? — ^What is said of Sinope? — ^Who made it the capital of his 
empire? 



BITHYNIA. 43 

capital of bis dominions, and adorned it with many public build- 
ings. It was the birthplace of the philosopher Dio'genes. 

(2.) Amastris and Ctto'bum, both mentioned by Homer 
(Iliad, ii. 866). 

(3.) Other cities are Pompeio'polis and Gangra. 



DIVISION X. 
BITHYNIA. (Bi^ovla,) 

§ 20. Boundaries. — ^North,PBOPONTi8, Bos'pobus Thbacius, 
and PoNTUS Euxi'nus; East, Paphlaoonia; South, Phbtoia 
and Galatia ; West, MrsiA. It is separated from Mysia by 
the Rhtn'dacus on the west. The eastern boundary is veiy 
uncertain. By ancient authors the river Pabthenius is often 
spoken of as the boundary. 

Mou§tains. — ^The principal mountain-range in Bithynia is 
that of Olympus, which extends eastward from the Rhyn'dagus. 

Capes. — PosiDiUM, Niqbum, and Achebusia. He'rcules 
was said to have dragged Cer^berus from hell through a cavern 
in this promontory. 

Bivers. — Rhyn'dacus, Sangabius, which next to the Halys 
was the largest river in Asia Minor; BiLLiEUB and Pabthenius. 

Lakes. — West of the river Sanoabius are two considerable 
lakes ; Asganius {Isnik), Apollonia'tis. 

Productions. — The coast was rich in every kind of natural pro- 
ductions, excepting the olive. The forests were principally of oak. 

Inhabitants. — ^The earliest inhabitants were called Bebby'ges, 
i. e. Phrygians (hence the country was termed Bebbygia). They 

Questions. — ^Which of the Paphlagonian cities are mentioned by 

Homer ? J 20. How is Bithynia bounded ? — ^What is the boundary 

toward Mysia? — What is the principal mountain-range? — What are 
the principal capes? — ^Which of them is connected with the story of 
Hercules ? — In what way ? — What is said of the Sangarius ? — Mention 
the other riyers. — What firuit did not grow in Bithynia ? — What kind of 
timber abounded in its forests ? — What were the earliest inhabitants 
of Bithynia called? — What was the former name of the country? — 



44 ASIA. 

were afterwards conquered by a Thracian immigration of the Thyni 
(Suvoi), who settled on the shore of the Eozine from the Bos- 
poms to the Sangarius, where they still retained their own 
original name, while a part of them went to ihe interior and 
were called Bith/ni. East of the Sangarius were the Marian- 
dy'ni ; north-east of these the Cauco'nes. Pliny the Younger, 
the celebrated friend of Trajan, was pro-consul of Bithynia, and 
from his epistles we derive a great deal of information respecting 
its condition during the first century of the Christian era. 

Cities. — ^The large towns of Bithynia were all west of the 
Sangarius ; the towns east of the river were of little note, the 
chief of them bebg the Greek settlements on the coast. 

(1.) PRUSA AD Oltmpum, (uow called Bmsa, or Broussa,) 
which gave the title of Prusias to the kings of Bithyqia. It was 
the capita] of the Ottoman Empire before the capture of Constan- 
tinople, and is still one of the most flourishing towns of Anatolia. 

(2.) NiC2SA (Jmik), on the shores of the lake ^^canius, 
where the Nicene creed was drawn up (325 A. d.). It was the 
birthplace of the historian Dio Cassius. 

(3.) NicoMEDiA, founded by Nicome'des I., was the birthplace 
(a. d. circ. 100) of ArrianuSjthe celebrated author of the Anabasis 
Alexandri; it was the chief residence of the Bithynian kings. 

(4.) LiBTSSA, which contained the tomb of the Lybian gene- 
ral Hannibal, the Carthaginian. 

(5.) Chalce'don, at the entrance of the Propontis, called, by 
way of derision, the city of the blind , from the fact of its 
founders having overlooked the more delightful and advantageous 
situation of Byzantium, on the opposite side of the Strait; on 

QuBSTiONs. — By whom were they conquered ? — What is the difference 
between Thyni and Bithyni ? — Who liyed east of the Sangarius ? — Who 
north-east of the Sangarius ? — Who was pro-consul in Bithynia in the 
beginning of the second century ? — Where were the large towns situ- 
ated ? — Name five towns of Bithynia. — What is said of Prusa ? — Of what 
empire did it become the capital ? — ^Where was Nicsea situated ? — For 
what is it celebrated in the history of the church ? — ^Who was bom here? 
— Who was buried at Libyssa ? — Where was Chalcedon situated ? — ^Why 
was it called " the city of the blind ?" 



OALATIA OB GALLO-OB2SGIA. 45 

the Bosporus there was a temple of Jupiter Ubius, the dis- 
penser of favorable wind (oZpo^"). 

(6.) Other cities of note were Dascylium, Cius, Herade'a 
Pon'tica, and Bithynium, afterwards called Claudiop'oliB. 



DIVISION XI. 
§ 21. GALATIA or GALLOGR^CIA. 

(^Tadarta or FaXXoj'patxta,^ 

Name. — This country derived its name Galatia from the 
settlement of a large body of Gauh in it (279 b. c). In conse- 
qnence of some dissensions in the army with which Brennns 
invaded Greece^ a considerable number of the troops left their 
countrymen and marched into Thrace ; thence they proceeded to 
Byzantium, and crossed over into Asia at the invitation of 
Nicome'deS; king of Bithynia, who was anxious to secure their 
assistance against his brother Ziboetes. With their aid, Nico- 
me'des was successful, and the Gauls received a considerable 
share of the conquest. After being subdued by A'ttalus I. of 
Per'gamus, they settled themselves permanently (239 B. c.) in 
the north of Phrygia and Cappadocia, where, having mingled 
with some Grecian colonies, the country they inhabited obtained 
the name of Gallo-Gb^gia, or Galatia. 

Boimdaries. — North, Paphlagonia and Bithynia; East, 
PoNTUs ; South, Cappadocia and Lycaonta ; West, Phbygia. 

Divisions. — It was divided among three tribes ; each tribe was 
subdivided into four parts, and each of these twelve divisions was 
governed by a tetrarch, who appointed all other magistrates and 
military officers. In the time of Theodosius the Great, Galatia 

Questions. — ^What temple was in its neighborhood? J 21. Whence 

did Galatia deriye its name ? — How did these Gauls come to Asia Minor ? 
— Who was Brennua f — Describe the course of the Gauls from Greece to 
the northern parts of Phrygia. — How was Galatia bounded? — How 
divided ?— How subdivided ? — How was it divided in the time of Theo- 
dosius the Great ? 



▼a» • : '.J— : -£ -Tj Twi irrmirss — 'taixtia PfeiXA; Capita], 
w;r-.:. u it i :- nl :•£ -T* fc.'^/*«f *£> 

Sirsiw — ^5jl!^ sjlxtt^ a»i E^ltsw vlirk miaaed it from 

iPrwtiftiaMi — Jht mizisTki jrai^xiz^s vere vlieBty bulej, 
ani f.rest5 o^ t^lI^l:!^ li-nrtn-. Of d:caesdc aniwah, dieep and 
c&u> w^?^ rwi^i := it^^iASce. 

Ilkafciliafek — ITLes tKe Galu settled ia tke oaantrjy it was 
inhabited bj PHmTGiA^cs^ Gksdls^ PAPmAOOJaANS, and pio- 
bsiUj a few Ca^adociaxs. Tlie Phktgiaxs formed tbe 
largest element, and occvpied tbe Weslen portion €i the centre 
of Galatia. The Gekkks were abo nnmeroos at the time of the 
Gallic oeenpation ; tbar ki^iiage became the common language 
of the conntij. The three Gallic tribes were Trocmi, Tbctos'- 
AGES, and Tousto'booi. Thej were a nation of herdsmen, 
shepherds, and cnldvators ei the soil, and continued to speak the 
Keltic language even in the dajs ei St. Jerome, six hundred 
jcars aflter their emigration. St. Paul's epistle to the Galatians 
was not addressed to them, bnt to the Greek inhabitants of 
Galatia, and some of the heUenized Galli. 

Cities. — (1.) Pessi'nus (Jleafftvobii) North-east of the river 
SanoariuS; near Phrygia, a considerable trading point, with a 
niognificont temple, sacred to the mother of the gods, who was 

QffMHTioNi.— Name the mountains. — ^Who was worshipped at Mount 
IMrMlymuH?— What were the principal riyers?— The productions.— 
What Inhabitanta did the country contain before the settlement of the 
(UiiIhT -What nation was the most numerous? — What became the 
1iui|{ua|{t« of the country ?— Name the three Gallic tribes.— What kind 
uf pt»opl«» w«>rt> they ?— What language did they speak?— To whom was 
Ht. VmV^ ftplntlo to the Palatians addressed ?— Name the chief towns. 

Whm*« Willi P«>iilnui iituatod ?^What temple was there? 



GALATIA OR G ALLO-0 RiECI A 



47 



there worshipped under the Dame of Agdistis. The famous 
image of the goddess, which was believed to have fallen from 
heaven, was carried to Kome in the time of the second Punic war, 
and there worshipped under the name of Cjb'ele. 

(2 ) GORDIUM (FopStov), formerly the capital of the Phrygian 
monarchy Here Alexander cut the Gordian knot, respecting 
which there was an ancient tradition, that the person ^ho could 
untie it should possess the empire of Asia. 




CUTTING THB GORDIAN KNOT. 



(3.) Ancy'ra (^Ayxopa) (Angouri), from whence the cele- 
brated shawls and hosiery made of goat's hair were originally 
brought. Here was discovered (1544 A. D.) the celebrated 
Monumentum Ancyra'num,.a copy made on marble slabs of the 
bronze records at Rome, of the life of Augustus. 

(4.) Oangra (TdYYpa), the residence of Cicero's friend, king 
Deiotarus. 

(5.) Tavium (T'aooivv), a place of considerable commercial 
importance, situated in the eastern part of flie country. 



Questions. — What is said of the image of the goddess ? — What is said 
of Gordium ? — What was the chief manufacture of Ancyra ? — What is 
the Monumentum Ancyranum? — What is said of Gangra? — What of 
Tavium ? 



48 ASIA 



§ SSL PHRYGIA WITH LTCAOXlJu (J^P^n^ iaawi^) 



L — Phktgia, or, more pn^>eriy, Phrtgia Major, 
formei the c**titral countTj of Asia 3IiDar- On the North were 
BiTHTXiA and Paphlagoxia ; oa the East, Cappadocia; on 
the South, Pi>iDiA and Cilicia; oo the West, Mtsia, Ltbia, 
Cabia. The eastern l^jandarj was formed by the liTer Halts, 
the soatlieni bj Moaot Tauru s. Formeri j Galada also belonged 
to it (see § 21). The Mjsian coast, from the riyer Cius to 
ScsTCS, WW called Phrtoia Mdkml, or Phiygia Hellespontus, 
frxMn which dicamstaiice the Roman poets constantly called the 
Trojans Phrygians. 

DiTisiont. — ^North, Yallet op thk Sangarius, the most 
important part; it was also cafled Phiygia Epicte'tns (Iroriyroc, 
L e. acquired in addition); Sooth, Parorios (Jlapopiix:, L e. 
adjacent to the mountains), which was a high teble-knd ; West, 
Katakekau'memr (^Karaxexaofiiyyi Z^P^* ^' *' ^ burnt 
country), lay partly in Phrygia, partly in Lydia; it contained 
districts of the greatest beauty, and was the most populous part, 
but suffered severely from earthquakes; East, Ltcaonia, a 
nigged district in the South-east, united during the Persian 
monarchy with .the satrapy of Cappadocia, but in Strabo's time, a 
part of Phrygia. 

QuBffTiON8.^2 22. How is Phrygia bounded ?— In what p^rt of Asia 
Minor was it situated ? — Wliat riyer formed the eastern boundary ? — 
What mountain-chain the southern? — What country formerly belonged 
to it ?— Where is Phrygia Minor situated ?— Why did the Roman poets 
call the Trojans "Phrygians?"— What part of Phrygia was the most 
Important ?— Why was ii called Epictetus ?— What does the name Paro- 
rUm Mlgnify ?— What part of Phrygia was so called?— How was the 
ww«t«rn part of Phrygia called?— What does that name signify ?— What 
In said about it ? — Name the three principal parts of Phrygia. — Where 
wwi Lyoaonia situated ?— To what satrapy did it belong during the Per- 
sian dominion ? 



PHRYGIA WITH LTOAONIA. 49 

Monntains. — Phrtoia is a high tahle-land, extending on the 
south to Mount Taurus^ and on the north to the high range of 
mouDtaios which runs from west to east, under the names of 
Ida and Temnon in Mysia, and Olympus in Bithynia. 

Lakes. — ^The country in the southern and eastern parts is 
covered with salt marshes, or lakes. Of these salt-lakes, the 
most curious is the one called Tatta ( Tus or Tuzla), which is 
forty-five miles in length, and supplies a vast tract of conntiy 
with salt. 

Kivers. — Hermus, M.£ander; Marsyas, on whose hanks 
the musician of that name is said to have heen flayed alive hy 
Apollo (Xen. Anah. 1, 2, 8); Sangarius, Lycus. 

Productions. — The country was rich in minerals, gold, and 
marble. It was famous for its wine and sheep. King Amyntas 
is said to have kept no less than 300 flocks of sheep. The 
Phrygian wool was very celebrated. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Phrygians, who are generally described as 
the most ancient inhabitants of Asia Minor, came, most probably, 
from the Armenian highlands. Trojans, Mysians, Mjsonians, 
etc., were all branches of the great Phrygian race. Their name 
signified, in the Lydian tongue, freemen. The nation, though 
bearing this name, appears from historic records to have been of 
a pacific disposition, and unable to resist foreign impressions and 
influences. It deserves remark that the Phrygians never took or 
exacted an oath. In very early times a highly civilized people, 
they subsequently became proverbial both for their servility and 
stupidity. 

Cities. — The most important cities were situated in the South- 
western part. 

Questions. — ^What is said about the mountains of Phrygia ? — What 
about the lakes ? — What is said about the lake Tatta ? — Name the fiye 
principal riyers. — What of the river Marsyas? — ^What wa» the chief pro- 
duce of Phrygia ? — What is said of the origin of the Phrygians ? — ^What 
nations belonged to the Phrygian race? — What did their name signify ? 
— Did they really deserve that name? — What was the state of civilization 
among the Phrygians ? — In what part of the country were its most im- 
portant cities situated ? 

6 P 



50 ASIA. 

(1.) Laodice'a (Aaodixeta), (Ladik)^ one of the seven 
churches mentioned in the book of Revelation, It was cele- 
hrated for its sheep. 

(2.) Cib'yra (KtPupa)f a considerable trading city. It pos- 
sessed a greatly mixed population. In Strabo's time no less than 
five languages were spoken there. The town was the capital of 
the district Cibyra'tis, which was governed by native princes. 

(3.) Cel^njb (^A'eXatvai)f one of the most ancient cities near 
the sources of the rivers Marauder (which took its rise in the 
palace) and Catarrhactes. It was one of the residences of Cyrus 
the Younger, who had there a palace and a park full of wild 
animals (napadettro;;), 

(4.) Stn'nada (Ioyvada)y a small town which, during the 
time of the Roman Empire, rose to a place of considerable com- 
merce and traffic. It was situated on the highroads to Galatia 
and Cilicia. Near Syn'nada, the Lapis Syonad'icus, a beautiful 
kind of white marble, with red spots, was procured; slabs and 
columns of it were frequently transported as far as Rome. 

(5.) Ipsus Clipoq) lies toward the west of CelaBnae; here the 
battle was fought between the surviving generals of Alexander 
(301 B.C.). 

(6.) CoLOSS-® (KoXoffffat). St. Paul addressed one of his 
Epistles to this place. It was destroyed by an earthquake, toge- 
ther with Hierap'olis and Laodice'a, in the ninth year of the 
reign of Nero, but was rebuilt and became, during the middle 
ages^ a place of considerable importance under the name of 

CHONiE. 

(7.) Other cities worthy of mention were DorylaBum, Amo- 
rium, Antiochi'a (later, Csesare'a), Seleuci'a, Cibo'tus (later, 
Apame'a), Hierap'olis, Eumenia, Cadi, uEza'ni, and Cotyaeum. 

Questions. — Name six prmcipal towns of Phrygia.— What is said of 
Laodicea? — What of Cibyra? — How many languages were spoken there? 
— Where was Celsenae situated ? — Who possessed a palace there ? — ^Whafc 
is said of Synnada ?— What was found in its neighborhood ?— What is 
said of Ipsus ? — How did Colossas become celebrated ? — How was it de- 
stroyed ? — What towns were destroyed with it ? — What was its name 
during the middle ages ? 



PI8IDIA WITH I8AURIA. 51 

IjYOAONIA contained the following small towns: Laodice'a 
CoMBUSTA, Antiochi'a, Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra. 
These last three places are mentioned hy St. Luke (^Arts, xiii. xiv.)- 
Iconium rose afterwards to great power and importance. In the 
middle ages it was the most important city of Asia Minor, and 
was very celebrated at the time of the Crusades. 



§23. PISIDIA WITH ISAURIA. (Jliffidia^Uffoopia.) 

Though it was nominally treated as a part of Pamphylia till the 
fourth century, when it was acknowledged as a separate country, 
it was, in fact, an independent nation, and maintained its liberty 
while Pamphylia was a Roman province. 

Boundaxies. — North, Phrygia; East, Cilicia and Ltoao- 
nia ; South, Pamphylia; West, Phryqia, Caria and Lycia. 

Mountains. — Sardemi'^us and Climax, both ranges of the 
Taurus. 

Bivers. — Cestrus and Eurym'edon. 

Productions. — Salt (iVi«), from the root of which a perfume 
was manufactured. The wine of Am'blada was also very cele- 
brated. 

Inhabitants. — They were hardy and warlike mountaineers. 
None of the' successive rulers of Asia Minor could subdue them 
in their mountain fastnesses. The Isaurians were nominally con- 
quered by Publius Servilius, in the time of the Mithridatic war, 
who hence obtained the surname of Isau'ricus (78 B. o). 

Divisions. — The eastern part of Pisidia was called Isauria. 
The western portion, including the north-east part of Lycia, was 
called MiLYAS. 

Questions. — Naitae some towns of Lycaonia? — What is said of Ico- 
nium ? J 23. To what part of Asia Minor did Pisidia nominally 

belong ? — What was it in reality ? — When was it acknowledged as a 
separate country ? — How was it bounded ? — Name the mountains. — The 
rivers. — The productions. — What'is said of the inhabitants? — Who con- 
quered the Isaurians ? — Give the date of this conquest. — What name 
was given to the eastern part ? — ^What name to the western part ? 



52 ASIA. 

Towni. — (1.) Cbetop^olis, sitaated in the western part of the 
country. It was, daring the Crusades, called Sozop'olis. 

(2.) Termessus (T€pfi7j(ra6<;)^ situated in a pass of the Taurus. 
Alexander the Great was not able to conquer it. 

(3.) Selge (liXpj), the chief mountain fortress in the inte- 
rior. It was a colony of the Lacedssmonians. 

(4.) Is AURA (^faaupa), the capital of Isauria, a wealthy, popu- 
lous and well-fortified city. It was once destroyed by its own 
citizens (322 b. o.), and a second time by the Romans (78 b. c). 

(6.) MiLYAS (MtXud(;), the South-Western part of Pisidia, 
contained the following /our towns: Cib'yra, (Enoanda, Balbu'ra, 
and Bubon, which formed the Cibyratian Tetra'jx/lU. 

QuBSTiONS. — Q'lYe the names of four principal towns. — ^What is said 
of Isaura? — What towns constituted the Cibyratian Tetrapolis of 
Milyas? 



8ABMATIA ASIATIGA. 53 



ASIA ORIENTA'LIS. 

§ 24. Divisions. — I. The coantries between the Eoxioe and 
Caspian Seas: (1.) Sabmatia Asiat'ica; (2.) Colchis, 
Iberia, and Albania ; (3.) Armenia major. 

II. The countries between the Euphra'tes and the Tigris: 
(1.) Mesopotamia; (2.) Babylonia and GHALDiEA. 

III. The countries between the Mediterranean and Erythrasan 
Seas : (1.) Syria, subdivided into, (a) Syrian (6) PhoBni'cey 
(c) Palcesti'na; (2.) ARABIA, subdivided into, (a) Petrcea, 
(b) Deserta, (c) Felix. 

lY. The countries between the Tigris and the Indus : 
(1.) Assyria; (2.) Media; (3.) Pebsis; (4.) Susia'na; 
(5.) Aria'na. 

V. The countries east of the Indus: (1.) India; (2.) Se'rioa; 

(3.) SiNiB. 

yi. The countries between the Caspian Sea and Scjthia: (1.) 
Hyrcania; (2.) Maroia'na; (3.) Bactria'na; (4.) Sog- 
dia'na. 

Vll. SCYTHIA. 

§ 25. SARMATIA ASIAT'ICA. (7 iv 'Aaiq. laptiarla.) 

Boundaries. — Sarmatia was the name of a large country 
Ijing in Europe and Asia. The boundaries of the Asiatic 
portion are as follows : on the North, An unknown Country ; 

Questions. — } 24. What name is given to the other part of Asia? — 
Into how many natural parts is it divided? — Name the countries 
between the Euxine and Caspian Seas. — Between the Euphrates and 
Tigris. — Between the Mediterranean and Erythraean Seas. — Between 
the Tigris and Indus. — Name the countries east of the Indus — Between 

the Caspian Se» and Scythia? § 25. What is said about Sarmatia? 

—What are the boundaries of Sarmatia Asiatica ? 
6* 



M ASIA. 

East, ScTTHiA and the Caspian Sea ; South, The Gau'gasus ; 
West, Cimmerian Bos'porus, Palus Mjso'tis, and Tanais. 

KoimtaiBB. — Montes Cora'xici aod Uip'pici; and Montes 
IItperborei {Ural). 

BiTen.— Tanais {Don); Antici'tes {Kuban); Rha 
{Wr^^a). 

Towns. — ^There existed only a few Greek colonies on the coast 
of the Palus MsBo'tis. (1.) Phanaooria, situated on the Asiatic 
coast of the Cimmerian Bos'poros, which became afterwards the 
residence of the kings of Bos'ponis; (2.) Pittu'sA; Sinda 
{Anapa)f Cepus. 



§ 28. COLCHIS, IBERIA, and ALBANIA. 

Bonndaries. — North, Cau'casus and Sarmatia; East, Cas- 
pian Sea; South, Armenia; West, Euxine. 

Divisions. — I. Colchis, on the shore of the Euxine. The 
greater part of this small territory was covered hj marshes, and 
throughout its entire extent heavy rains were of frequent occur- 
rence. The plains were intersected hy numerous channels, on 
the hanks of which the inhabitants built their dwellings, which 
were generally supported on wooden piles. This province was 
the celebrated scene of the fable of the Oolden Fleece and the 
Argonautic expedition. 

II. Albania QAXpavia) was situated on the western shores 
of the Caspian Sea. It is rich in rivers and extremely fertile, 
but its inhabitants were warlike, and neglected the culture of 
the soil. 

III. Iberia (^ffijjpta), A district surrounded on all sides by 
mountains through which there were only four passes. It com- 
prised the central part of the country between the Euxine and 

Questions. — Name the mountains. — The rivers ? — What is said of the 
towns? — Name some of their towns. § 26. Where are Colchis, Ibe- 
ria, and Albania situated? — Where was Colchis situated^ — What is said 
of Colchis? — Where is Albania situated? — ^What is said of Albania? — 
Where is Iberia situated? — What is said of Iberia? 



ARMENIA MAJOB. 55 

Caspian seas. It was very fertile; hence its modem namoi 
Georgia, derived from the Greek j^eatpj^etv, to till the earth. 

MonntainB. — Cau'casus, and the Montes Mos'ohioi. 

Passes. — Pyl^ CAUCASi-ffi, the Gates of the Cau'casus (Pass 
of Dariel), Ijing about midway between the Eoxine and- Caspian 
Seas; PrL^ Albanijb or Cabpijb^ known in history as the 
Iron Gate, now Derbent 

Sivers. — Phasis, in Colchis, Cyrus, Ar'aqus, Cambt'ses, 
and Araxes, in Iberia and Albania. 

Frodnctioiis.— Gold, timber, flax, oil, and wine. The linen 
of Colchis was very celebrated. 

Inhabitants. — Various tribes, differing in degrees of civilizap 
tion. The inhabitants of Colchis attained, by means of oom- 
merce, a degree of opulence and culture which rendered them 
very widely celebrated in ancient times. 

Cities. — In Colchis; Phasis, whence came the aves Phastcf/ugf 
pheasants, Cyta, the birthplace of Mede'a, who from this 
circumstance is called Q/tceis, 

In Iberia; Harmozi'ca, and in Albania; Alba'na (^Derbent). 



§ 27. ARMENIA MAJOR. 
QAppLtvia -f) [itydXiQ, or, ^Apjievta -^ IdioKZ xaXoufiivr^.^ 

Boundaries. — ^North, Albania, Iberia, Colchis, and Pon- 
Tus; East, Media; South, Mesopotamia and Assyria; West, 
Armenia minor. 

Divisions. — It was divided into fifteen provinces and one 
hundred and eighty-seven subdivisions. 

Questions. — ^Whence is its modem name derived ? — What mountains 
traverse those three countries ? — Name the two celebrated passes of the 
Caucasus. — Name the rivers. — The chief productions. — For what is 
Colchis celebrated ? — What is said about the inhabitants ? — Whence do 
pheasants derive their name? — Why is Medea called Cytaeis? — . 

Name one city of Colchis, of Iberia, and of Albania. i 27. What 

are the boundaries of Armenia ? — How was it divided and subdivided ? 



if Hi Tsi^iij?. li w^^ a He "i^i" TraA * Ax jimAT, fa>« which 
ziti Hi TTTrt^n -ao.?^ li'^rrt I~. -» jiskij «»;i-ii=a»t fa>« the 
2*\ f.'X «i«t r..?p».i3 jEBk Tiff ar-ii:i^7ai «f ihtac Bovntun 
sia^r** a-*^ - r ^ir ^-i^i-i'sw X.-^ti* X.eCHici, Moss Ca- 



Brmi — A sciLjtsr ic ,lisia »* cowttstlT fed bj the snow 
wril VI. :a zzti i^a mnxnaja^ x« suMw e d . The mtael important 
ar« lilt HxiTiw ^t*t»><. A'%WTa&, Tiuus, Cs^itki'tss, and 

liikciL — LjLrr« Axsx^sx i»i Lacts Ltchki'tis. 

PkodlcCuwL — Tie cimacrr is in sanj parts exceedingly 
fertile u well 23 h:z'::lj pcrmresqne, especial! j near the shores 
of the Araxes. It is prioc:f«;d]j distingiushed for its horses, 
precioos stones and metals, grain, oil, and wine. 

dimale. — Owing to the height of the table-land, and the 
extreme elevation of the mountains, the temperature is much 
lower than in other regions situated on the same parallel of 
latitude. 

Inhabitantf * — ^The Armenians were one of the most anoienL 
branuhos of the Indo-Oermanio family. They carried on a con- 
sidoniblo trade with the southern nations, especially with the 
rha>nioianB. 

OitiM. — Artax'ata, a celebrated city strongly fortified, and 
uwuHlly the ro*(idonoo of the kings; Tioranocebta, buUt by 
Ti^&m'iifM during tho Mithridatio war, and afterward taken by 
liUouUua; Ah^Xata, tho ancient capital of Media; Armo'sata 
wv ArMm^vi'aU^ ANuida^ Thcodosiop'olis. 



\)^ v»vv,s\* >^ W*l ^ »Aa Af lli« WMmiitaia»?->What of Movmt Anntl 
Uv % » ^. Otn-VN vs^ vt^i ^^\^« ^^4 iW Kt^»»u»f I«4m^^— KoM sose of 



MESOPOTAMIA. 57 



§ 28. MESOPOTAMIA. {Mtcoizircaiua.) 

Name. — The name does not occur uotil about 200 B. o. 
Under the Persian empire, it formed a division of the satrapy of 
Babylonia. The name is composed from two Greek words^ fUco^ 
and nora/id^y and signifies a country between rivers. In the 
Sacred Writings it is called Aram^NaTiaraim, i. e. Syria 
between the rivers. 

Boundaries. — North, Taurus and Armenia; East, the 
Tigris, which separates it from Assyria; South, Media and 
Babylonia; West, the Euphra'tes, which divides it from 
Syria. 

Divisions. — a. The Northern part was subdivided into the 
following two parts : Osrhoe'ne, the north-west part, and Myq- 
DONiA or Anthemusia, the eastern part. 

b. The Southern part was subdivided into four parts : Chal- 
ce'tis, Gauzani'tis, Acab'ene, and Angobari'tis. 

Mountains. — Masius {Kard^ha-Dagh), 

Bivers. — ^Euphra'tes, Tigris, Chabo'ras, and Masca. 

Inhabitants. — ^They belonged to the Semitic division of the 
human family. 

Productions. — Timber and different kinds of grain ; also fruits 
and spices. Its luxuriant meadows furnished a fine grazing 
ground for large herds of cattle. 

Cities. — (1.) Edessa ([7r/a A), the capital of OsrJuftfne. In 
the Scriptures it is called Ur. 

(2.) Batn^, where an annual fair was held for the sale of 
Indian and Syrian merchandise. 

Questions. — J 28. Whence is the name derived? — When does the 
name occur for the first time ? — To what satrapy did it belong ? — 
How is it called in the Scriptures ? — What are the boundaries ? — How 
was it divided? — How was the northern part subdivided? — How the 
southern part? — Name the mountains. — Name the rivers. — ^What is said 
of the inhabitants ? — Describe the productions. — How is Edessa called 
in the Scriptures ? — ^What is said of Batnx ? 



58 ASIA. 

(3.) GiRCESlUM; where Necho, king of ^gypt, was con- 
quered by Nebuchadnezzar (601 B.C.). A little to the south of 
Circesium was the tomb of the younger Gordian, killed a. d. 245. 

(4.) Nls'iBis, one of the easternmost fortresses of the Roman 
empire. In the Scriptures it is perhaps called 2joha, 

(5.) GAR'BHiE (the Charran of the Scriptures)^ the point 
from which Abraham departed for the land of Canaan. Here 
Crassus lost his life in his Parthian expedition (53 B.C.). 

Miaerando funere Crtutut 
Anyriat Lotto fnaculavit tanguine CarrKat. — Lucan i. 104. 

(6.) Other towns of note were Nicephorium, Phaliga, An'the- 
mus, Dura, Resaena; Sin'gara^ Atrao, Apame'a. 

§ 29. BABYLONIA and CHALDJEA. {Bapoltuvia,) 

It comprehended originally the country in the immediate 
vicinity of the city of Babylon, but in later times included the 
southern part of Mesopotamia. By Greek and Bx)man writers 
it is frequently confounded with Assyria and Mesopotamia. 
In the Sacred Writings it is called the land of the Chaldees, 
and also the land of Shinar, the latter designation being the 
most ancient. 

Boundaries. — North, Mesopotamia; East, Susia'na; South, 
Gulp op Persia ; West, Arabia Petr^a, It was separated 
from Mesopotamia by the Median wall, which was twenty para- 
sangs in length, twenty feet in breadth, and one hundred in 
height, firmly built of brick. It was said to have been built by 
Semir'amis as a protection against the Medes. 

Rivers.— Euphra'tes and Tigris, which were united by 

Questions. — What occurred near Circesium ? — What tomb was in its 

vicinity ?— What is said of Nisibis ?— What of Carrhse ? § 29. What 

did Babylonia originally comprehend ? — With what countries is it often 
confounded by Greek and Roman writers ? — How was it called in the 
Scriptures ? — What were its boundaries ? — What separated it from 
Mesopotamia? — Name its dimensions. — Who built it? — What riyers are 
in Babylonia ? — How arc they united ? 



BABYLONIA AND CIIALDiEA. 59 

numerous artificial channels, not excavated like modern canals, 
but made by earthen embankments constructed on the surface of 
the ground, four of which were navigable for vessels suited to 
carry grain. The most important of these aqueducts were : 
(1.) Naarsares (^Naap^dpj^^), which ran on the West of the 
Euphra'tes parallel to it : (2.) Naarmalcha, i. e. the royal river 
(jzotaiioc: fiaffdeux; or dtwpu^ fia^tXtxij)y extending from the 
Euphra'testo the Tigris. 

Productions. — The periodical inundation of the rivers caused 
a remarkable fertility of soil. Hero'dotua says that the average 
return of wheat was from two hundredfold to three hundredfold ; 
that millet and sesame grew to a great size; that the gigantic 
date-palm, the only kind of tree that adorned the land, was 
indigenous throughout its entire extent; and that bread, wine, 
and honey were made from the dates. 

Climate. — The climate in ancient times was more temperate 
than it is at present. 

Inhabitants. — ^They are called Babylonians and CaALDM- 
ANS. The latter were originally a distinguished caste among the 
native population, comprising the priests, magicians, soothsayers, 
and astrologers of the country — a circumstance which eventually 
gave name to the main body of the people. The main body, 
the Babylonians, belonged entirely to the Semitic race. The 
ChaldaBans were a race of conquerors who had come down from 
the mountain-ranges in the South of Armenia. 

Cities. — (1.) SeLEUCI'a (ij ZeXeuxeta i::), tw Tiypst), founded 
by Seleucus Nica'tor about 322 b. c, a little above Babylon, on the 
western bank of the Tigris, at the point where the caravans from 
the East and West met. It was connected with the Euphra'tes by 
the canal Naarmalcha. This admirable situation made it one of 
the most flourishing cities of Western Asia. It quickly rose to 
unusual wealth and splendor, and soon eclipsed Babylon itself. 



Questions. — Name two aqueducts. — Describe Babylonia. — What is 
paid about the climate ? — What is the difference between Babylonians 
and Chaldseans ?— Who formed the ruling caste?— What is said of 
Seleucia ? 



60 ASIA. 

The Parthiao kings fouDded Ctes'iphon on the opposite side, 
and depriyed Seleuoi'a of some of its adyantages. Neyertheless, 
the latter city contained, in the time of Titus (80 A. D.), still 
000,000 inhabitants. In the wars between the Parthians and 
Koiuans, both cities were often taken and burnt. They are now 
called Al Modain, i. e. the two cities. 

(2.) CuNAXA (JKoovaSa)j a small town on the eastern bank 
of the Euphra'tes, where Gyrus the Younger was defeated and 
slain by his brother Artaxerxes (401 B. c). 

(3.) Sit' ACS (Itrdxyi)^ a flourbhing city near the western 
bank of the Tigris. 

The southern part of Babylonia bore the name of Ghaldaea. 
It contained many flourishing towns ; the most celebrated among 
them are: (1.) Borsippa (^Bdpmitnay Boursa), situated to the 
south of Babylon, and noted as the chief residence of the Chal- 
daean astrologers. It was also noted for its manufactures of linen. 
(2.) Orghoe QOp^or^y the native appellation of which was Ur. 

§ 30. BA'BYLON. (Ba^uXiov,) 

Babylon was one of the most ancient cities in the world, and 
the capital of the Babylonio-Chaldflean empire. It extended 
along both sides of the Euphra'tes, which divided it in the 
centre. The city was quadrangular in shape, each side 120 
stadia in length (15 miles). It was surrounded by a wall of 50 
cubits thick, and 200 cubits high, and also by a wide ditch. 
Each half of the city was further protected by a second brick 
wall running parallel with the outer wall. At the river edge the 
two walls were connected by masonry built parallel with the river. 
The streets were straight, and intersected each other at right 

Questions. — In what battle was Cyrus the Younger defeated ? — In 
what year ? — What name did the southern part of Babylonia bear ? — 

What towns did it contain? J 30. Of what empire was Babylon 

the capital ? — What river flowed through the city ? — In what form was 
it built? — How many walls surrounded it? — Describe the outer wall. — 
Describe the inner wall.— How were the streets laid out ? 



BABYLON. 



61 



angles. Oq the river side they were closed by gates of brass. 

The two parts of the city were connected by a bridge. The 

bouses were built three and four stories in height. Each half 

of the city contained a celebrated building within a spacious 

eaclosure : in the eastern part was the royal palace; in the 

western the temple of Belus, which consisted of a series of eight 

towers^ one built upon another. The so called hanging gardens, 

were terraces rising one above another, covered with earth and 

laid out as gardens ; and are generally considered as one of the 

wonders of the ancient world. Babylon was at the height of its 

glory in the beginning of the seventh century B. c, when it 

became the capital of the eastern world. Under Nebuchad- 




HANGIKO GAKDEIfS. 



Questions. — How many bridges connected the two parts of the city ? 
—What building was contained in the eastern part of the city ? — What 
building in the western part ? — What was the temple of Belus or Baal ? — 
What is said of the hanging gardens ? — When did it become the capital 
of the eastern world ? 



62 ASIA. 

Dezzar, its power was extended over all the couotries Ijing 
between Persia and Egypt. But it was taken by the Persians 
in 538 B. c, according to the prediction of the Jewish prophets. 
Two centuries later it opened its gates to Alexander the Great, 
who deemed the city not unworthy to become the capital of 
his mighty empire. But after the foundation of Seleuci'a 
(322 B. c), it was abandoned by many of its inhabitants. The 
inhabitants of Babylon were noted for their luxury and great 
licentiousness. 



§ 31. SYRIA. 

Name. — ^The classical name for the country was Stria. Its 
ancient native appellation was Aram, and it is known in modem 
times as Eih-Sham, In its widest sense it embraced, in the 
East, both Mesopotamia and Assyria, and extended Westward to 
the Mediterranean and Eg3rpt. 

Boundaries. — North, separated from Cilioia by the range of 
Ama'nus and Taurus; East, from Mesopotamia and Baby- 
lonia by the Euphra'tes; South, The Great Desert of 
Arabia ) West, the Mediterranean. 

Divisions. — Syria, Phosni'ce, and Pal^sti'na. 



SYRIA. (lopia,) 

Boundaries. — North, Ciligia; East, Mesopotamia and 
Babylonia; South, Arabia; West, Pal-«:sti'na, Ph(ENi'ce, 
and the Mediterranean. 

Mountains. — Taurus, Ama'nus, Casius, Lib' anus; and 

Questions. — Oyer what countries did it extend its sway? — ^When was 
it taken by the Persians? — ^When by Alexander the Great? — When 
did the city decline ? — What is said about the rices of the citizens ? 

J 81. What is the native appellation of Syria?— What did it 

include, according to the classical authors ? — Name the chief divisions. 
—What are the boundaries of Syria in its restricted sense ? — Name the 
principal mountains. 



SYRIA. 63 

ea.st from it, Antilib^anus, which is considerably higher than 
tlie Lib'anus. In the Scriptures no distinction is made between 
Hfib'anus and Antilib'antis; both are comprised tinder the name of 
Tjehanon, 

Bivers. — Obontes, Cap'padox, Chbtsobrhoas or Bab- 
di'nes, and Chalus. 

Froduetions. — The Northern part of the country was more 
fertile than the Southern. The chief productions were timber, 
grain, rice, figs, dates, wine, cotton, assafoetida. Of domestic 
animals, sheep and cattle were raised in abundance. * The 
valleys of the North and South were, in ancient times, &r 
more fertile than they are now ; and the Eastern part, which 
formerly contained many cities, forms now part of the desert 
Lebanon was long noted for its splendid forests of cedar trees, of 
which only a few small groves remain. 

Inhabitants. — The population consists of agricultural and 
nomadic tribes which belong to the Aramaean branch of the 
Semitic race. This branch comprises the whole population 
between Egypt, the Mediterranean, the Halys, the Euxine, and 
the mountain ranges of the Zagrus and Paracho'athras. The 
Syrians were successively under Hebrew (in the reign of David), 
Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Macedonian dominion. After 
the beginning of the fourth century, B.C., it formed the nucleus 
of the great empire of the Seleu'cidse. This empire comprised, 
under its founder, the greater part of Asia, from the remote 
provinces of Bactria and Sogdia'na to the coasts of PhoDnicia, and 
from the Paropami'sus to the central plains of Phrygia. After 
an existence of upwards of 200 years, it was conquered by 
Tigra'nes (79 b. c), with whose dominions it was, fifteen years 
later, added to the Boman empire (64 b. c). 

• 

Questions. — ^What is said of the name Lebanon? — Name the rivers. — 
Name the productions. — What is said of the Syrians ? — To what race 
do they belong ? — To what branch of that race ? — Under what dominion 
were the Syrians ? — ^When did it form the nucleus of the empire of the 
SeleuoidsB? — Name the boundaries of that empire? — ^When was it added 
to the Koman empire ? 



64 ASIA. 

DiTilioilt. — ^I. Id the earliest times, Syria was divided into a 
namber of indepeodent states among which Damascus was the 
most powerful. 

II. Under the Macedonians the country was divided into 
two parts, Mount Lebanon constituting the boundary between 
them : 

a. The northern part, called Stria Pboper, or Uppsr 
Stria. 

h. The southern part, called C<ELS Stria (17 xocXi^ Zopea, 
i. e., Hollow SyriOf the Syrian Vale), 

III. Under the Romans the northern part was divided into 
the following nine districts : Commaob'ne, Ctrrhes'tige, Pie- 

RIA, SeLEUCIS, CHALCID'ICE, ChALTBONI'tIS, PALMTEE'NEy 

Apame'ne, and Casio'tis. 

IV. After Theodosius the Great, into Stria Prima and 
Stria Secunda. 

§ 32. Citiei« — (1.) In Gommage'ne : 

a. Samos'ata (Zafioaara), situated on the right bank of the 
Euphrates, the capital of Commage'ne. and the birthplace of 
Lucian. 

b. Other towns: Germanicia, Dol'iche, and Antiochi'a 
AD Taurum. 

(2.) In Ctrrhes'tice : 

a. Hierai>'olis (fepd TzoXi^f i. e. sacred city)y was called 
Maboq by the natives. Under the Seleu'cidas, Syria, from its 
central position between Antioch and Seleuci'a, on the delta of 
the Tigris, became a great emporium. It was the chief seat of 
the worship of the Syrian goddess, Astarte, the mythic personifi- 
cation of the passive powers of nature 

h. Other towns: Serosa (Aleppo), Zeugi'na, Gin'* 

DARUS. 



Questions. — How was Syria diyided in the earliest times? — How 
under the Macedonians ? — How under the Romans ? — How after Theo- 
dosius the Great? J 32. What is said of Samosata ?— What was the 

native appellation of Hierapolis ? — What goddess was worshipped at 
Hierapolis ? 



8TBIA. 65 

C3.) In Seleu'cis, or the Tetra'polis: 

a. Seleugi'a Pieria (leXeuxsta Iltepia), situated OQ the sea 
between Cilicia and Phoenice, to the north of the mouth of the 
OronteS; and at the southern extremity of Mount Pieria. It was 
founded by Seleucu^ (300 b. c), who was himself buried here in 
a splendid mausole'um. 

h. AntiOCHI'a ad OaONT^M ('JvTtd/e«a M "Opdimg W 
Jd^vjjj i. e. on the Orontes or 6y Daphne)^ situated on the left 
bank of the Orontes. It was the capital of the Greek kings of 
Syria, and one of the most important cities of the ancient world. 
Here the disciples of our Lord were first called Christians, and it 
was one of the earliest strongholds of the Christian religion. 

c. The two other cities of the Tetra'polis were Apame'a and 
Laodice'a These four cities were called the sister-cities, being 
all founded by Seleucus Nica'tor, and called by the names 
respectively of himself, his father, his wife, and his mother-in- 
law; that bearing his father's name being the largest, that 
bearing his own, the strongest. 
(4.) In Apame'ne : 

E'mesa (^Efisffd), situated on the eastern bank of the 
Orontes, where there was a famous temple of Heliogab'alus (or 
of the Sun), a priest of which, only a youth of fourteen, was made 
emperor by the licentious Roman soldiers (a.d. 218). In its 
neighborhood Zenobia was defeated by the emperor Aurclian 
(273 A. D.). 
(5.) In CcELE Syeia : 
a. Baalbeg, or Helio'folis QHXtooTzoXt^ ) in Hebrew, 
Baalath), where are still to be seen the ruins of a most magnifi- 
cent temple of Baal (whom the Greeks identified with Helios, or 
tho Sun), built by Antoni'nus Pius. 

h. Damascus (^Aafia<rx6q), one of the most ancient and cele- 

QuESTiONS. — Name the four sister-cities founded by Seleucus. — What 
is said about their names ? — Where was Seleucia situated ? — When was 
it founded? — What was the capital of the Greek kings of Syria? — 
For what was Emessa famous ? — ^What is said of Baalbec ? 
6* E 



Ol> ASIA. 

brated cities of all Asia. It was beautifully situated in the valley 
of the Chrysorrhoasy one of the most fertile of the Syrian plains. 
The famous maoufaotoiy of Damascus blades was established 
there by Diocletian. 



§ 88. PALMY'RA. (ndXfwpcu) 

It was situated in an O'asb of the Syrian desert, nearly 
midway between the rivers Orontes and Euphra'tes. Its 
names, Palmy^ra and Tadmor, derive their origin from the 
palm-trees which once adorned its neighborhood. In 2 Chr€>^ 
nicleSy viii. 4, we read that Solomon << built Tadmor in the 
wilderness.'' This city was most probably destroyed by Nebu- 
chadnezzar. But soon a new Tadmor arose, which, in the time 
of Pliny (A. D. 100), was the chief emporium of traffic between 
the Eastern and Roman empires. It afterward became allied to 
the Roman empire as a free state, and was greatly favored by 
the Anton ines, under whom it attained its greatest splendor 
(a. d. 150). Odena'thus, a native of Palmy'ra, assumed after- 
ward (A. D. 250), with the consent of the Romans, the title of 
king. He drove (a. d. 260) the Persians out of Syria, and for 
this service was rewarded by Qallie'nus with the title of Augustus. 
After his death (a. d. 266) his wife, Zenobia, a woman of 
heroic valor and extraordinary endowments, both of mind and 
body, assumed the title of Queen of the East, and asserted her 
sovereignty over Mesopotamia and Syria. She opposed the 
emperor Aurelian, whom she nearly defeated on the plains of 
Syria, at the head of 700,000 men, but was finally forced to 
succumb, and carried captive to Italy (a. d. 273), where she had 
large possessions, suitable to her imperial rank, assigned her near 

Questions. — In what valley was Damascus situated? J 33. Where 

is Palmyra situated ? — ^Whence is the name derived ? — How is it called 
in the Scriptures ? — "When did it attain its greatest splendor ? — ^When 
did Odenathus assume the title of king ? — ^When did he receive the title 
of Augustus ? — Of whom ? — ^When did he die ? — Who succeeded him ? — 
What was her design t—Who defeated her ?— Where ?— When ? 



PU(£NIGE. 



67 




Tibar. Her minister^ or secretary of state, was the celebrated 
Longi'nus, the author of the well-known critical treatise, On the 
Sublime, He fell a sacrifice to the fury of the Roman soldiery 
on the capture of the city, which was ruthlessly plundered, and 
afterward partially destroyed during an insurrection of its citi- 
zens. It has been in a ruined and desolate state during the last 
four or five centuries, ever since its capture and pillage in 1400 
by the army of Tamerlane. The ancient site is still occupied by 
a small tribe of Bedouin Arabs, who have built their hovels in 
the peristyle of the great temple. 

§ 84. PHCENrCE. (tf^ocvtxi^.) 

Name. — By the classic Greek and Roman authors it was 
called Ph(ENi'g£ ; by later writers, Ph(ENIGIA. Its signification 
is literally the land of palmsy the name being directly derived 
from the Greek word ^oivt^, a palm. By the Phoenicians 



Questions. — Who was her secretary? — ^What is said of him? — 

Describe the present state of the city. { 84. What does the name 

Phcsnice signify ? 



68 ASIA. 

thenuelTes^ and by tbeir neigbbon of the land of Israel, it was 
called Canaan, i. e. Low-land. 

Bonndaiias. — Even in the most flourishing period of iter 
history, it was insignificant in size, being nowhere more than 
twelve miles in bresulth. It extended along the eastern coast 
of the Mediterranean, from the town of Ab'adus and the river 
Eleu'therus on the north, to Mount Gabmel, or Doeia, on 
the south. It was bounded on the east by the Lib' anus and 
Antiub'anus. 

Division. — It was divided into several small independent king- 
doms, or rather cities, which were sometimes united together, 
and at other times in hostility to each other. 

Mountains. — Lib'anus. 

Capes. — Pbomontorium Album (Cape Blanc); Cabmel. 

Bivers. — Numerous rivers had their source in the Lib' anus, 
and rendered the land exceedingly fertile; the principal of 
them were the Eleu'thebus, Sabba'ticus, Ado'nis, Leo or 
Leontes. 

Prodnctions. — Cedar, pine, fir, and cypress; com, peaches, 
grapes, oranges, figs, dates, and other fruits ; sugar, cotton, and 
silk ; iron and copper. 

Climate. — ^The climate is sensibly affected by the close proxi- 
mity of Lebanon, whose summits are capped with snow during 
the greater part of the year. Hence the temperature is much 
lower than is usually found in corresponding latitudes. 

Inhabitants. — They were a branch of the great Semitic family 
of nations, and originally dwelt either on the Bed Sea or the 
Persian Gulf. They surpassed all the other nations of antiquity 
in commercial enterprise. They were also the inventors of glass, 
of purple dye, of coinage, and of the alphabetic characters which 
afterward were adopted in the languages of Europe. 

Questions. — What is the literal meaning of Canaanf—Kow was it 
bounded ? — How divided ? — Name the mountain range. — Name the 
oapes. — What is said of the riyers ? — Name some of the productions ? 
»— What is said of the climate ? — Why is the temperature lower than 
might be expected from the latitude?— What is said of the inhabitants? 



8ID0N AND TTBUS. tnf 

Cities. — ^The brief extent of sea-coast was dotted with numer- 
ous towns, which were more or less celebrated for their arts and 
manufactures. 

(1.) Ar'adus (^Apado<:: in the Hebrew, Arvad), situated on 
an island in the northern part, founded by exiles from Sidon. 
In the time of the Seleu'cidse it was the third city in magnitude 
and importance, being outrivalled only by Tyrus and Sidon. 

(2.) Trip'olis (Tp{i:oXt<;, Tripoli) consisted of three distinct 
tovmsy founded respectively by Tyre, Sidon, and A'radus. 

(3.) Bery'tus (^Beirut) y a very ancient town, celebrated for 
its law school. 

(4.) ACA, later Ptolema'is (jSl Jean (TAcre), which the 
Israelites did not succeed in conquering, though it was included 
in the division of the Holy Land made by Joshua. 

(6.) Other towns of note were Byblus, Sarepta, Tyrus, and 
Sidon. (See below.) 

§ 36. SIDON {Zidiki) AND TYRUS (Topoi;). 

Sidon was a very ancient and important maritime city of 
Phoenicia. It stood on the coast of the Mediterranean, in a 
plain nearly a mile in breadth. It possessed a fine harbor, and, 
at a very early period, became distinguished for its immense 
commerce. Joshua speaks of it, as early as 1444 B.C., as 
Oreat Sidon. 

It was renowned for its glass, which was made from the fine 
sand on the coast near Mount Carmel. Its inhabitants are also 
often mentioned in the Bible as skilful builders. They paid 
religious worship to the goddess Ashtaroth, whose image is 
commonly found upon Phoenician coins. During the earlier 
periods of Phoenician history, Sidon appears to have been the 

Questions. — Name four Phoenician cities. — What is said of Aradus? 
— ^Of Tripolis ? — What celebrated school was at Berytus ? — What is said 

of Aca ? J 35. Where was Sidon situated ? — What was the chief 

article of manufacture? — What goddess was worshipped at Sidon?— 
When was Sidon the chief city of Phoenicia? 



70 ASIA. 

first city in point of importance ; bat after its oaptme by the 
kio$; of A'bcalDD and the subeeqaent emigratioD of many c^ its 
inhabiuoLs, Tyre became dominant, and retained the snpremaoy 
until the Persian coo<|nest. In 352 B. C, it resdyed to tbiow 
off the Persian yoke. The loss of a large fleet, and of forty 
thousand lives, was the result The cruelty of the Persians left 
a painful remembrance which was not wholly effaced wheo 




twenty years later, Alexander having entered Phoenicia, Sidon 
hastened to open her gates to him. After Alexander's death, it 
was subject alternately to the kings of Egypt and Syria, until it 
finally fell under Roman sway. 

TYRUS. 

Tybus was the most celebrated city of Phoenicia. By the 
Israelites it was called TsoR, RocJc^ but by the Tyrians them- 



QuESTioNS. — In what year was the attempt made to throw off the 
Persian yoke ? — ^What was the result of it ? — What is said of Sidon in 
connection with Alexander ? — ^What was Tyrus called by the Israelites T 
— By the Tyrians ? 



TYRU8. 71 

selves SoR, or SuR, as its rains are still called. It was a 
colony of Sidon, but it sood exceeded the motber-city in import- 
ance. It was built partly on an island, partly on tbe mainland. 
That part wbicb lay on tbe mainland was called PALiS'-TYRUS, 
or Old Tyre, Tbe island contained only forty acres. Tbe small- 
ness of tbis area was, bowever, compensated by tbe great beigbt 
of the bouses. Tbe island-city was mucb improved by King 
Hiram, tbe celebrated friend of Solomon. Its powerful navies 
found ample and admirable accommodation in two excellent 
harbors^ one on tbe nortb, tbe otber on tbe soutb side of tbe 
island. 

Tyrus was repeatedly besieged ; by Sbalmane'ser (b. o. 727), 

Nebucbadnezzar (b. o. 595), Alexander (b. c. 333), and Anti'- 

goniis (b. 0. 315). Tbe attack of Alexander was tbe most 

remarkable. Tbe city, famed for its mercbant princes, sustained 

a seven montbs' siege, and was only entered by tbe conqueror 

after a mole, or causeway^ bad been built, connecting tbe island 

with tbe mainland. Tbe city was burnt, and most of tbe inba- 

bitants eitber killed or sold into slavery. It was repeopled by 

Carians. Eigbteen years sufficed to restore in a great measure 

its ancient wealtb and power ; but it bad a formidable rival to 

encounter in Alexandri'a. Under tbe Roman empire it rose to 

metropolitan glory, and its barbor became tbe most important 

naval station on tbe Syrian coast. Tbe staple manufacture of 

Pboenicia was tbe 'purple dye, produced from an animal juice, 

found in a sbell-fisb called in Greek, itoptpopa; in Latin, piirpura 

or murex. Tbe superiority of tbe Tyrian purple depended on 

tbe quality of tbe fisb, wbicb varied on different coasts, and 

probably also on some cbemical secret. Tbe trade was confined 

to Tyre ; under tbe Roman dominion Tyre enjoyed tbe exclusive 

privilege of manufacturing tbe imperial purple. 



Questions. — Describe Tyrus. — Who improved the island-city ? — How 
many harbors did it contain? — How often was Tyrus besieged? — By 
whom? — Which was the most remarkable siege? — How long did that 
aiege last ? — By what nation was Tyrus repeopled ? — ^What became its 
rival ? — What is said of the staple manufacture of Phoenicia ? 



72 ASIA. 

Ooloniat. — Starting from a Darrow coast on the Syrian sea, the 
Phoenicians visited all the shores of the Mediterranean; they 
peopled Thasoe and many other islands in the vicinity of Greece } 
they made settlements also in Boeotia, the north of Africa, and 
on the coast of Spain. Their principal colonies were Ctpbus, 
Rhodss, the Gyo'ladsb, a certain portion of Greece (Bceotid)y 
parts of Asia Minor (Bithtnia), the north-west comer of 
Sicily, Mel'ite (Malta), Sardinia, Southern Spain (TVir- 
tes9UB)y Cassite'rides (the a'n-islands — xaacirtpoq, tin — ^now 
probably the /SbtWy Islands on the coast of OomwaU), and the 
middle part of the northern coast of Africa, where they founded 
U'tioa, Leptib, Hippo, Hadrume'tum, and Cartha'oo. 



§ 36. PAL^STI'NA. 

Thongh for a long period shut up within the confines of a 
limited territory, and exposed to the antipathy and contempt 
of more powerful and cultivated nations, the people of Palestine, 
after the fall of their capital, exerted a far more general and per- 
manent influence over the human race, through the agency of the 
Christian religion, than their Koman conquerors with all the 
prestige of their three hundred and twenty triumphs. 

Kame. — Pal^sti'na, in its original and proper sense, com- 
prised merely that part of the Syrian coast inhabited by the 
ancient Philistines. In its wider acceptation, it is applied by 
the Christian world as a classical name to the territory of 
Canaan^ or Judaea. Among sacred authors the name PalaBstina 
was used by the prophet Isaiah, to denote the promised inherit- 
ance of the seed of Abraham, and the scene of the birth, sufiFer- 
ings and death of our Lord. It is now usually designated by 
the title of The Holy Land. 

Questions. — What is said of Phoenicia's colonies ? — ^Name some of the 
principal colonies. — ^p^ 86. What did PalsBstina originally comprise?— 
What, in a wider sense ? — Which of the sacred writers employs the name 
Palsestina? — What other names are used to designate the same country 7 
—Why is it called The Holy Land ? 



PAL^STINA. 73 

Boundaries. — North, Lebanon, which divided it from PhoB- 
nicia and Coele-Sjria ; East, The Arabian Desert ; originally, 
however, hj the Jordan and its lakes ; South, The River of 
Egypt (El-Arish), which divided it from Arahia Petrsea; West, 
The Great Sea (^Mediterranean). Its frontier towns were Dan 
on the north, and Beer'sheba on the south. 

Diviflions. — I. Before the conquest hy the IsraeltteSf it was 
divided among seven trihes: CanaaniteSy HittiteSf AmoriteSy 
F^erizziteSy HiviteSj Jebitsites, and Girgashttes. 

II. After the conquest, it was divided among the Twelve Tribes: 
(a) West of the river Jordan : Judah, SimeoUy Dan, Benjtp- 
miriy Ephraim, Manasseh west of the Jordan^ I^sachar^ Asher, 
Ze^bulony Na'phtali; (b) East of the Jordan : Reuheny Gady and 
the other half of Manasseh. 

III. After the death of Solomony in consequence of the revolt 
of Jeroboam, it was divided into the two kingdoms of Judah 
and Israel, of which the former included the tribes of Judah, 
Benjamin, Dan, and Simeon; and the kingdom of Israel 
all the rest (b. c. 975). 

IV. The kings of Sjria divided the land of Israel, west of the 
Jordan, into the provinces of Galilsea, Samaria, and Judaea. The 
country east of the Jordan was called Peraea (Jlspaiay IJipav too 
^lopddvooy Bei/ond the Jordan). These divisions were adopted 
by the Romans, when they conquered the country, B. c. 63 ; and 
were recognised in the time of our Saviour. 

y. Under Constantino the Great (a.d. 333), Palestine was 
divided into Prima (the middle part), Secunda (the northern 
part), and Tertia (the southern part). 

Extent. — The whole country contained about eleven thousand 



Questions. — Give its boundaries. — Among how many tribes was it 
divided before the conquest ? — Among how many after the conquest ? — 
How many tribes were west of the Jordan ? — Their names ? — How many 
east of the Jordan ? — Their names ? — How was it divided after Solo- 
mon's death ? — ^What tribes were included in Judah ? — ^What tribes in 
Israel ? — How was it divided under the Romans ? — How was it divided 
under Constantino the Great? — What is said of its extent? 
7 



74 ASIA. 

aqnare milen. By the conqaests of David (b.c. AI50^, the 
territory of the Hebrews waa extended to the Euphra^o'es and 

the ^LANITIC OULF. 

§ 87. Monntaina. — ^The face of the country, toward the JEiast, 
rises in the form of a lofty mountain chain, including the "whole 
space between the coast and the valley of the Jordan. Oo the 
other side of the Jordan, a steep mountain range rises like 
a wall. The most celebrated mountain summits are Carmei«, 
Tabor, Oe'bizim, Nebo, and Hermon. The hill country of 
Judsda reaches its greatest point of elevation in the vicinity of 
Hebron, being there 3250 feet above the level of the Mediter- 
ranean. The lands lying along the Mediterranean are generally 
level. 

Valleys. — The Valley op the Jordan, which is the prin- 
cipal one, traverses the whole length of the country from North 
to South. In Qalil^a, lie the valleys of Abile'ne, Ze'bulon, 
Nazareth, and Jezreel. The last-named was the great battle 
field of the East, the scene of the combats of Gideon, Saul, God- 
frey of Boulogne, and Napoleon. In Samaria, the valleys of 
Jennin, Shechem (watered by three hundred and sixty-five 
springs), and Leban. In Jud^a, the valleys of Bethel, 
Jeremiah, Elah (the scene of David's victory over Goliath), 
Jehos'aphat, Rephaim, Mamre (Sepulchre o/Abraham)y and 
Sorek. 

Bivers and Lakes. — ^The most important river is the Jor- 
da'nes, or Jordan, i. e. the flowing, the river. The sources, 
three in number, are in the north of Palaesti'na, and first meet in 



Questions. — How far did David extend his empire ? J 37. What is 

said of the mountains ? — Name the most celebrated summits. — ^Which 
is the highest peak ? — ^What portion of the country is level ? — Which is 
tlie principal valley ? — ^What valleys are in Galilee t — ^What is said of 
the valley of Jezreel ? — ^What valleys are in Samaria ? — What is said of 
the vale of Shechem ? — ^What valleys are in Judea ? — What is said of 
Elah ? — ^What of Mamre ? — What is the most important river ? — What 
does the name signify ? — From how many sources does the river take 
its rise ? 



PALiESTINA. 



76 



the small lake, called in the sacred writings the Waters of 
Merom. Thence the river flows through the Sea or Tiberias 
{Lake of Gennesareth, or Sea of Galilee) into the Dead Sea. 
This very remarkable salt-lake occupies the site of the plain 
of Siddim, in which lay Sodom, and the other cities which 




TU£ DEAD S£A. 



were destroyed by fire from heaven in the time of Lot {Gen. 
xiv. 3; xix. 24, 26). The surface of the lake is 1312 feet 
below the level of the Mediterranean, it being thus by far the 
deepest known fissure on the earth's surface. Its waters are 
thoroughly impregnated with salt, and it has not been proved 
that any animal exists in them. 

Productions. — It is described in the book of Deuteronomy 
(viii. 7-9) as "a land of brooks of water, of fountains, and 
depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat 
and barley, and vines and fig-trees^ and pomegranates; a land 
of oil-olive, and honey; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread- 



Questions. — ^Where do the head-waters intermingle for the first time ? 
— Through what lake does the river flow into the Dead Sea ? — Describe 
the Dead Sea. — Describe the productions. — Where do we find this 
description ? 



l6 ASIA. 

wttboal Muveness, thou sbalt not lick aDytliing in it; a land 
vhoEie 8toQ«B are iitm, and out of whose hills thou majest dig 
brass." 

^^■^^ — ^The dimate is mild and the temperatore eqnable. 
There are bal two seasons, the lainj and the dry season. The 
former la»ts from October to April, the latter from June to Sep- 
tember 

lakahilUla* — ^The ehQdren of Israel were a nation of shep- 
herds and agricaltorists. In earij times the most distingnished 
iodividnals coltivated ihe soil ; and agricnltore continued at all 
timea to be the basis of national prosperity. Their institntioiis 
were of such a nature as to sednde them from interooorse with 
other nations* and th^r attachment to the kw of Moses was 
ei)ualled onlj by their detestation of foreign religions. They 
wt'r«» forbidden to contnei any marriages or alliances with other 
naiions. The population probably did not at any time exceed 
four milUons, eren if it reached that number. Only three 
milliotts entoani Canaan, undar the conduct of Joshua. 



§ S& QAULiBA. (roitioui.) 

In this country our Saviour chose his disciples ; and he resided 
Uiere so long that he was himself styled a Galilann (Matt. xxyi. 
69), Many of his miracles were wrought there, and thither he 
directed his disciples to repair, to meet him after the resurrection 
(Matt. xxTiii. 7-16). It formed the Northern part of Pdestine. 

Boundnriei. — ^North, Lchanon ; East, Jordan, and its lakes; 
South, Samaria ; West, Ph(Eni'cs. 

Divilions. — It included the territories of Asher, I^sachar, 
Naph'tali, and ZcVulon. It was divided into two parts : 

QuB8TiON8.-~l>e8cribe the climate. — ^What was the chief emploTment 
of the children of Israel? — Had they intercourse with the rest of man- 
kind ? — How great was their number when they entered Canaan ? — Did 

it increase much? J 88. What are- the boundaries of Galil»a? — 

What tribes did it comprise ? — ^Into how many parts was it divided ? 



OALILiGA. il 

I. XJPPEE Galilee, or Galilee of the GentUeSy being inhar 
bited by Syrians, Greeks, Phoenicians, and Egyptians, as well as 
by Jews. 

II. Lower Galilee. 

Fopolation. — ^The inhabitants, on account of their heathen 
origin, were despised by the purer Jews of Judaea. They spoke 
a corrupt dialect, which grated harshly on the ears of their more 
polished neighbors. The Apostle Peter was detected by his 
Galilaean accent {Mark, ziv. 70). Galilaea comprised some of 
tbe most fertile and populous dbtricts of Palestine. 

TOWNS MENTIONED IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

I. In Lower Galilee, which contained Asher and Issachar, 
and which extended along the coast of the Mediterranean : 

a. In the tribe of Asher, which contained twenty-two towns : 
(I.) Zar'ephath, the residence of the prophet Elijah during 

the prevalence of famine in the land of Israel, and the place 
where he restored the widow's son to life (1 Kings, xvii. 9-22). 

(2.) Mis'rephoth-ma'im, Helkah, Achsaph, Beth'rehob. 

(3.) Within the boundaries of Asher were included the Phoe- 
nician cities of Tyrus, Sidon, and AccA. 

b. In the tribe of Nsachar, which comprehended the valley of 
the Jordan on the North, from Jericho to Mount Tabor, and the 
Eastern part of the plain of Esdrae'lon, and which contained 
sixteen towns : 

, (I.) Megiddo, on the river Kishon, famous for the battles 
fought in the extensive plain near it : here the army of Jabin 
was destroyed by Barak (Judges, iv. 15); Ahazi'ah died of the 
wounds received in battle against Jehu (2 Kings, ix. 27), and 
Josiah was defeated and slain by Necho (2 Kings, xxiii. 29). 

Questions. — What was Upper Galilee often called ? — ^Why 7 — What is 
said of the population? — ^What tribes did Lower Galilee contain? — 
Name some cities of the tribe of Asher. — What Phoenician cities were 
situated within its boundaries ? — How many towns did the tribe of Asher 
contain ? — Where was the territory of Issachar situated ? — How many 
towns did it contain ? — W^hat is said of Megiddo ? 
7* 



78 ASIA. 

(2.) Shunam waa the place where the prophet Elijah restored 
to life the son of the ShuDamite woman (2 Kingz, iv. 35). 

(3.) Jezbskl, for many years the capital of the kingdom of 
Israel. 

(4.) DoTHAM, where Joseph was sold by his brethren to the 
Ish'maelite merchants (G^en. zxxvii. 28). 

II. In Upper Galilee, which comprised the tribes of Zebu- 
Ian and Naph'tali : 

a. In the tribe of Zeb'tUun, situated West of the Sea of Tibe- 
rias. It contained twelve towns. 

(1.) Qath-he'pheR; the native place of the prophet Jonah 
(2 Ktngsy xiv. 25). 

(2.) Bethulia and Jokneam. 

b. In NapKtalij the northernmost of the tribes. It contained 
nineteen towns. 

(1.) Kedesh. It belonged to the Levites, and was one of the 
cities of refuge. It was the birthplace of Barak and Tobi'as. 
(2.) Abel-Beth-ma'achah and Hazor. 

TOWNS MENTIONED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 

(1.) Capernaum (KanepvaovfjL)^ situated on the North- Western 
shore of the lake of Tiberias. It was often the residence of our 
Saviour. Here he performed many miracles, and in its neighbor- 
hood he delivered the sermon on the Mount ) yet its inhabitants 
" repented not," and for this reason their city was included with 
Ghorazin and Bethsa'ida in the fearful denunciation uttered by • 
our Lord (^Matt xi. 21-24). Capernaum is nowhere mentioned 
in the Old Testament. 

(2.) Tiberias (TtPeptd<i)j situated on the Western shore of 
the lake, which derived its name from the town. It was built 

Questions. — Name some other towns. — What tribes did Upper Galilee 
contain? — Where was Zebulun situated? — How many towns did it con- 
tain? — Name some of them. — ^Where was Naphtali situated? — How 
many towns did it contain? — Name some of them. — ^What towns a.re 
noted in New Testament times ? — What is said of Capernaum ? — ^Who 
was the founder of Tiberias ? 



SAMARIA. 79 

l>j the tetrarcli Hero'des An'tipas, id honor of the Roman emperor 
Tiberius, from whom it derived its name. After the destruction 
of Jerusalem, Tiberias was famous for its Academy of learned 
Jews. In its immediate neighborhood were the celebrated hot 
springs of Emmaus. 

(8,) Can A (Kavd), where Christ performed his first miracle 
(J^ohn^ ii.). It was also the birthplace of Nathanael. 

(4.) Nain (Natv)y the scene of the raising of the widow's son 
(^Ijvkej vii. 15). 
' (5.) Naz'areth (^NaZapi^) (i. e. prob. sprouty branch)^ where 
our Saviour resided with Joseph and Mary, until He commenced 
his public ministry 3 hence He was styled Jesus of Nazareth. 

(6.) Bethsa'ida {Byi^eaida)y the birthplace of the Apostles 
Peter, Andrew, John, James, and Philip. 

(7.) Seppho'ris (Iii:<pwpt<;'), After the times of Hero'des 
An'tipas, it was the capital of Galilee, and was called Dio-Caesare'a, 
in honor of Caesar Augustus. It was the seat of one of the three 
great Councils (jruvidpiay Sa'nhedrirn). 



§ 89. SAMARIA. (lapAp^ta,) 

It was situated between OalilaBa and Judsea, and was the 
smallest among the provinces on the West of the Jordan. Sama- 
ria included the territories of Ephraim and the Western half- 
tribe of Manasseh. 

Population. — When the ten tribes were carried away captive 
by the Assyrians, the land of Israel was left nearly desolate, but 
was soon repeopled by heathen colonists and such Israelites as 
returned from the adjacent countries. These mixed races were 
called Samaritans; they adopted the religion of Moses, but 
mingled with it idolatrous rites and ceremonies. Hence they 
were regarded by the Jews with extreme aversion, and denied the 

Questions. — What were in its neighborhood? — ^What signifies the 

name Nazareth ? — What is said of Sepphoris ? § 39. What is said of 

the situation of Samaria ? — What tribes did it comprise ? — What is said 
of the Samaritans ? — Of their religion 1 



80 ASIA. 

privilege of worshipping st Jerusalem : the Samaritans, therefore, 
huilt a temple for themselves on Mount Oei^izim, near Shechem, 
and worshipped there. 

TOWNS MENTIONED IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

a. In the tribe of Ephraim : 

(1.) Samaria (in Hebrew, Shomran)^ the capital of the 
kingdom of Israel, founded by Omri (919 b. O.), and destroyed 
afterwards by the Assyrians (729 b. c), but subsequently rebuilt. 

(2.) Shechem, or Sighem, the residence of Jacob. It was 
the chief seat of the Samaritan religion. 

(3.) Shiloh, where the ark and tabernacle were first estab- 
lished. 

(4.) JoppA was the only seaport of the Israelites; from hence 
Jonah took ship to go to Tarshish. 

h. In the tribe of Manasseh, West of the Jordan : 

(1.) Israel, or Jezreel (later, Esdrae'la), the residence of 
Ahab and Joram. 

(2.) Thirza, until the time of Omri, the residence of the 
kings of Israel. 

(3.) Endor, where Saul visited the witch (1 Sam. xxviii. 7). 

(4.) Ophrah, the birthplace of Gideon. 

TOWNS mentioned IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 

(1.) Samaria (lafxdpeta). It was granted to Herod the Great 
by Augustus, and was converted by him into a Roman city, under 
the name of Sebaste. The imperial name, Augustus, was 
rendered by lepaffzoq; hence, Augusta by Sej3a<TT7J. It is 
sometimes extremely difficult, in passages of the New Testament, 
to decide whether, under the name Samaria, the citf/ or the 

Questions. — What towns were situated in the tribe of Ephraim? — 
What is said of Samaria?— Of Sichem ?— Of Shiloh ?— What was the only 
seaport? — What towns were situated in West Manasseh? — What is 
said of Jezreel?— Of Thirza?— Of Endor?— Of Ophrah?— What towns 
were noted in New Testament times ? — Who converted Samaria into a 
Roman city ? — Under what name ? 



SAMARIA. 



81 




country is meant. The magnificent city of Herod the Oreat is 
now a total ruin, a remarkahle fulfilment of the prophecy of 
Micah (i. 6) : '^ I will make Samaria as an heap of the field, as 
plantings of a vineyard, and I will pour down the stones thereof 
into the valley, and I will discover the foundations thereof." 

(2.) GiESAaE'A (^KaKTdpeta), a maritime city, founded by 
Herod the Great, on the site of the Greek colony Turris Strato'nis, 
and named Csesare'a, in honor of Csesar Augustus. It was the 
chief town of Samaria in New Testament times. Here Cor- 
nelius, the Koman centurion, was converted under the Apostle 
Peter, and here also the Apostle Paul defended himself against 
the Jews (^Acfs, xxiv.). 

(3.) Stghar iSuxdp)y the Sichem of the Old Testament, 
situated between Mount Ebal and Mount Ger'izim. Near the 
city was Jacob's Well, where our Saviour held the memorable 
conversation with the woman of Samaria (Johuy iv.). The 



Questions. — ^What is said about the prophe-jy of Micah ? — ^What was 
the chief town of Samaria in New Testament times? — What is said 
ofit? 



82 ASIA. 

emperor Yeflpasun greatly impnrred the town, and caUed it 
Neap'olifl (A'caicoifc, i. e. Artcfo/im), which has been since 
corrupted into XtijJout. It was the birthplace of Justin Martyr. 

(4.) JoppA (Vomnj). In New Testament times it was the 
chief port of the l9raelites, subsequent to the foundation of 
CsBsare'a. The apostle Peter resided here for some time. 

(5.) Ltdda, Antip^atrib, and .£non. 



§ 40. JVDMA, Qloodaia,) 

It nearly coincided with the ancient kingdom of Judah. The 
interior was rugged and mountainous ; but on the coast the land 
was more level and fertile. It was less fertile than either Sama- 
ria or Galilee, but was of larger extent than either, and contained 
a more numerous population. It comprised the territories of 
Judah, Benjamin, Dan, and Simeon. 

Boundaries. — North, Samaria; East, Jordan, and the 
Dead Sea; South, The River of Egypt, and the Desert; 
West, The Great Sea, i. e. the Mediterranean. 



TOWNS mentioned IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

a. In the tribe of Judah. Judah comprised one hundred 
and six towns. It was the native tribe of David and Solomon 
as well as of our Lord, and to it was made the prophetic 
promise, '' the sceptre shall not depart from Judah until Shiloh 
(i. e. resty peaccy through the Messiah) come" (^Gen, xlix.) 

(1.) Beth'lehem, or Beth'lehem E'phratah, was the 
birthplace of David. 

(2.) Hebron, David's first capital ; he reigoed here upward 
of seven years before he took Jerusalem. 

Questions. — From whom did it receive the name of Neapolis? — 
What is said of Joppa ? g 40. What is said of Judaea ? — What ter- 
ritories did it comprise ? — Give the boundaries of Judaea. — How many 
towns did Judah possess ? — What is said of Judah ? — ^What towns did it 
Contain ? 



' JUDiBA. 83 

(3.) Teko'ah, the birthplace of the prophet Amos. 

(4.) Mare'shah, where an Ethiopian army, of a million 
of men, under Zerad, was defeated by Asa, king of Judah. 

(5.) Beth'shemesh, Adullam, Ephes-dammin. 

h. In the tribe of Benjamin. It possessed twenty-six towns 
QJosh. xviii. 11-28). 

(1.) Jerusalem; built chiefly on three hills, Zion, Moriah, 
Acra, between the valley of Jehoshaphat on the East, and that 
of Oihon on the West and South. Judah acquired it by con- 
quest. The chief ornament of the city was the magnificent 
temple of Solomon, built on Mount Mori'ah. This temple was 
destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (588 b g.). 

(2.) Jer'igho ; the first conquest of the Israelites after they 
crossed the Jordan. It was destroyed by Joshua, five centuries 
afterward rebuilt, and then became a school of the prophets. 

(3.) GiBEAH was the residence of Saul. At Zelah he was 
buried. 

(4.) Bethel (i. e. HotLse of God), or Luz, famous for the 
-Egyptian worship of the Golden Calf, instituted by Jeroboam. 

(5.) An'athoth was the birthplace of the prophet Jeremiah. 

(6.) GiLGAL, GiBEON, NaROTH. 

c. In the tribe of Dan. It was the North- Western part of 
the tribe of Judah. This territory, being of small dimensions, 
the tribe was induced to send out some of its people in search 
of other settlements (Judges, xviii.). They accordingly took 
Laish, situated near the river Jordan, and changed its name 
to Dan. It was for a long time the most Northern town in 
Israel. 

In Dan were situated the Philistine towns AshdoD; Ekron, 
and Gath. 

d. In the tribe of Simeon. It comprised seventeen towns in 
the South of Judah. 

Questions. — How many towns did Benjamin possess ? — What is said 
of Jerusalem ? — What of Jericho ? — Name some other towns. — Where 
•was Dan situated? — Where was the town of Dan situated? — What 
Philistine town was in Dan ? — How many towns belonged to Simeon ? 



84 ASIA. . 

(1.) Bbib'sheba and Gkbab, both residences of Abraham 
and Isaao. 
(2.) Gaza and As'calon, towns of the Philistines. 

TOWNS MENTIONED IN THE NEW TESTABffENT. 

(1.) Jerusalem (^/epooaaXTjfXf or ^UpoaoXofia), as it existed in 
the time of our Saviour, was the city built by the Jews, who 
returned from Babylon. But neither the city nor the temple 
approached its first magnificence until the reign of Herod, who 
began, about the year 16 B.O., to adorn the former with many 
spacious buildings, and repaired the latter from its very founda- 
tions, in a substantial and splendid manner. 

(2.) Beth'lehem (Brj^Xeifi)j the birthplace of our Lord and 
Saviour. 

(3.) Jer'igho QUptxfo), one of the principal towns, and the 
residence of Herod the Great. 

(4.) Em'maus {'Efifiaoo^), visited by our Lord with two 
disciples after his resurrection. 

(5.) Juttah, Ephbaim, Arimathb'a. 

§ 41. PER^A. (IJepaia, Uipav tou 'lopddvou,) 

Its situation was favorable to commerce and industry. It 
comprised the territories of Reuben, Gath, and the eastern half 
of Manasseh. 

Boundaries. — North, Lebanon ; East and South, Arabia ; 
West, Jordan, its lakes, and the Dead Sea. 

Bivision. — It was divided into two tetrarchies : 

I. The Northern comprised the districts Trachoni'tis with 
Itur^a, Gauloni'tis, Batan^a, and Gamali'tica. 

Questions. — ^What towns were the residences of Abraham and Isaac? 
— ^What towns were in the country of the Philistines ? — What is said of 
Jerusalem in New Testament times ? — What other towns are noted in 
New Testament times? J 41. What is said of Peraea? — What terri- 
tories did it comprise? — Give the boundaries.— Give the divisions. — 
^ive the subdivision of the northern part. 



JUD^A. 85 

II. The sontbern comprised Peiuea Proper, and was go- 
verned by tbe tetrarcb of Gralilaea. 

TOWNS MENTIONED IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

a. In tbe tribe of Reuben, situated on tbe East side of tbe 
Dead Sea. Tbis territory was celebrated for its cattle, sbeep, 
and goats. 

(1.) Heshbon, tbe capital of tbe Amorites. It is often 
mentioned by tbe propbets. 

(2.) Otber towns wortby of mention were: Med'eba, Ar'oer, 
DiBON, Kede'moth, and Bezer. 

b. In tbe tribe of Gath. It contained Jabesh Oilead 
and Ramoth Gilead, Mahana'im, Penu'el. 

c. In tbe tribe of Manasseh beyond Jordan, It contained 
Dan (already mentioned), Oeshur, Arqob, Ash'taroth, 
Edrei. 

TOWNS MENTIONED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. 

In tbe nortbem part was tbe district called Decap'olis, so 
named from its containing ten townsy wbicb were situated at 
some distance one from anotber. Tbey were all in Perasa, 
except Bethshean or Soythop'olis, wbicb lay in Samaria. 
Tbe otber towns of tbe Decap'olis were : Damascus, Philadel- 
phi'a, Rhaphana, Gad'ara, Hippos, Dios, Pella, Galasa, 
Can'atha. Tbeir inbabitants were cbiefly Greeks, wbo received 
various important privileges from tbe Romans. Multitudes of 
people came from tbese cities to bear tbe preacbing of our Lord, 
and in some of tbese places He performed several miracles. 

(1.) Gad'ara (FaSapa), wbere our Lord met and bealed two 
persons possessed of devils. 

(2.) Cjbsare'a Philippi, or Pane'as (TiavBtdq), wbere our 
Lord gave tbe remarkable rebuke to Peter. 

(3 ) Bethsaida, Mag'dala, Bethab'ara. 

Questions. — ^Where was the tribe of Reuben situated ? — What is said 
of it ?— What is said of Gath ?— What of Manasseh ?— What is said of 
Decapolis ? — What is said of its inhabitants ? — ^Name some of the towns. 
8 



86 ASIA. 



§48. JERUSALEM. 

This was the ancient capital of the Holj Land subsequent to 
the time of David (1050 b. c). The origin of this designation 
is uncertain. Bj the Rabbles it is formed of the ktter part of 
the title JehoTah;/i>eA (i. e. Qod will provide; comp. Gen, 
xxii. 8) and Salem, the earlier name ; according to Reland it is 
Yarcuh-^alem (i. e. posteuion of peace). The classical name 
was Hierosol'tma, and, after it was rebuilt by Hadrian, it was 
called ^LiA Capitoli'na. The modem name is EUKuds^ 
i. e. the Holy (City). The site of the city is an elevated piece of 
ground within an amphitheatre of gently sloping hills two thou- 
sand feet above the level of the sea. It has a gradual descent 
from West to East, so that the town is fully displayed like a 
panorama to those who view it from the East. In the South- 
West is Mount SiON ; North-East of this, separated from it by 
a valley, is Mount Acra (or Salem) ; and East of this, Mount 
Mori'ah ; West, is the valley of Oihon ; and South, Hinnom ; 
East, the valley of Jehoshaphat. The several parts of the city 
were enclosed by distinct walls. The upper city was surrounded 
by the old wall built by David and Solomon, and fortified by 
their successors. On its North- West angle was the celebrated 
palace of Herod, entirely surrounded by a wall thirty cubits 
high. The lower city was surrounded by another wall, and the 
third wall, built only thirty years before the destruction of the 
city, enclosed the new city (Be'zetha), which was North and 
West of the older city. The temple stood on Mount Moei'ah, 
called generally in the Scriptures the Mountain of the Lord's 

' QUB8TION8. — J 42. When did Jerusalem become the capital of the 
Holy Land? — What does Jerusalem signify? — What was its classical 
name ? — What was its last Roman name ? — Describe the situation of the 
city in general. — What is the most favorable point from which to view 
the city? — Describe the situation of the three hills. — What valleys 
were between them ? — What is said of the old wall ? — Where was the 
palace of Herod situated ? — Where stood the temple ? 



JERUSALEM. 87 

house. The city seems to have been^ even in Canaanitisb times, 
a religious, as iiTtsll as a political centre. David, after his con- 
quest, made it the capital of his kingdom, and Solomon selected 
it also as the ecclesiastical head of the nation. He erected the 
first temple. This temple and all the buildings of Jerusalem 
were destroyed by fire, and its walls completely demolished by 
Nebuchadnezzar (688 B.C.). Fifty years afterward, Cyrus, 
king of Persia, permitted the restoration of the t«mple, which, in 
consequence of numerous vexatious interruptions, occupied one 
bundred and twenty years (418 B. c). Again after fifty years 
tlie city passed into the hands of Alexander, after whose death 
Judaea became the frontier province of Syria and Egypt. 
The city sufiered no material diminution of its prosperity, not- 
withstanding the occasional changes in its dynasty as it became 
the prize successively of contending military rivals. Internal 
factions subjected it at last to the dominion of Anti'ochus 
Epiph'anes, whose tyranny resulted in a national revolution 
(175 B.C.), which secured the independence of Jerusalem until 
its capture by the Romans (63 b.c ). IVom this time, though 
nominally subject to a native prince, it was virtually a mere 
dependency of the Roman government. 

Be'zetha, or Newtown, was built up about this period by 
Agrippa, the grandson of Herod. At this time the city is sup- 
posed to have attained its greatest extent and population ; it was 
upwards of four miles in circuit, and had from 100,000 to 
160,000 inhabitants. On the death of Herod the Great, 
Judasa became a Roman province within the prefecture of Syria, 
and was governed by a procura'tor, Pontius Pilate (a. d. 26-36), 
under whom the Jews crucified the Saviour of Mankind on 

Questions. — Who built the temple ? — Who destroyed it ? — Who per- 
mitted its restoration ? — When was the second temple finished ? — When 
and by whom was this temple destroyed ? — What was the fate of Jeru- 
salem after the death of Alexander the Great ? — When did it become 
independent ? — ^When was it taken by the Romans ? — What was its fate 
under Roman supremacy? — When did Jerusalem attain its highest 
prosperity? — What was its government after the death of Herod? — 
What happened under Pontius Pilate ? 



A«IJ. 




the hm of Caltakt. The tenible si^e and destruction of 
the city bj the Roman innj nnda l^tos, oocnired A.D. 70. 
Sixty jeaiB afterward, it was rebuilt bj Hadrian, under the 
name of .£lia Capitoli'na. A temple bnilt to Jupiter Capi- 
toli'nuB occupied the ouce sacred enclosure on 3Iount Mori'ah, 
and over the site of the Holy Sepulchre rose a temple in honor 
of Venus. Two hundred years afterward, the city recovered 
its name and became a Christian bishopric, and (a.d. 400) a 
patriarchate. In the first half of the seventh century (a. d. 634) 
it was invested by the Saracens, and after a defence of four 
months capitulated to the Khalif Omar in peraon. Since that 
time it has followed the vicissitudes of the various dynasties 
which have swayed the destinies of Western Asia. 



QifKiTiOMi.— When waa the city destroyed by Titus?— When rebuilt? 
—Under what name ?--By whom ?— What temples were erected at Jeru- 
utihtu, and where?—- When did Jerusalem regain its sacred character? 
—When did the city fall into the hands of the Saracens? 



ARABIA. 89 



§43. ARABIA. (Heb. Arab; 'Apafi{a.) 

Name. — The name Arab first occurs after the time of Solo- 
mon. The native tradition derives it from Yarah, the son of 
Joktan^ the father of the race. According to Gesenius^ it is from 
the Heb. arab = arid, sterile. It may, however, be connected 
with the Heb. ereb, eve, evening (e/oe/9oc, E'rebus = nether 
gloom) ; pr. the Evening Land, with reference to the position of 
Arabia to the West of the Euphra'tes, and the earliest abodes of 
the Semitic race ; just as Italia was called 'Etnreptaj the Evening 
Land, the West, relatively to Greece. Compare the use of the 
Gr. itTTzipa, the Latin Occidens, the Germ. Abend, and also the 
Egyptian Amenti, Hades, and Ement, the West. 

Bonndaries. — ^North, Jud^a, Syria, and Mesopotamia; 
East, South, and West, the ERTTHRiBAN Sea, with its two gulfs. 

Divisions. — Arabia Deserta, Arabia Feux, Arabia 

PETRiEA. 

Capes. — PosEiDONiUM, between the two gulfs of the Red 
Sea; Palin'dromus (Bab-el-Mandeb), at the entrance of the 
Red Sea; Sy'aorus, on the extreme East, and Mace'la, North- 
West of the former. 

Mountains. — The mountain-range, which runs from North- 
West to South-East, parallel to the Red Sea, may be regarded as 
a continuation of the Lebanon range. The chains running along 
the other sides of the peninsula resemble it in character. 

Bivers. — It is entirely destitute of navigable rivers. 

Productions. — Spices and various drugs, sugar, indigo, tama- 
rinds, grapes, figs. In the open desert, wood is so scarce that the 
dried manure of camels is the only fuel. The classics commonly 
do not distinguish between the productions of Arabia, India, and 
the Eastern Islands. 

Questions. — J 48. What is said of the origin of the name Arab? — 
How is Arabia bounded? — Howdiyided? — Name the capes. — ^What is 
said of the mountains? — ^What is said of the rivers? — What of the pro- 
ductions ? 

8* 



90 ASIA. 

COmatB. — ^The atmoepliere of Anbia b one of tbe driest in 
the world. On the iiMmnUin-sk^ws Ibe eliniafte vuies horn ihaJk 
of the tropics to thai of the lover htitvdes of the tempente vme. 

Tnhahltontt. — ^The Anbisos eomprise the greater part <^ the 
Semitic rue, and were doedj akio to the Isndites. Thej have 
in general preserred their national eharutaristics and inde- 
pendence from the days of the Patriarchs to the present hour. 
Daring manj oentories, th^ received safaddies of gold firom 
foreign nations, bat never as a nation snbmitted to a foreign 
joke. Although sometimes serving as Persian aoxiharies, they 
were never sabjected to the Perrian empire, bat thej showed 
their friendship for the Great King, bj an annaal present ci 
a thoasand talents' worth of frankincense. Angostos sent an 
army into Arabia Felix ander ^£lias QtUhis, 24 b.g. This 
expedition, which the geographer Strabo accompanied, proved 
more successful in its contributions to science than in military 
conquests. A small part of Western Arabia was formed into 
a Roman province, a. d. 105, which was at a later period some- 
what enlarged (a. d. 195). 



§ 44. I.— ARABIA PETR^A. (fi Tcerpata 'Apafiia,) 

It comprised the peninsula of Sinai, between the two gulfs of 
the Red Sea. 

Hame. — Its name was derived from the city of Petra, i. e. Rockj 
and not from its physical character, which, however, corresponds 
in the main with this designation. 

Mountains. — A sandy desert nearly two hundred leagues in 
extent stretches from the borders of Egypt toward the mouth of 
the Euphra'tes. At the point where the two arms of the Sinus 
Ara'bicus diverge and extend into the land, rise the two lofty 



QuEiTiONS.— What is said of the climate?— To what race do the 
Arabians belong? — Describe the Arabians. — What is said about the 

expedition of -ffiliua Gallus?— Who accompanied this expedition? 

2 44. Whence does Arabia Petrssa derive its name ?— What is said about 
the mountains ? — Between what gulfs were they situated ? 



ARABIA P£TR^A. 91 

moantains, Sinai and Horeb, separated from each other by a 
deep valley. Here, amid the emphatic and impressive thundera 
of Heaven, Israel received her sacred Law. 

Onlft. — I. The Eastern Gulf was called ^lani'ticus Sinus, 
from the city of ^la'na (^AtXava) at its Northern point (Gulf of 
Akaba). 

II. The Western Gulf was called Heroopoli'tes, from the city 
of Heroo'polis QHpwuiv irdXtq or 'Hpio)^ situated near its head, on 
the canal made by Necho to connect it with the Nile. 

Inhabitants. — ^The tribes of Arabia Petraea, in the North, 
such as the Amalekites, Midianites, Edomites, Moabites, are 
frequently mentioned in the Old' Testament The classical 
authors call them by one common name NabathsBi. 

(1.) Amalekites dwelt in the desert, South of the land of 
Canaan. They attacked the Israelites at Rephidim, where 
Joshua defeated them. Long afterward they were routed by 
Gideon, and then by Saul. 

(2.) The Ammonites inhabited the part of the country which 
lay East of Palestine. They were conquered by David (2 Sam. 
viii. ; xii. 31), but afterward they regained their independence. 

(3.) The Moabites lived South of the Ammonites, and East of 
the Red Sea. They were conquered by the Maccabees (b. c. 78). 

(4.) The Edomites lived South of the Dead Sea. They were 
rendered tributary to David. 

(5.) The Midianites occupied in part the country East of 
Edom, and partly the East coast of the Red Sea. Moses, after 
he fled from Egypt, resided forty years among them, and kept 
the flocks of his father-in-law, Jethro. 

Towns. — (1.) Petra (Jltrpd), Wady Mum, in the Old Testa- 
ment called Selah, the noted capital of the Idumaaans, which 
was taken by Amaziah, who changed its name to Joktheel (2 
Kings, ziv. 7). In the times of the Romans, it was a great com- 

QuBSTiONs'. — By what tribes is it inhabited ? — What is said of the 
Amalekites ? — Moabites, Edomites, Midianites ? — What is the principal 
town of Arabia Petma ? — How is it called in the Old Testament ? — 
When did it become a great emporium? 



90 ASIA. 

Climate. — ^The atmospliere of Arabia is one of the driest in 
the world. On the monntain-slopes the climate varies from that 
of the tropics to that of the lower latitudes of the temperate zone. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Arabians comprise the greater part of the 
Semitic race, and were closely akin to the Israelites. They have 
in general preserved their national characteristics and inde- 
pendence from the days of the Patriarchs to the present hour. 
During many centuries, they received subsidies of gold from 
foreign nations, but never as a nation submitted to a foreign 
yoke. Although sometimes serving as Persian auxiliaries, they 
were never subjected to the Persian empire, but they showed 
their friendship for the Great King, by an annual present of 
a thousand talents' worth of frankincense. Augustus sent an 
army into Arabia Felix under ^lius Oallus, 24 B.C. This 
expedition, which the geographer Strabo accompanied, proved 
more successful in its contributions to science than in military 
conquests. A small part of Western Arabia was formed into 
a Roman province, A. d. 105, which was at a later period some- 
what enlarged (A. D. 195). 



§ 44. I.— ARABIA PETR^A. (i) iztrpaia 'Apa^ia?) 

It comprised the peninsula of Sinai, between the two gulfs of 
the Red Sea. 

Name. — Its name was derived from the city of Petra, i. e. Rock^ 
and not from its physical character, which, however, corresponds 
in the main with this designation. 

Mountains. — A sandy desert nearly two hundred leagues in 
extent stretches from the borders of Egypt toward the mouth of 
the Euphra'tes. At the point where the two arms of the Sinus 
Ara'bicus diverge and extend into the land, rise the two lofty 

Questions. — What is said of the climate? — To what race do the 
Arabians belong? — Describe the Arabians. — What is said about the 

expedition of ^lius Gallus ? — Who accompanied this expedition ? 

2 44. Whence does Arabia Petresa derive its name ? — What is said about 
the mountains ? — Between what gulfs were they situated ? 



ARABIA P£TR^A. 91 

moantains, Sinai and Horeb, separated from each other by a 
deep valley. Here, amid the emphatic and impressive thuDdera 
of Heaven, Israel received her sacred Law. 

Onlfs. — I. The Eastern Gulf was called ^lani'ticiis Sinus, 
from the city of ^la'na (^AUava) at its Northern point {Gulf of 
Akaha). 

II. The Western Gulf was called Heroopoli'tes, from the city 
of Heroo'polis QHpwmv ndXt^ or 'Hpto)^ situated near its head, on 
the canal made by Necho to connect it with the Nile. 

Inhabitants. — The tribes of Arabia Petraea, in the North, 
such as the Amalekites, Midianites, Edomites, Moabites, are 
frequently mentioned in the Old' Testament The classical 
authors call them by one common name Nabathasi. 

(1.) Amalekites dwelt in the desert, South of the land of 
Canaan. They attacked the Israelites at Rephidim, where 
Joshua defeated them. Long afterward they were routed by 
Gideon, and then by Saul. 

(2.) The Ammonites inhabited the part of the country which 
lay East of Palestine. They were conquered by David (2 Sam. 
viii. ; xii. 31), but afterward they regained their independence. 

(3.) The Moabites lived South of the Ammonites, and East of 
the Red Sea. They were conquered by the Maccabees (b. o. 78). 

(4.) The Edomites lived South of the Dead Sea. They were 
rendered tributary to David. 

(5.) The Midianites occupied in part the country East of 
Edom, and partly the East coast of the Red Sea. Moses, after 
he fled from Egypt, resided forty years among them, and kept 
the flocks of his father-in-law, Jethro. 

Towns.— (1.) Petra (Jl^rpd)^ Wady Mum, in the Old Testa- 
ment called Selah, the noted capital of the Idumaaans, which 
was taken by Amaziah, who changed its name to Joktheel (2 
Kings, xiv. 7). In the times of the Romans, it was a great com- 

QuBSTiONs'. — By what tribes is it inhabited ? — ^What is said of the 
Amalekites ? — Moabites, Edomites, Midianites ? — ^What is the principal 
town of Arabia Petma ? — How is it called in the Old Testament ? — 
When did it become a great emporium ? 



92 ASIA. 

mercial emporinm. In the reign of Trajan it belonged to the 
Roman empire, and afterward it became the capital of Palaesti'na 
Tertia (the eastern part of Arabia Petrsea). Dnring this period 
probably the temples and mausole'a were made, the remains of 
which have so arrested the attention of modern travellers. 

(2.) Ezionoe'ber (afterward Bereni'oe) and Elath. were 
noted seaports on the eastern gulf of the Red Sea, whence the 
fleets of Solomon and Hiram sailed to Ophir and Tarshish. 



II.— ARABIA DESERTA. (^ 'iprifio^ 'Apafita.) 

The great Syrian desert between the Euphba'tes on the East 
and Syria on the North, was entirely inhabited by nomad tribes, 
called by the ancients A'rahes ScenUta, from their dwelling in 
tentSj and NdmadoB, from their mode of life, which was that of 
wandering herdtmen (the modem Bedouins). 

Three great caravan roads crossed the desert: 

I. From Egypt and Petraea Eastward to the Persian Gulf. 

II. From Palm/ra Southward into Arabia Felix. 

III. From Palmy'ra South-East to the mouth of the Tigris. 

III.— ARABIA FELIX. (^ ebdaifiwv 'Apafita.) 

The name of this region, probably originating with the Arabs 
of the North, was El- Yemen, the country on the Right; i.e. the 
South, as the face was supposed by the Oriental geographers to 
be turned toward the East. Since the Greeks, however, in 
taking the auspices turned toward the North, the Eastern or /or- 
tunate (^eddatfiatv) side was on the right; hence from El- Yemen, 
ij eddatfiwyf ^Apafita; the Roman, Arabia Felix; and our, Arahy 
the Blest. 



Questions. — Of what country did it become the capital? — Mention 
the two seaports on the eastern gulf. — What is said of them ? — What is 
said of Arabia Deserta ? — What is the origin of the designation Arabia 
Felix? 



ASSYRIA. 93 

Boundaries. — It included the peninsula proper, to which the 
name was extended from the South- Western parts, and was 
divided amongst varions tribes (Sabjbi, Nabath^i, etc.). 

Cities. — (1.) On the coast of the Arabian Gulf: Modia'na, 
Leuce-Come, Hippos. 

(2.) In the interior : Lathrippa {EUMedHneh = the city), 
Maco'raba (^Meccd). 

(3.) South are the MiNYiE, with the city Carna, and the 
Sab^sti, with Saba (Heb. Sheba), famous for its frankincense. 

(4.) On the Southern coast are the commercial towns MusA, 
Arabia Felix, or Eden (^Aden)y Cane, Sab'batha. 

(5.) On the Eastern shore : Gerrha, and the islands Ar'- 
ADUS and Tylus, both Tyrian colonies. 

§46. ASSYRIA. (Heb. Ashur; 'Aatrupia', Kurdistan.) 

In the Cuneiform Inscriptions this country is called Asura. 
Originally it was perhaps only a district North-East of the junc- 
tion of the Tigris and Zab'atus. 

Boundaries. — ^North, Armenia; East, Media; South, Ba- 
bylonia; West, Mesopotamia and Babylonia. 

Mountains, — It was generally a mountainous region. The 
most important mountain-ranges are Taqrus and Cho'atras, 
which divided it from Media. 

Eivers. — ^The principal river is the Tigris iTt/pt<i), which 
divided it from Mesopotamia and Babylonia. Its Eastern 
branches are: Lycus, or Zab'atus (ilwxo^, or Zdfiaro^, the 
Great Zab), and Caprus {Kdnpoc;, the Little ZaJ)), 

Cities. — (1.) NiNUS, or Nin'ive (iVtVoc, Xtyeujjy Ntn'eveJi), 
on the East bank of the Tigris. It was one of the great capitals 
of antiquity, and is described, by some writers, as being forty- 
eight, and by others fifty-five, miles in circumference. Its 

Questions. — ^Name the boundaries — What cities were on the Arabian 
Gulf? — Name some of the island cities. — What towns were on the 

southern coast ? } 45. What is said of the name Assyria ? — ^What 

was its territory at first ? — How is it bounded ? — Name the mountains. 
—What are the principal rivers ? — ^What is said of Nineveh ? 



91 ASIA. 

walls were built of brick, one handred feet in beigbt, and so 
wide that on the top three chariots could be driven abreast. 
They were moreover protected bj fifteen hundred lofty towers, 
each two hundred feet in height. The prophets often speak of 
its greatness, wealth, and luxury. It was destroyed 625 B. c. 
Numerous sculptures and inscriptions have been brought to light 
by the recent discoveries of Dr. Layard; Col. Rawlinson, and 
other modem travellers. 

(2.) Arbe'la (^AppTiXa)y opposite the plain of Gaugame'la 
(^rajuydfaiXay Karmelis), where the third and decisive battle was 
fought between Alexander and Dari'us (331 B. 0.). 

(3.) Ctes'iphon (A'ny<r£^a»v), a large city on the East bank of 
the Tigris, which grew on the decay of Seleuci'a, as the latter 
had risen on the fall of the earlier capital, Babylon. It was not a 
place of great importance until the Parthian empire was firmly 
established. It became then the winter residence of the Parthiaa 
kings, who passed their summers at Ecbat'ana. In the Old 
Testament, Assyria is called Ashur. Nothing special is said 
of it in Scripture from its first settlement until the time that the 
prophet Jonah visited Nin'eveh (825 b. o.) (Jonah, i. 2). 
About fifty years afterward, Pul, the king of Assyria, rendered 
the kingdom of Israel tributary, and the succeeding line of royal 
rulers executed the threatenings of Jehovah against the rebellious 
house of Israel (2 Kings, xvii. 6). 

The Empire of Assyria, the most ancient of the Four Great 
Empires of the world, varied very much, both in power and 
extent, according to the individual influence and conquests of 
particular kings. As a geographical term, the name, Assyria, is 
used in diflerent acceptations. Greek and Koman historians 
commonly employ it as a general designation for the countries of 
Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria Proper; but fre- 
quently they make it embrace even a part of Asia Minor. 

Questions. — Who was conquered at Gaugamcla? — What is said of 
Ctesiphon? — How is Assyria called in the Scriptures? — When is it 
first spoken of in the Scriptures ? — Who rendered Israel tributary ? — 
What is said of the Assyrian empire ? 



PEKSIS. 95 



§ 46. MEDIA. (Mridia, Irak Aghami; comp. Ileb. Madai.) 

Boundaries. — North, Caspian Sea; East, Htrcania and 
Parthia; South, Persis and Susia'na; West, Assyria. It 
forms the extreme Western portion of the great table land of Iran. 

Divisions. — Great Media, or the South; Atropate'ne, or 
the North-West ; and The North. 

Mountains. — ^Taqrus. The most mountainous division was 
that on the North-West, or Atropate'ne. 

Productions. — Great Media was a rich and fertile plain. It 
produced wine, figs, oranges, citrons, and honey. 

Inhabitants. — It was inhabited by a branch of the Indo- 
Germanic family, which was nearly allied to the Persians and 
Indians. They were divided, according to Hero'dotus, into six 
tribes. The terms JHede and Medea are often used, by Greek 
authors, for Persian. In general, the name, Medes, was applied 
by them to the nations on the east of the river Tigris. 

Cities. — (1.) Ecbat'ana ('Exfidrava, Hamadan)^ the ancient 
capital of the Median monarchy, and afterward the summer resi- 
dence of the Persian and Bactrian monarchs. The city was two 
hundred and forty stadia in circumference, and was surrounded 
by seven walls. 

(2.) RHAQiE (^Pdyaiy Rhey)j afterward Arsacia, mentioned 
in the history of Tobit, Near this town are the PYLiE CASPiiE, 
a strongly fortified pass leading from North- Western Asia into 
the North-Eastern provinces of Persia. Through this pass Alex- 
ander the Great pursued Dari'us. In its neighborhood was the 
celebrated Nisaean plain (Nisasus Campus), the pasture-ground 
for the horses belonging to the royal family. 

(3.) Heracle'a, founded, by Alexander the Great. 

Questions. — J 46. What are the boundaries of Media? — How is it 
divided? — What is said about its productions? — What about its in- 
habitants ? — ^What do the Greek authors mean by the term Medes ? — 
What cities are situated in Media ? — What was the ancient capital ? — 
What is said of Rhagae?— What are the Pylse CaspiaD ?— What plain was 
in its neighborhood ? 



96 ASIA. 

The empire of Media, ander its third king, Gyax'ares 
(B.O. 635-595), extended its boundaries as far West as the 
Haljs. As a geographical term, among the Greeks, it repre- 
sented the country East of the Tigris. 



§ 47. PERSIS. (Pepaii;, Farsixtan,) 

Boundaries. — North, Media and Parthia; East, Ga&ma- 
nia; South, Persian Gulp; West, Susia'na. 

Mountains. — Paracho'athras and Ocnus. 

Bivers. — Araxes, Medus, and Cyrus (Zur). 

Productions. — The mountain districts possess excellent pasture 
for horses and camels ; the middle slopes are rich in fruit, but 
the coast contains only a few palms. 

Inhabitants. — The Persse belonged to the Indo-Germanic 
race, and their language was nearly connected with the classical 
Sanskrit. Their generic name was Paraca, They called them- 
selves, however, like the Modes, Arii, As a nation, they were 
divided into three great classes : warriors, husbandmen, and 
NOMADS. The Pasar'qad^ were the most important tribe of 
the first class. The AcH^MEN'iDiE, from whom their well- 
known line of kings descended, was one of the families of the 
Pasai/gadss. 

Cities. — (1.) Pasar'gada (Jlaffapyddaj i. 6. ace. to Ouseley, 
Habitation of the Persians), was its earliest capital, and con- 
tained the tomb of Cyrus the Great. 

(2.) Persep'olis (ITepffiTzokK;, Chd-Minar), the sacred city 
of the empire, the burial-ground of the Persian monarchs. It 

Questions. — How far did the empire of Media extend under Cyax- 

ares? — What does Media signify as a geographical term? { 47. 

What are the boundaries of Persis ? — Mountains ? — Rivers ? — ^Produc- 
tions? — What was the generic name of the inhabitants? — How did 
they call themselves ? — Into how many classes were they divided ? — 
Name the most important tribe of the first class. — What celebrated 
family of that tribe? — Name three cities. — What is said of Pasargada? 
—What of Persepolis ? 



\ 



ARIARA. 97 

was sitnated on ihe north side of the Araxes. It became known 
to the Oreeks by the expedition of Alexander the Oreat^ in the 
course of which he burnt it. 

(3.) Gab^ (rdfiat)f one of the resideneea of the kings, situ- 
ated near the borders of Carmania. 

The Persian Empire, under Dari'os Hystaspes (500 B.o.)y 
extended from India to the Mediterranean. The three rojal 
residences were: Ecba'tana, for the Summer; SusA, for the 
Spring; and Babtlon, for the Autumn and Winter. 



SnSIA'NA. (^ Sowrtconj, Khuzistan.) 

Boimdaries. — ^North, Media; East, Persis; South, Persian 
Qulf; West, Mesopotamia and Assyria. 

Bivers. — ^Tigris : Choaspes, whose waters were so excellent 
that the kings of Persia would drink no other (regia Ijftnpha 
Choatpei, TibuUus, IV. 1, 140). 

Cities. — (1.) SusA (2oD<ra, Su$; prob. from the Persian 
itisan, lilj) situated on the Choaspes, was the Spring residence 
of the Great King. The city was two hundred stadia in circum- 
fereoce. 

(2.) Seleuci'a and A'zara, famous for their temples. 



§ 48. AEIA'NA. (i^ 'Aptcanf, Iran.) 

Vame. — ^Aria'na (Hindu Ar^a, distinguished; comp. "Afyq^^ 
ilpw^, dpenj, apttnoq) was a district of wide extent in Central 
Asia, comprehending nearly the whole of the ancient Persian 
monarchy. Its inhabitants belonged to the great Indo-Germanic 
fiimily, and called themselves Arii, 

QuB8TiON8. — How far did the Persian empire extend under Darius 
Hystaspes T — ^What were the three royal residences? — ^What are the 
boundaries of Susiana ? — ^What is said of the Ghoaspes T — ^Name three 

cities.— What is said of Susa? { 48. With what is the name of 

Ariana connected T— Where was it situated 7 
9 G 



9S ASU. 

Mmadaaia^ — -North, BLlctkia'sa* ILisciA'xA, and Htkc jl- 
9Ia; EasL, IxDCS; Savtii, ExiTKKjejLS Sxa; Wesly 3Isi>ijl. 

Brrisiaaft. — GiDao<«i^ Pka^gia'xa, Akachosia, Pasopjl- 
xt'sjLD.s, Aet%, Pakthuu C&mXASTA. 

Mov]itu& — ^PASOPAXf :^rs» uxd Its di^erent bfsndieSw 

SifcnL — ^Aitius (2fo^i**», SujLSTxra (-SnraJ). 

frodutHaoM^ — ^Exeepdn^ m certus tiIIcjs vlme the Tine 
ftjoriahed. Ari^'u vas, for the ^rreiter fart, a desert swept by 
cof»tant simooms of moTing aand. These sJmonBW caused tlie 
deatractioD of the A^sjrian and Peisan armies of Semii'ainis 
and C jms, and almost annihilated the arm j of Alexander. 

Almost the whole of this extenare region fdl under the 
dominion of the ParthlsLns (256 B. c. — A. D. 226) who, at the 
heiprht of their power (b. c. 40), extended their sovereignty finom 
the Euphrates to the Oxos, and from the Caspian to the Arabian 
Sea. The first capita] was ILiCATO^rTLOS ; bnt afterwards 
CTXSi'iPHOX became the winter, and Ecba'tana the snnuner, 
residence of the Parthian kings. In classicil authors a constant 
eonfosion is noticeable in the nse of the names Persian and 
ParthiaUj the exact limitations of application of either term not 
being Teiy definitely settled. 

Towns.— I. In Gedrona (TtSpmcit£), the most Sonth-Easterlj 
province of the Persian empire : Tarsis, the capitaL 

n. In Dranguj^na (^JfMtjrjrteanj} : the capital, Prophthasia, 
situated on the North of the lake called Aria Lacus (ZaraK), 

III. In AracJiosia QApaj^onfia) : Alexandrop'olis, the 
capitaL 

IV. In ParopamHsadoe (^UapoTzafiiirddai), on the Southern 
slopes of Mount Paropami'sus : Ortos'pana. 

V. In Aria QApid) : Artacoa'na, the ancient capital. 

VI. In Parthia (Jlap^^aiay IJap^ta) : Hecatom'pylOS, the 
first rcsideuce of the Parthian kings. 

QuRffTiONM. — Name its boundaries. — How many countries did it com- 
prlue?— Name those countries. — Name the mountains. — The riTers. — 
Productions.— What armies were destroyed in its deserts ?— When did 
Vriana fall under Parthian dominion 7— Name some of the towns. 



BETWEEN THE CASPIAN SEA AND SCYTUIA. 99 

YII. In Carmania (Kapfiavia) : Oarma'na, the capital, and 
Harmozia, on the river A^namis, the place where Nearchus 
landed on his return from India. 



THE COUNTKIES BETWEEN THE CASPIAN SEA 
AND SCYTHIA. 

Boundaries.— North and East, Scythta; South, Pakopami'- 
sus, and its Western branches ; West, Caspian Sea. 

Divisions. — (1.) Hyrcania, between the Caspian Sea and 
the OcHUS. 

(2.) Margia'na, between the OcHUS and Oxus. 

(3.) Bactria'na, Bactria, between the Oxus and Mount 
Paropami'sus. 

(4.) Sogdia'na, between the Oxus and Iaxartes. 

Rivers. — Ochus, Oxus, Iaxartes, and Margus. 

Productions. — ^Timber, grapes, and com. Over many sec- 
tions of the territory wild animals roamed in abundance. Alex- 
ander is said to have hunted down four thousand of them in 
Sogdia'na alone. 

Inhabitants. — They were for the greater part rude moun- 
taineers, and served constantly in the Persian armies. In the 
middle of the third century B. o. the various tribes were united 
under the Greek empire of Bactria, which lasted about two 
hundred years. 

Cities. — In Hyrcania QTpxavta) : Zadracarta. 

In Margia'na (^Mapytavij) : ANTlocHfA Margia'na, where 
the captured soldiers of Crassus were transported. Many of 
them intermarried with the inhabitants, and hence were un- 
willing to return to Home when ordered back by Augustus. 

Questions. — ^Where is Hyrcania situated ? — Between what riTcrs is 
Margiana situated ? — Between what rivers is Bactriana ? — Between what 
rivers is Sogdiana ? — What is said of the productions ? — What is said 
of the inhabitants ? — When were they united ? — How long did the Bac-< 
trian empire last? — Name the chief cities. — What is said of Antioohia 
Margiana ? 



100 ASIA. 

In Baetna'na (Baxvpioinf) i BAOTRAy the Oftpital. 
In Sogdia'na (^So/duDnf)'. Maraoanda (^Samarkand), where 
Alexander killed Glitas. 



§ 49. INDIA. (4 'Mtxij or 'hdia.) 

Fame. — ^Thc names Indus, India, are without donht derived 
from the Sanskrit designation of the river, Sindhu, which in the 
plural form means also the people who dwelt along its hanks. 
The form Hendu is found in the Zend or old Persian; Hoddu 
in Hebrew; in Oreek Zi)f^o^ occurs; Pliny says, Indus incolis 
Sindus appellatus ; and hence also Hindoo, Hindostan, 

The term, India, denoted the country East of Aria'na. 

Boundaries. — North, Imaub and Montes Emo'di; East, 
8iNiE and Oce'anus Obienta'us; South, Oce'anus In'dious; 
West, Indus. 

Divisions. — India intra Oanqem (Hindostan), and India 
extra Gangem {Siam and Malacca). 

Mountains. — Paropami'sus, which the Macedonians, in order 
to flatter Alexander, called Gau'casus In'dicus; Imaxjs and 
Montes Emo'di; Montes Semanthi'ni; Merus {Meru) the 
residence of the gods, as was Mount Olympus among the Greeks. 

Capes. — Promontorium Maonum, Promontorium Aurejb 
Chersone'si, Promontorium Colias, Com aria (^Comorin), 

Eivers. — Indus, Serus, Doa'nas, Ganges, Dtar'danes 
(Brahma-putra), Ht'phasib, and Htdaspes, on the Eastern 
shore of which Alexander erected altars in memory of his 
progress eastward. 

Produotions and Commerce, — The commerce of India, includ- 
ing the Northern and Southern districts, may be considered as an 
epitome of the trade of the world, there being few productions 
which may not be found within its vast area. 

QuESTiOKfl. — 3 49. What is said of the name of India? — How is it 
bonnded? — How is it divided ? — ^What was the Caucasus Indious ? — Name 
some other mountains. — Name the promontories. — Name the riyers. — 
What is said of the Hydaspes? — ^What is said of the commerce of India T 



80TTHIA. 101 

Cities. — ^The number of cities in India, known to the aneient 
world, was qnite large, yet ancient authors furnish Tery meagre 
details in regard to them. In fact, we have scarcely anything 
beyond a mere list of names. Of these the foUovring are the 
most noticeable : 

AoBNOS, a fortress thought to be impregnable till its capture 
by Alexander; NiCiBA (^Ntxata), built by Alexander in honor of 
his victory over Poms ; Bugkph'ala (JBooxiip<xXa)y built by him 
in memory of his horse Buceph'alus; Perim'ula (Jfo&zcca); 
Calinqa (^CalingapataTn). 



SE'KICA (Septxij) AND SINiB {ol Hlvat). 

Boundaries. — ^North, unknown ; East, Oge' anus Orienta'lis ; 
South, India; West, Scythia. 

Mountains. — Montes Auxacii and An'nibi (^AUat). 

Bivers. — (Eohardes and Bantes. 

Cities. — Sera (^Kan-tcheon). 

In the East of Se'rica were the SiNJB, who were probably 
settled in the province of Shenn, the most Western province 
of China. 



SCYTHIA: 

A vast area in the Eastern half of Northern Europe, and in 
Western and Central Asia. lis limits were variously stated, 
according to the different degrees of information on the part of 
its geographers. 

Division. — Great, Middle, and Lesser Sctthia; or 
Scythia intra Imaumj and Scythia extra Imaum, 

Mountains. — Montes Htpebbobei, Oxii, and SoGDn. 

QuBSTiOMS. — ^What is said about the towns? — Give the names of some 
of them. — ^What are the boundaries of Serica? — The moontains? — The 
rivers? — The towns? — ^Where lay the country of the SinsB? — ^Where is 
Scythia situated? — How is it divided? — ^Name the mountains. 
9* 



102 ASIA. 

Siven. — Pabopamt'sus, Rhtmnus, Daix, Iaxartes, and 

OXUB. 

Lakes. — Palus Oxia'na — (Lake of Aral, the Lake of 
KarakouV). 

Inhahitailts. — ^The name by which the Scythians called them- 
selves was Sco'loti {XxdXorot, Hdt IV. 6), and the Greek name 
Ixb^aty SoTTHJBy is perhaps allied to it They were an Asiatic 
people, who were partly driven from their settlements to the 
North of the Araxes by the Massa'getsSy and after crossing that 
river descended into Europe. 

Questions. — ^Name the rivers of Scythia. — ^What lake does it contain? 
— What is said of the inhabitants ? 



CYPRUS. 103 



§60. ISLANDS OF ASIA. 

I. In the«MediterraneaD Sea : Cyprus, Rhodus, Cos, Samos, 
Chios, Lesbos^ Ti/nedos, Patmos, and smaller islands, as 
CasuSf Fcarus, 

II. In the Propontis : Proconne'sus, Ophiussa. 

III. In the Pontus Euxi'nus : rNSUL^E Cyaneje. 
lY. In the Indian Ocean : Tabroba'ne, Iababius. 



CYPRUS iKimpoi-): 

A large island in the Mediterranean, on the South of Cilicia, 
colonized by the Phoenicians at a very early period. Although 
lying in that sea, which was the peculiar nurse of the Grecian 
race, Cyprus never developed the nobler features of Hellenic 
culture and civilization. The exuberant generosity of nature 
served only to invite a sensuality which effectually extinguished 
the better sentiments of the human heart. The Semitic Astarte, 
Venusj was chiefly worshipped here, under the form of a rude 
conical stone, and Venus was hence called Cj/pria, 

Mountains. — ^The Olympus, whose peaks reach the height 
of 7000 feet, runs through the entire length of the island. 

Rivers. — ^They are scarcely more than mountain torrents ; the 
largest of them was the Pedlsus, which watered the extensive 
plain of Mes'sarae. 

Productions. — It possesses many beautiful and fertile valleys. 
Its principal article of commercial value, however, was copper. 

Questions. — Name the islands of Asia in the Mediterranean Sea. — 
In the Propontis. — In the Pontus Euxinus. — In the Indian Ocean. — 
Where was Cyprus situated? — What is said about its civilization? — 
What of its religion ? — ^What mountain chain runs through the island ? 
— ^What is said of the rivers ? — What is the chief produce ? 



104 ASIA. 

The Romans caUed tliifl metal after the island, Cyprium ces, 
typrium; and later, cuprum; whence our word copper, 

Citief. — (1.) Sal'amis (laXaiil^)^ founded on the Soutb- 
Eaatem part of the coast by Teucer, 

Sdlamina patremqui 
Cum fitfferet.— Rot. Od. L 7, 21. 

It was the most important ciiy of the island, and was the 
acknowledged capital of the Eastern part Under Constantine 
the Oreat, it suffered severely from an earthquake ; the emperor 
rebuilt it under the name of Oonstantia, and made it the capital 
of the bland. 

(2.) Garpasia (Kapizaaia)^ situated to the North-East, facing 
the promontory of Sarpe'don, on the Cilician coast. East of it 
was the summit of Olympus, crowned by a temple of Venus, 
which women were forbidden to enter. 

(3.) CiTlUM (Kiriov), situated on the South coast, the birth- 
place of Zeno the Stoic. Gimon, the celebrated Athenian 
general, died there. 

(4.) Soli (IdXot), situated on the North coast. The inhabit- 
ants were called Solii (^SdXtoi), to distinguish them from the 
citizens of Soli in Cilicia, who were called UoXeU (see page 37). 

(5.) Other towns : Paphos, in the South- West, the peculiar 
seat of the worship of Venus, hence called regina Papht, 
Paphie, Paphia Yenus; Idalium or Idalia, with a forest 
sacred to Venus, who was hence called Venus Idalia; Am'a- 

THU8, GOLGUS, MaRITJM, La'PETHUS. 

Questions. — Name four important cities. — ^What is said of Salamis ? — 
What temple was near Carpasia ? — Where is Gitium situated ? — ^What is 
said of Soli T— What of Paphos and Idalium ? 



RHODUS. 105 



§6L RHODUS. (;P6do<:.) 

Name. — As the rose, fiodov, appears as a symbol on the ooina 
of the island^ Rhodus is supposed to mean, the Island of Roses. 
It was one of the chief islands of the iBgsoan Sea, South of the 
coast of Caria. A branch of the Doric race, having taken pos- 
session of the island, quietly developed its resources, and rose to 
great prosperity and affluence. Its important towns were all 
situated on the coast. The three most ancient were LiNDUS 
{Aivdoi)y Ial'ysus QlaXoffSc:), and Cami'bus (JCdiutpo<;), which 
formed, with Cos, Cnidus, and Halicamassus, the Doric Hex- 
ap'olis. (See Doric Colonies, page 26.) The three towns were 
united (408 B. o.), and formed the large city of Rhodus. Here 
was the celebrated Colossus of the Sun, seventy cubits in height. 
It stood at the entrance of one of the ports, but the statement 
that it stood astride over the entrance, and that the largest ships 
could sail between its legs, is in all probability an exaggeration. 
It was the work of Chares, the pupil of Lysippus. It was erected 
about 280 e.g., and thrown down by an earthquake about 
224 B. 0. In this state it continued till sold by the Saracens to 
a Jew (a.d. 672), who broke it up and loaded nine hundred 
camels with the bronze. Rhodus was the birthplace of the poet 
Apollonius, and the philosopher Pansetius. Lindus was the 
birthplace of Cleobu'lus, one of the seven wise men of Greece. 
Rhodus reached its highest degree of importance during the wars 
between the Macedonians and Romans, and remained constantly 
faithful to the latter. 

QuESTiOKs. — 2 51. Describe the situation of Rhodus. — ^What is said 
of its inhabitants? — What three ancient towns were to be found at 
Rhodus? — What cities formed the Doric Hexapolis? — What is said of 
the city of Rhodus? — ^What of the Colossus? — What celebrat^^d men 
were bom at Rhodus? — When did Rhodus reach its highest prosperity? 



106 ASIA. 



COS. (rac, Siameo, Le. h; r^y Kw.) 

It lies in the moatli of the Golf of Csr'amus. Its principal 
fiij, which was immedistelj opposite to HalicarnassoSy bore the 
Bune name. It was destrojed bj a severe earthquake. Cos was 
oolonized from EpidanmSy and the new settlers introduced the 
worship of .^scukpius. A school of physicians was attached to 
its temple, the great collection of toUyc models in which made 
it a kind of museum of anatomy and pathology. Cos was the 
birthplace of Hipp(/craies, of Apelles, and of Ptolemseus Phila- 
delphus. Its wines^ unguents, and purple dyes, were famous 
throughout Greece. 



§ 58. SAMOS. {Sd^w^, Samo.) 

The name denotes a height, especially one situated near the 
sea-shore. This island rises conspicuous South-East of Chios, 
opposite Mount M/cale, from which it is separated by a narrow 
strait, the scene of the battle of M/cale (479 B. c). It is a very 
ragged, though picturesque and productive island. There is 
good timber on the hills, which have abundant and valuable 
quarries of white marble. It was celebrated for its pottery. 
The population was a mixture of Carians, Lesbians, and lonians. 
They were eminent in sculpture, bronze-casting, architecture, 
paintiDg, and ship-building. Their coins are very numerous and 
worthy of attention. Samos was in very ancient times governed 
by tyrants, the most celebrated of whom was Pol/crates (555 B.C.), 
who had a larger navy than any other Grecian prince or state of 
his time, and extended his sway over many of the neighboring 
states. After his death it became subject to Persia. The city 

Questions.— Where is the island of Cos situated?— What worship was 
iutroduced there?— What is said of its temple?— Who were born at Cos? 

—For what was Cos especially celebrated ? J 62. What does the word 

Samos mean ?— Where is the island situated ?— Describe the island.— 
What is said of its population ? — What of its government ? — What is 
said of Polycrates?— Towhom was the island subject after his death? 



LESBOS. lOV 

of Samos belonged to the Ionian confederacy. It founded the 
following five colonies: Samothra'ce, Anosa, Perinthus, 
BiSANTHB, and Amorgos. Samos was the birthplace of 
Pythag'oras. Juno was the chief divinity of the island. 

CHIOS, (^^oc, Scio.) 

This is an island in the ^gaean Sea, opposite "Ek'ytbrje. 
It is very rocky, ill provided with water, and rain seldom falls 
there. It produced, however, corn and excellent wine. The 
Chian wine was exported to Italy and is often mentioi^ed by the 
Roman writers. The town of Chios was on the Eastern side of 
the island. It belonged to the Ionian confederacy, and was one 
of the places that claimed to be the birthplace of Homer. A 
rock on the Northern coast of the island is still called Homer's 
School. 

LESBOS. (Aifffio^y MityUn,) 

It is a mountainous and very healthy island, situated near the 
coast of Mysia, exactly opposite the opening of the Gulf of Adra- 
MTTTIUM. It contained six cities which, even in Homer's time, 
were populous and flourishing : Mittle'ne, Ptrrha, Eressus, 
Antissa, Arisba, and Methymna. 

Inhabitants. — ^The u^olians of Lesbos were among the most 
cultivated and refined of the Greeks, and were distinguished as 
well for their mercantile enterprise and bravery as for their 
marvellous attainments in the art of poetry conjoined with music. 
Lesbos produced the poets Alcabus, Sappho, Ari'on, Terpander; 
and the philosophers Pit'tacus and Thcophrastus. 

Questions. — To what confederacy did the city of Samos belong?-^ 
How many colonies did it found? — Qive the names. — Who was bom at 
Samos ? — ^What goddess was worshipped there ? — Where is Chios situ- 
ated ? — ^What are its productions ? — Where was the town of Chios ? — !fo 
what confederacy did the island belong? — What is Homer's School? — 
Where is Lesbos situated? — How many flourishing cities did it contain? 
— Name those cities. — What is said about the inhabitants? — What cele- 
brated men were bom at Lesbos? 



108 ASIA. 

ToWBl. — (1.) MTTiLi'ini (Murdijyii) was the most important 
city on the island, and has oontinaed without intermission to 
flouriahi up to the present daj. It was originallj huilt upon a 
small ialand, and possessed two harbors. The beauty of the 
ancient city and the strength of its fortificadons are celebrated 
both by Greek and Roman writers. It was the birthplace of 
Bappho and AlcaDus. 

(2.) Mkthtmna (Mii^ftsfo) was situated on the Northern 
shore of the island. It was chiefly celebrated for the excellent 
wine produced in its neighborhood : 

J^on tmdtm mrhorihut pendet vmdemia nottris^ 

Quam MeiMywmao earyii depalmiu Labos. — ^Virg. Georg. IL 89. 

Methymna was the birthplace of the poet and musician Ari'on. 



§ 63. TETNEDOS. {Tivtdo^.) 

This is a small island near Troas, which acts a prominent 
part in the Trojan legend. During the wars of the Macedonians 
with the Romans, Te'nedos, owing to its situation near the 
entrance of the Hellespont, was an important naval station. In 
the war against Mithrida'tes, Lucullus fought a great naval battle 
near Te'nedos, In YirgU*s time it had fallen into insignificance : 

Sat m con^^tu TVnetlot notiumafama 

Insula^ A*vM opmmy Friand dmn rtgna matuhant^ 

Jfumo tmUum nmu^ §i ^irnih mal^iia earinu. — ^^Sn. II. 21. 

QuBSTiOMS.— DMoribe Mjtilene.—- Deseribe MethTnma-^Wbo was 
born there T— Describe Tenedoa.— What battle was fougbt in its 
neighborhood T 



INSULA ABGINUS^. 



lOQ 



PATMOS. (JldTfjLo^, Patmo.) 

Patmos waa one of the Spo'rades in the South-Eastera part 
of the ^gaean Sea. This little island is celehrated as the place 
to which St. John was banished toward the close of the reign 
of Domitian, and where he wrote the Revelation, The cave is 
still shown where the Apostle is said to have received th^ 
revelation. 




raSULiE ARGINU'SiEJ. (arAprivou^at.) 

These are three small islands near the midnland of ^'olis, 
opposite Gape Malea. Off these islands the ten commanders 
of the Athenians, after a severe straggle, gained a victory over 
the Spartans, in which battle Callicra'tidas^ the brave Spartan 
king, was slain (406 B. c). 

The other islands of Asia in th« Mediterranean are Car'pa- 
THUS, Chalgia, Telos, Caltmna, Lepsia, Casus, Stme, 
Nist'bus, Leros, Psyra, Tnsul^ Corassub and Io'arus, 
with the towns, Istri and (Eni. 



Questions. — What is said of Patmos? — ^Where are the ArginussB situ- 
ated ? — Who were conquered in its neighborhood ? — ^What other islands 
of Asia were situated in the Mediterranean ? 
10 



no ASIA. 



THE ISLANDS OF ASIA IN TEE PROPONTIS : 

OPHIU88A, Halo'ns, Prooonne^sus (Maf^mora)^ celebrated 
for ita marble (Lat marmar)^ Bbs'bious and Demone^si. 



THB ISLANDS OP ASIA IN THE PONTUS EUXI'NUS : 

rNSUUE Ctarkjb, or PsTRJE, two Focks at the entrance of 
the Boa'poroa Thracias, Thtnias, rNSULA Ci'ugum, Abetias. 

THB ISLANDS IN THE OCE'ANUS IN'DICUS. 

TapROBA'ne {Ceylon) was the only one of the East Indian 
islanda which was known to any great extent to the ancient 
gfo^raphers. 

Xountaina. — Montbs Ga'libi and Mons Malea. 

BiTers. — Phasis, Ganges, Aza'nus. 

(jitiea. — Anurogbahmum and Haagbammum. 

Other islands: Iabaditjs (Java), rNsuiJE Sattro'bum 
(«4M<im6a islands), and some of the Laccadives and Maldives. 

QvivTiONB.— What islands of Asia are situated in the Propontis? — 
In (ho KuxinuaT— What islands in the Oceanns Indicus ?— What is said 
uf TaprobaneT 



LIBYA. in 



§64 LTBYA. (AAipOfi:) 

This was the general term applied to tlie Sonthem coast of 
the Mediterranean^ between the month of the Nile and the shores 
of the Atlantic. It was sometimes regarded by ancient authois 
as an independent division of the earth's surface; and sometimes 
as a part of Asia^ and even of Europe. 

The name, lAhyay comprised — 

I. In the HoMERio Aqe (1000 B.C.); all that portion of the 
African Continent lying to the west of -^gypt : 

II. In the TIME OF Hebo'dotus (444 b. g.)) the Southern 
coast of the Mediterranean, between the Isthmus of Suez and 
the Bed Sea in the East, and the Oce'anus in the West and 
South. Hero'dotus (iv. 42) states that some Phoenicians at the 
order of Necho, king of ^gypt, set sail out of the Red Sea, 
coasted along the shores of ^gypt and Ethiopia, passed into 
the Ocean, and at the expiration of three years reached the 
waters of the Nile. The mariners, who took part in the voyage, 
reported the phenomenon of the sun appearing on their right 
hand, i. e. to the North, as they sailed round Li'bya. This 
expedition probably set out about 600 b.o. From the facts 
furnished by those engaged in it, Hero'dotus was led to deter- 
mine the boundaries as above given*: 

III. In the TIMES OF Ptolemy (200 a. d ), the account of 
the voyage mentioned by Hero'dotus appears either to have been 
forgotten, or to have lost credit. The Western coast was then 
known as far as the In'sulaa Fortuna'tae (prob. the Canaries)^ 

QuBSTiONS. — 2 54. What is said of Libya ? — What did it comprise in 
Homer's time ? — ^What in the time of Herodotus ? — Give the boundaries 
of Herodotus. — How did he arriye at this determination ? — What are 
the boundaries as stated by Ptolemy? — Are his boundaries better or 
worse defined than those of Herodotus? 



112 LIBYA. 

but the Southern portion was believed to be joined to the 
Eastern part of Asia, and the Indian Ocean was supposed to be 
a vast salt lake. 

SivisiosB. — ^^GYPTus, -ffiymopiA, Meboe, Maemar'ica, 
Cyeena'ica, Ai'aicA, Numidia, Mauritania, Li'bya In- 
terior. 



§ 66. ^GYPTUS. (ij AlyoTTco^:,') 

From the Northern extremity of the delta formed by the 
waters of the Nile, a long valley ascends along the course of the 
river beyond Memphis, to the spot where Luxor displays its 
astonishing ruins. Another valley extends from this point to 
the rocks over which the Nile falls in a succession of rapids. 
To the West lie deserts of sand ; to the East, mountains whose 
bases are washed by the Arabian Gulf. The Delta and these 
valleys comprise the whole of uEgyptus. ^gyptus is remark- 
able as one of the most universally fruitful countries of the 
earth, and as the abode of a very ancient people. 

Name. — It was called by the earliest inhabitants Chemi 
{Black Land); in the Old Testament Mazor or Mizraim 
{Border, or Borders^ ace. to Gesenius; ace. to Bochart, the For* 
tified) ; by the Arabs, Mesr ; in the classics, uEgyptus ; and 
in the Coptic, El-Kebit (tJie Inundated Land). 

Boundaries. — North, the Mediterranean ; East, Isthmus 
OP Arsinoe and Sinus Arabi'cus; South, ^Ethiopia; West, 
Marmar'ica and Lib'yci Mqntes. 

Divisions. — ^Delta, subdivided into ten districts, or provinces, 
called names (yofiot, i.e. divisions); Hepta'nomis, into seven; 
and Theba'is, into ten. In earlier times, the number of nomes 
was only twelve; afterward they were increased to forty-five. 
Each nome had its peculiar creed, temple, priesthood, and 
magistrates. 

Questions.— Name the different countries of Libya. § 66. De- 
scribe jEgyptus. — What is said of its name ? — Give the boundaries of 
^gyptus. — How was it divided ? — ^What was a nome ? 



JEOYPTUS. 113 

Extent — ^^gypt is that portion of the YnUej of the Nfle 
between the islands of Fhilss and Elephanti'ne, and the Mediter- 
ranean Sea. The average breadth of this valley is about seven 
miles, only five of which contain arable land. The broadest part, 
between Cairo and Edfon, is about eleven miles, and the nar- 
rowest, including the river, about two miles. The length is 
about 526 mOes; its area about 11,000 square miles (a little 
larger than the state of Vermont). 

§ 56. Xomitains. — Montes Ara'bici, . Montes Lf btci, 
MoNB Casius, on the Wesllm flank of which was the tomb 
of Pompe'ius Magnus. 

Capes. — ^Drep^anitm and Lefts. 

Eiver.— NiLUS (the Nile). (See page 118.) 

Lakes. — ^Laous Tanis, Laous Bu'tica, Lagus Mareo'tis, 
Lagxts M(e'ridis (see page 120), Laous Sibbo'nidis, which 
Milton describes as 

that Serhmdan bog 
'Tkoizt Damiata and Mount Casiiu old, 
Where armies whole have eunk. — ^Par. Lost, II. 293. 

This vast tract of morass was the scene of the partial destruo- 
tion of the Persian army 350 B. o. 

Productions. — ^Wheat, onions, beans, melons, cotton, papy^rus, 
lotus, olives, and figs. The following animals were native to the 
soil : oxen, horses, turtles, alligators, serpents, ichneumons, the 
ibis, tro'chili, and various kinds of fishes. 

Climate. — ^The climate of the Delta is not so hot as Upper 
^gypt, which belongs to the tropical regions. 

Population. — ^No nation has bequeathed to us so many or 
such accurate memorials of its history and national characteristics 
as the JSgyptians have done. They were darker in hue than 
the Greeks or the neighboring Asiatics, but were not a negro 

Questions. — What is the length and breadth of iBgypt ? — How many 

square miles does it contain ? 2 ^^- Name the mountains. — ^The 

capes. — The rivers. — The lakes. — ^Describe Lacus Sirbonidis. — ^What 
army was destroyed there? — ^Name the chief productions. — What is said 
ftboiit the climate? — What is said of the Egyptians? 
V) * II 



114 LIBYA- 

noe; £taB is proved by osteology and by tbeir monnmental 
paintiDgs, wbere negroes often appear, but always either as tribu- 
taries or captives. The valley of the Nile contained probably 
three races, with an admixtore of a fourth. On the Eastern 
shores were Arabians ; on the Western, Libyans. The ruling 
caste was an elder branch of the Syro- Arabian family. The 
fourth class was the mixed race of the ruling caste and the 
Libyans. The number of its inhabitants varied from four 
millions to six millions. 

§ 67. Cities. — ^I. In -^gyptus Inferior (jf/ xdrw x^pa; 
ElrRif^j Lower -^Jgypt : 

(1.) Cano'bus, or Cano'pus (^EdvwPo<:, or KdvtoTzot:'), near 
the Western (Canopian) mouth of the Nile. Before the founda- 
tion of Alexandri'a, it was an important commercial town. It 
was celebrated for the temple and oracle of Sera'pis. 

(2.) Sais (JSaU), on the Eastern bank of the Canopian arm 
of the Nile. It was the ancient capital of Lower ^gypt, and 
contained the tombs of the Pharaohs. 

(3.) Nau'cratis {Nauxpartt;), a colony of Mile'tus, and settled 
as early as 550 b. c. It was the only place in uEgypt where the 
Greeks were allowed to settle or foreign merchants to resort 
(Hdt. ii. 178, 179). It was the birthplace of Athenaeus and 
Julius Pollux. 

(4.) Busi'ris (^Boofftpt^), celebrated for an immense temple 
dedicated to Isis. 

(5.) Bubastus (BobpaffTo^^ noted for the temple and festi- 
vals maintained in honor of Dia'na Bubastis. 

(6.) Pelusium (JlriXoixTwv), on the Eastern side of the East- 
ernmost mouth of the Nile, which derived its name from the 
town. In the Scriptures it is called /Sm,and "the strength of 
Egypt" (EzeJc, xxx. 15), on account of its strong fortifications. 

Questions. — How many races did the valley of the Nile contain ? — 

Describe them. — What was the nimiber of its inhabitants? § 67. 

Where was Canobus situated ? — What was the ancient capital of Lower 
^gypt? — What is said of Naucratis? — What temple was at Busiris?-^ 
What at Bubastus ? — ^Where was Pelusium situated ? — What is it called 
in the Scriptures ? 



^GYPTUS. 115 

It was often the scene of battles and sieges, from the epoch of 
the defeat of Sennacherib (713 B.C.) down to its capture by 
Octavia'nus (31 B. c). It was the birthplace of Ptolemy, the 
geographer. 

(7.) Heliop'olis QHXto6TtoXi<:)y in the Sacred Writings called 
On^ or Beth^shemesh ; the chief seat of the worship of the Sun. 
The priests attached to this worship were reputed to be very 
learned. Joseph married Asenath^ the daughter of one of the 
priests of On ((yen. xli. 45). 

(8.) Heroop'olis (Hpcofov TzdXcgy or ^Hpw), the residence of 
the ancient shepherd kings. In the neighborhood of this town 
was Goshen, the rich pastoral district in which the Israelites 
first dwelt. It was situated along the Eastern bank of the Nile. 

(9.) Oneion, founded by the Hebrew priest, Onias (173 B.C.). 
The city and temple existed for nearly two hundred and fifty 
years. 

(10.) Absinoe QApffivdri, Suez), at the entrance of the canal 
which connected the Red Sea with thS Nile. 

(11.) Cercaso'rus (^Kepxdffiopog), situated at the point where 
the Nile separated into different channels. 

(12.) Other towns : Nicop'olis, Hermop'olis, Androp'o- 
Lis, Gyn^oop'olis, Mendes, Tanis, Buto, Babylon. 

(13.) Alexandri'a (see page 123). 

Delta, the name of the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, 
was given by the Greeks to that part of Lower ^gypt which was 
comprised between the Canopian and Pelusian branches of the 
Nile and the sea, and which had a triangular form, somewh$it 
resembling the Greek letter Deltay a. • • 

§ 68. II. In Middle JEgypt, or Hepta'nomis (^ tusza^h x^P^h 
or ^Enravotiiq; Wusta'ni), which extended from the division of 
the Nile at Cercaso'rus to Chemnis : 



Questions. — ^Who was bom at Pelusium ?— What was the chief seat 
of the worship of the Sun ? — Where was Goshen situated T — ^What is 
said of Oneion ?-r-What of Arsinoe? — Of Cercasorus? — ^What is the 

Delta ? — Why was this name given to the northern part of ^gypt ? . 

i 58. How far did Heptanomis extend ? 



116 LIBYA. 

(1.) Memphis (Mifift^:; Mem/). After the fall of Thebes, 
this was the capital of ^gjptus, and in the time of Psammet'ir 
chus it became the royal residence. From this period until its 
destruction by Gamb/ses, it enjoyed its greatest prosperity. It 
was the centre of inland commerce, and also of the religion 
of Apis and Sera'pis. From the priests attached to the national 
worship, the Greeks derived their knowledge of Egyptian annals, 
and the rudiments also of their philosophical systems. At 
Busi'ris in the neighborhood of Memphis were the three highest 
pyramids. (See page 120.) 

(2.) Cbooodilop'olis (later, Arsino^, *Ap(rtv6if)y the seat of 
the worship of the Crocodile. In the North- West part of the 
city was the famous Labyrinth (^Aapopiv^t:), It contained no 
less than three thousand apartments, of which fifteen hundred 
were subterranean, and an equal number were above ground, 
the whole being surrounded by a massive wall. It was divided 
into courts, each of which was surrounded by colonnades of 
white marble. Hero'dotus, who saw the upper part of it, was not 
allowed to enter the subterranean passages, which were the 
burial-places of its royal founders, and of the sacred Crocodiles. 
The whole arrangement of the edifice was a symbolical repre- 
sentation of the zodiac and the solar system. 

(3.) Other cities: Acanthus, Nilop'olis, Heracleop'olis, 
Heemopolita'ne Phy'laoe. 

In this part of ^gypt are included three (yases QOdffsiq, 
Abdffet^; prob. the Coptic OuoA, a resting-place) — ^fertile spots 
in the Libyan desert — ^which, in the Eoman time, were used as 
places of banishment. 



Questions. — ^What city became the capital of iEgypt after the fall 
of Thebes T— When did Memphis become the royal residence ?--What 
temples were in Memphis ?— What influence did they exercise upon 
Greece T— What is said of Crocodilopolis ?— Describe the Labyrinth.— 
What are Oases ?— Whence probably the name? — Where are they 
situated ? — For what purpose were they used by the Roman govern- 
ment? 



JEOYPTUB. 117 

III. In Upper JEgypt, or Theba'is (Brj^aU or ol avw rdicot; 
Said). It extended from Cbemnis to Sye'ne^ where Ethiopia 
begins : 

(1.) Aby'dus (^Afiodo^). Here waa the celebrated tomb of 
Osi'ris. The celebrated list of the Pharaohs, known as tTie 
Tablet of Abi/dusy now in the British Museum, was found at 
Aby'dus. 

(2.) Ten'tyba (Tivropa, Den'derah), where still exist the 
best preserved remains of an ancient Egyptian temple. A 
portion of the ceiiiDg, which was adorned with a representation 
of the zodiac, was taken down and transported to Paris. From 
this zodiac an extravagant idea of the antiquity of the temple was 
entertained, until the key to the interpretadon of hieroglyphics 
was discovered. 

(3.) CoPTUS (KoTrrSgy Kuft; whence probably the modem 
Kvhtf Copts, i. e. the people of j^gypt mainly descended from 
the ancient j^gyptians as distinguished from foreigners; com- 
pare the word Ai-yonr-otC) was noted for its extensive commerce. 
^A road led from the city to Bereni'ce (^Bepevixr}), by which the 
merchandise of India was transported to the Nile. Its neighbor- 
hood was celebrated for emeralds and other precious stones. 

(4.) Sye'ne (JSu-^vtij Assouan), at the Southern boundary of 
Egypt, near the rapids of the Nile. 

(5.) ElEPHANTI'nE, and PhiL^ (^EXsipavrti^, 9iXai), two 
islands in the Nile, celebrated, the former for its rock-hewn 
temples ; the latter, for its rich architectural remains. 

(6.) Other towns: Lycop'olis, Apheoditop'olis, Ptole- 
ma'is HEBMn, Heemonthis, Latop'olis, Ghemnis, later 
Panop'olis. 

(7.) THEBiB. (See page 122.) 



Questions. — How far did Thebais extend? — ^What is said of Abydos? 
— ^What is said of Tentyra ? — ^What of its zodiac ? — For what is Coptus 
noted ? — ^What is said of the name ? — ^What was found in its neighbor- 
hood? — ^What two celebrated islands were situated in the Nile? 



118 LIBYA. 



§09. NILUS (iV^cUoc), NUe; El-Bahr ot Bahr NU. 

Kb ^gypt was the principal resort of the scientifio men 
of Greece, the Nile has been more accurately examined and 
described by classical authors than any other river of the ancient 
world. 

Hame. — ^The Scripture designation Sihor {Jet, ii. 18), the 
Coptic CKemi (used both of the country and the river, as in 
Gr. 6 AtroitTOi:, the Nile; ij Atroi:To<;, -ffigypt) and the old Latin 
Melo (jUXa<:) were' applied to it with reference to its color 
imparted by the dark slime. Virgil says of it : 

Et viridem JEgyptum nigra fecundat arena. — 0«org. iv. 291. 

The name AelAo?, JVtZtw, Nilj NUe is probably the Hebrew 
Nahal, river, in which language it was also termed NahalMvL- 
raim, River of Egypt. 

The river is formed by the confluence of two head-streams, the 
As'tapus, or Blue River (^Bahr-el-Azrek), and the White River 
(Bahr-el-Abiad), These two streams meet at a point near the 
site of the modem Khartoom. Here the united waters, after 
passing through a gloomy defile, traverse the immense plains of 
Meroe. At the extremity of the peninsular tract of Meroe, the 
Nile receives its last tributary, the Astab'obas {Ta>cazze), 
Between this point and Sye'ne, a distance of some sevem hundred 
miles, occur the Cataracts of the Nile, in reference to which the 
ancients invented, or credited, many astounding marvels. There 
are seven cataracts in all, none of them remarkable for their 
height. The descent of the second, or great cataract, is but 
eighty feet in a space of five miles. 

At Sye'ne the Nile enters ^Egypt. Between Sye'ne and La- 



QuBSTiONS. — § 69. What information do we possess in regard to the 
Nile?--What two rivers unite to form the Nile?— What is said of its 
various names ?-~What river does the Nile receive beyond Meroe?— 
How long is the region of the Cataracts?— What is said of the rapids? 
—Where does the Nile enter -3Egypt ? 



NILUS. 



119 



TOP'oLis the country is sterile and unattractive, because deprived 
of the fertilizing benefits of the periodical inundations, in conse- 
quence of the high and rocky character of the river banks. 
Beyond Latop'olis, descending the stream, the shores become less 
rugged, and allow a broader verge for the earthy deposits of the 
river, and at Thebes the banks present a broad plain on each 
side, little elevated above the ordinary level of the water. Near 
Dio'spoLis Pabva {How) starts the Canal of Joseph (Bahr- 
Yussouff)y which flows in a direction parallel with the river 
through Arsi'noe. A little below Memphis, the rocks on both 
sides of the river diverge again, and the river expands into the 
wide alluvial plains of the Delta. At Cebcaso'bum the river 
put forth two main branches, and beside these, five others. 
These seven arms of the Nile were known by the following 
names, going from East to West : the Pelusian, the Tamitic, 
the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitic, and the Cano- 
PiAN. Of these only two— at Damietta and Kosetta — are now 
navigable. The three main arms were the Pelusian^ Seben- 
nytic, and Canopian. 

Upper and Lower ^gypt, during the periodical inundations 
from the beginning of July to the beginning of November, 
present the appearance of a vast inland lake, and the Delta, 
of a wide gulf. These inundations are caused by the torrents 
of rain in the month of May in Ethiopia. The rise of the river, 
which was ordinarily from fifteen to sixteen cubits, was carefully 
noted on instruments called Nilo'meters, at Primis, Elephanti'ne, 
and Memphis ; and its rising or falling was reported by letters 
to different parts of iBgypt, in order that the farmers might 
calculate the time for the commencement of sowing. 

The Nile, as the sole sustainer of life in a seeming valley of 
death, was worshipped with divine honors. 

Questions. — Where does the valley of the Nile commence? — What 
was the Canal of Joseph? — Where does the separation of the Nile 
begin ? — ^What are the three main arms ? — ^Describe the inundation of 
the river. — What was the use of the Nilometers ? — ^Why was the state 
of the river reported throughout the country ? — Why was the Nile wor- 
shipped ? 



L?> LIBYA. 



§ Ml lake MCEBIS. (Jr«^eJ^ i^, Birka-d-Kemn.) 

This was the most extensiTe and lenuurkable of all the 
JELprptum Ukesy and connected with the Nile bj the Canal of 
J^««cph. Its area was not less than two hundred and ten square 
Biiles. It was regarded bj Hero'dotns (iL 149) as an artificial 
like, but more correct! j bj Stnbo as a natmal basin. The name 
of A&si'xoK was originally applied to a limestone vallej, in the 
Southern part of which was this hike. In remote periods, the 
entire vallej was a reservoir for the waters descending from the 
sanrounding hills. As the waters gradually subsided, the highest 
points of land were cultiTated, so that the whole of the lake was 
dirersified by fertile islands and .peninsulas, all of which dis- 
appeared during the annual inundations. 

According to Hero'dotus, there were two pyramids in the lake 
itself, each rising three hundred feet above the surface of the 
water, and sinking to an equal depth below it On the top of 
each was a colossal human figure of stone, seated on a throne. 



PYRAMIDS. 

The ^rnmids are only found in Central ^gypt. They are 
quadrilateral piles of masonry, consisting of a series of platforms, 
riv'iiug one above the other, each smaller than the one on which 
il rt>«ts, and consequently presenting, where the smooth casing of 
^Uwx^ bus been removed as material for building, the appearance 
\\f Ktt^l^a which diminish in length from the bottom to the top. 
11^t» pyranuda are built in groups, some of which lie at a con- 
ik|^|o)^U)lt) diatauoo from each other. It has been supposed that 

iJ\HJ»iTHm«.— I 00, What is the most remarkable of the ^Egyptian 

(mH^^mY Mow U It oonnootod with the Nile?— What is its extent?— Is 

(I m HVllrtoial lak©?— In which nome was it situated ?— Describe the 

Uka Uurllltf i\\^ tlm» of the inundation.— What is said about the pyra- 

VJlH kk* ?• -. Where are the Pyramids to be found?— What kind 

1 Vk\% lht»y t— Are they built separately ? 



PYRAMIDS. 



121 



thej were intended for royal sepulchres^ and also as places of 
observation for astronomical purposes. They range in a line 
running exactly North and South; and while the direction of the 
faces to the East and West might have served to fix the return 
of a certain period of the year, the shadow cast by the sun, or 
the time of its coincidence with their slope, might have been 
observed for a similar purpose. The length of one of the sides 
of the base of the greatest pyramid, if multiplied five hundred 
times, is exactly equal to a geographical degree. The cube of 
the Nilo'meter, if multiplied two hundred thousand times, gives 
precisely the same measurement. 




The most important group of pyramids is near the modern 
village El'Gizeh, distant about seven miles from the banks of 
the Nile. Here is also the largest pyramid. Hero'dotus was 
informed by the priests of Memphis that this was built by 
Cheops, king of -^gypt (900 B.C.); that the body of Cheops was 
placed in a room beneath the base of the pyramid ; and that the 
chamber was surrounded by a vault, to which the waters of the 



Questions. — What were the Pyramids intended for? — Describe how 
they were placed. — In what relation are the sides of their base to a 
geographical degree? — Which is the most celebrated group? — Which 
is the largest pyramid? — Mention the particulars that are known 
of this pyrainid. 
11 



IJJ LIBTA. 



1 



Sut wen erern^ br m ss^KerrTmcm pasBige. The entr&nce to 
tike prnci'l » ia ibe X:r:^ £Me. Within are passages leadiog 
to fHiKNfTs liaed viik snahe, ia one of wkidi is a saroo'phagus 
of red gnaise, sappoeeii to be the tomb of Gwops. 



§ SL THEBJK «>>k) axd to XECBOFOLIS. 

Thebes vas the reli jioas eaphal of aD who vorshipped Amnion^ 
froai PeliLdnm to Axa'me, and from the (Xases of Lil>ja to the 
Red Sea. Id the Sacred Writinc:? it is called No, or No- Ammon ; 
its native appellatioo was T-APE, L e. /A« Stadj whence its classical 
name Theils: it was also designated in the classics, Dio'spolis 
MAOSA. Sitmted in an extensiTe plain, it occnpied both banks 
of the N3e. On the eastern bank the population was densely 
crowded, while the western was more especially appropnated to 
the nnmeroos temples with thdr aTmues of sacred Sphinxes. 
Rnmors of its greatness had reached the Greeks of Homer's age, 
who called it the hundrtd-gatfd (Srj^aq — aid* ixarofiizuloi sifft-^ 
U. ix. 381 seqq.), which expression may not have been intended 
as an allusion to the gates of the ct/y (as the city was not sur- 
rounded with any wall), but employed to indicate the number 
of femp2e-gates. 

The power and prosperity of Thebes are to be ascribed to three 
causes: 

First, its trade : in ancient times it was the great emporium 
of Eastern Africa. 

Second : its manufactures of linen, glass, and pottery. 

Third : its religion. Thebes was to -^gypt and to -Ethiopia 
what Home was to mediaeval Christendom. When the stream 
of commerce had turned to Alexandri'a, and its manufactures 

Questions.— I 61. What was the religious capital of ^gypt?— How 
was it called in the Sacred Writings? — What was its native appellation? 
—What its classical ?— Where was it situated ?— How was it divided ?— 
What was the difference between its two divisions? — How is it called by 
Homer ?— What does this appellation signify ? — Name the sources of the 
prosperity of Thebes. — Which of these sources operated the longest? 



ALEXANDRIA. 123 

had fallen into decay, Thebes still remained the headquarters 
of the -Egyptian priesthood, and the principal retreat of old 
^Egyptian manners and customs. The remains of the monu- 
ments of Thebes, exclusive of its sepulchral grottoes, cover on 
both sides of the river a large space, of which the extreme 
length from North to South is about two miles, and the extreme 
breadth from East to Wfist about four. The most remarkable 
buildings are the collectiop of temples called El-Kamak, after 
a modern village in the vicinity. They lie on the Eastern bank 
of the river, and consist of a large temple and several smaller 
structures, surrounded by a massive brick wall. 

Another striking object is the Vocal Memnon, the most 
Northerly of two gigantic statues, which formerly gave forth 
at sunrise certain sounds, probably due to some unexplained 
physical cause. On the Western bank was the Necrop'olis, 
the City of the Dead, Here are found the rock-hewn painted 
tombs, the Tombs of the Kingsj whose sculptures so copiously 
illustrate the history, the arts, and the social life of -^gypt. 
Here also are the famous Obelisks, pillars of stone square 
at the base and terminating in a point, generally formed out 
of a single block of granite. Several of them have been taken 
to Europe and erected in Rome, Paris, and London. 

§ 62. ALEXANDRI'A. 

QAXe^dvdpua, Alexandria, El-Skanderish.') 

The capital of the empire of the La'gidae, so called from 
Lagus, the father of Ptolemy, the founder of the Egyptian 
monarchy. It was the Hellenic capital ofuEgypt. It was 
founded (332 B. c.) at the North East angle of the Lake 
Mureo'tis, by Alexander the Great, who himself traced the 

Questions. — How great was the extent of the city? — Describe the 
temples of El-Kamak. — ^What was the Vocal Memnon ? — Where was the 
Necropolis situated? — Describe the tombs of the kings. — What is an 

obelisk ? { 62. What was the Hellenic capital of ^gypt ?— Who was 

its founder ? 



1-4 LIBYA. 

gTound-pUn. It was not completed until the reign of Ptole- 
niaeus Philadelphus, mod received embellishments and addi- 
tions from nearly every potentate of the Lagid dynasty. The 
city was situated on a narrow strip of land between the Lake 
Marco'tis and the sea, and was laid out in parallelograms, the 
streets crossing each other at right angles. The whole city was 
divided into three parts: the Greek, Egyptian, and Jewish 
quarters, each of which was surrounded by its own walls. The 
Greek quarter contained the most conspicuous of the public 
buildings. Here was the fiff>fiuned Library and Museum^ 
enriched with 700,000 vdumes, a part of which were placed in 
the temple of Sera'pis in the ^Egyptian quarter. Here were 
also deposited the 200,000 volumes of the library of Pei'gamus, 
presented by Marcus Antonius to Cleopa'tra. The library of the 
Museum was destroyed while Julius Caesar was blockading the 
Greek quarter (48 B.C.); that of the Serapeion is said, but 
without any very positive proof, to have been destroyed by the 
Saracens at the command of the Caliph Omar (a. d. 650). The 
collection was b^;un by Ptolem»us Soter, and lai^y augmented 
by his successors. They retained all the original manuscripts 
which were brought to Alezandri'a, and gave copies of them to 
their proper owners. Among the professors and pupils of the 
institution were Euclid, Ctesibius, Calli'maohus, Ara'tus, 
ArI8To'phane8, and Arista&chus, the last-named of whom 
was considered the most distinguished critic of antiquity. 

In the Greek quarter also stood the Mausole'uh of the 
Ptolemies, or the SoMO, containing also the remains of Alexander 
the Great. The population of Alexandri'a was about half a mil- 

QuasnoHs. — ^Who completed his work ? — ^Where was the city situ- 
ated? — How was the city laid out? — ^Into how many parts was it 
divided ? — ^What part contained the bulk of the public institutions ? — 
Describe the library. — ^Where was a part of the library placed ?— When 
was the library of the Museum destroyed ? — ^When the Serapeion ? — 
How did they come in possession of manuscripts ? — ^Name some of the 
men of learning whose names are associated with the Museum. — ^What 
was the Mausoleum ? — ^What was the Somo ? — What is said of the i)opu- 
lation ? 



ALEXANDRIA. 



125 




VOWEB or PHAB08. 



lion, and consisted of people from all parts of the world. They 
formed a very gay, yet very industrious, population. Beside the 
exporting trade, the city had numerous manufactories of paper, 
linen, glass, and muslin. It had four harhors, the largest of 
which was sheltered from the North winds by the island of 
Pharos. On this island, and named after it, was the celebrated 
Tower of the Pharos. It consisted of several stories and is said 
to have been four hundred feet in height. It was built about 
800 B.C., and the architect, as the inscription stated, was 
So'stratus of Cnidus. A telescopic mirror of metal was placed 
at its summit, in which vessels might be discerned at a very 
great distance. The old lighthouse of Alexandria still occupies 
the site of its ancient predecessor. 



QuESTiONS.--»What is said of the trade of the city ? — What of the 
Pharos ? 



11* 



126 LIBYA. 



§ eS. iETHIOPIA. 

(^ At^taTiOy Hiiheschj Kordo/anj and NubiaJ) 

JElhiopia, as an ethnic designation, comprised those who 
dwelt between the equator, the Red Sea, and the Atlantic. 
Strabo gires the Ethiopians the epithet Hesperian, and Hero- 
dotus treats of them as inhabiting all South Libja. The name 
iBthiopians {A:*^:trzs^y .£ih^op€s) is probably Semitic, but the 
Greek geographers deduced it from al^m-^j and accordingly 
applied it to all the sun-burmt^ dark-complexioned races above 
-^vpt 

BoUBdaiiCft. — North, JEarvrus and Mabma&'ica; East, 
SiNVS Arab'icus and Mars Rubbum; South, and West, un- 
known* 

KouitUBB. — Ga&'bata, ITlepblas, Montes Ethiop'igi, 
and Montes Lun^. 

Bivtn. — ^As'tapus, Astab'oras, andNiLus. 

InhaUtlllts. — ^The Greeks gave them the following names: 
IcilTilYo'PHAQI CV/^t>of<i9^<, Didk-taters)^ inhabiting the shores 
of the Sinus Aran>icus, South-East of Sye'ne; TBOOLo'DTTiE 
( r^iHwyio^wrae, Cave-dw^ers) ; Htlo'phaqi (^TXo^dyot, Wood- 
mftrs) ; ElepHANTO'pHAQI (^EXt^ayro^droi, E/ephant-eaters). 
The^e tribes belonged to the Semitic race, and spoke a language 
closely allied to the Arabic They were nerer wholly conquered 
by the nu)st powerful rulers of Egypt or of Rome, while in the 
^arlio9t times the Ethiopians often inraded Egypt, and even 
aubduod it for a time. In the reign of Augustus, an Ethiopian 
qum>n, CunMaoe, defeated C, Petronius. One of her officers of 
iiUt<> waa btiptixod by the eyangelbt Philip (Acts, viiL 36). 

Qv«iiTtON».<^| <U1« >That is said of the origin of tlie names ^Ethiopia 

aiul «1ClhU>plan«t and how wer« they used? — Name the boundaries of 

♦hU Un«l.-^Th« mountainau — The riTers. — ^The tribes. — To what race 

•'*»l \\m(^^ ht»lm»|t?— Whttt Unftuage did they speak? — ^Who conquered 

* \Vh»M in i»aM of CHndaw ?- -Wlml of one of her officers ? 



MERGE. 127 

In the Old Testament Ethiopia stands for the Heb. Gush 
(the name of the son of Ham), which designates Eastern Arabia 
and the region South of -^gypt (with Ram, Heb. Cham, hot, 
comp. the Coptic name of ^gypt, Chemi, i. e. hla^k, hot, and 
the Heb. designation of -^gypt, the Land of Ham, Ps. cv. 23). 

The Ethiopia of the New Testament was South of ^gjpt on 
the Nile, including the island of Me'roe, and corresponded to the 
modem Nubia and the adjacent parts of Abyssinia, forming a 
separate kingdom governed by a succession of females, all bear- 
ing the name Can'dace (Kavddxrj), Compare the designation 
Pharaoh, i. e. the King, the common title of the Egyptian 
monarchs down to the time of the Persian invasion. 



MEKOE. (15 MepdTi,) 

Me'roe was in fact a peninsula situated between the Nile, 
As'tapus, and Astab'oras. It is described, however, by the 
ancient geographers as an island. 

Prodnctions. — Gold, iron, and copper were among its mine- 
rals, and date-palms and almond trees among its valuable trees. 
It contained large meadows, affording fine grazing for cattle, and 
also forests abounding with wild beasts and game. 

From the remotest times Meboe was the principal seat of 
commercial intercourse between iBthiopia and the Red Sea; 
afterward it was one of the chief centres of the great trade 
carried on between Carthage, the East, and the interior of 
Libya. 

Lihabitants. — ^The military caste of Egypt, having left their 
country on account of some injustice received from the king, 
settled in Me'roS (660 B. c), brought the natives of that region 
under their sway, and established a system of government 
somewhat similar to that of Egypt, but differing from it in the 

Questions. — ^What does ^Ethiopia signify in the Sacred Writings? — 
Where was Meroe situated ? — What is said of its productions ? — What 
of its commerce ? — Who settled in Meroe ? — Why ? — What was the dif- 
ference between the goyernments of Egypt and iEthiof ia ? 



I-T^ LIBTJ 



j i isi^j izra Tnfi T^*ta Tin fcwet «f tke kxc^ lad m die greater 



r^HM — Ii Xi r.«i ia.£ iiiir^a: 
: A . x: 11 I ^»' -a ^ aa»i ArcL* {Ji^^ Aoooir)^ two 

«» "I unit 1. 7. ;»'J . Is s a Gre^ ixBcnpdoa in vluch the 
jvoicnf^s^ it r^itKBj Eiaer ^««b are i tt mil e d . 

1 ?^:uxiLi.:^ TaiBiij;, t&e c^arf aut for the ixorj 

I. Hlfir 41 T^/vt; . :Ite Teeri:«5 capital of JEthiopia and 
X< *% ^Li 1 r^miu^t.'«i iwg of duf kzpsst temples of Ammon. 

• »-.ii'*r i/»wnf ; XiJAT^ Bbkkxi'cs Paxchrt'sos (i.e. 
;Uxt «.-'/'* ''*. frum rs T-jjiairT a> y-c*-/ An*jI:K the piincipal 
r i'i n-i'^ uf lilt ^IrT^iduo^ . asi Bs&E^n'cs Epidi'&es. 



f Mu MARMA'RICA i M^jmljooT act the AMMONIUM. 



U — ^Xorth, the MxpiTiBKASKAN; East, JEoTPTUs; 
S^th. LiBTA bmuos : West* CraEtA'iCA, 

f*^*^***** — ^Mjlkxa'udjl The tribe m the interior were 
entirelr d:feff>nt fK>ai thcee on the eoasi. The btter doselj 
i«tfe=:kied the ^^rpciaiB^ 

C itm > — CHCK<oxE'$rs 3i[agxa, TAFOSi'uSy and Pa&jeto- 
MVM ^/.V^^rrv r.«^, al>v> called Ammonia, a ki^e dtj which was 
a d^lvtsdesoT of EcTTT-t. 

$ottth <!kf >lani:a*nca. in the midst of the sands of the Libyan 
IV^i^vt^ VTHS a $mall and heantifnl spot^ an (Kasis (now Siuxtli), 
}Mi Vk fvmnlains and siiade, and loxvriant with Terdnre, in 
whioK $t\xH) thi^ <vlobnted temple of Ammon, the Tarn-headed 
l^^) ^^^ TH^b«$^ tn a gn^re of dates Soath of the Ammoninn], 
W^"^^ th^ bVN$ S^aj$« the high tempeiatore erf* which is not 

\j^ V»VU\N». VThAl «;»« th<» capital c>f Meroe? — ^Whmt is the Mona- 
H^^HtMm vM^l^taMmul^ { ^ What ai« lh« twondariesof Marauurica? 

\V^«I \m mX\\ ^ (l« laha(iiianta:^--Wkat of its towns ?— Where was 
4k^ ^liMhU ^\f AwiM^ «ltHatihl?~What waa AwoMm t—Deaeribe the Fons 



CYRBNAICA. 129 

observed during the heat of the day, but at night it is per- 
ceptibly warmer than the surrounding atmosphere : 

Esse apud Ammonis fanum fans luce diuma 

FrigiduSf at calidut noctumo tempore ferUir. — Lacretius, VL 848. 

Here also was the ancient and much-famed oracle ( iimmo- 
nium), so difficult and dangerous of access through the Libyan 
deserts. It was consulted by Alexander the Great, whom it 
saluted as the Son of Ammon. In honor of this eyent^ Alex- 
ander is represented on some of his medals as bearing a ram's 
horn in his hand. 



CYRENA'ICA (17 Kupjiyata) or PENTAFOLIS. 

Boundaries. — North, the Mediterranean; East, Marma'- 
rica; South, Libya Interior; West, Reqio Syr'tica with 
the Ar^ PniLiENORUM. 

Capes. — Promontorium Borion and Phycus. 

Mountains. — The country is dotted with mountains of con- 
siderable elevation, which reach their highest point of altitude 
near Cyre'ne. The valleys are very productive, though frequently 
traversed by ravines which carry off to the sea the winter 
freshets, and which at no season of the year are destitute of 
water. 

Elver. — Lathon. 

Inhabitants. — ^These were Theroean colonists who married 
Libyans. Colonists afterward came from all parts of Greece, 
principally from Peloponne'sus, Creta, and the other islands of 
the iBgaean Sea. 

Cities. — ^The Jive principal cities from which the country 
derives its name of Pentap'olis are: (1.) Cyre'ne (Kup-^vr)), the 
chief city; (2.) Bereni'ge (Bspsvixr^^f previously Iles'peris; 

Questions. — Who consulted the Ammonium ? — How is Cyrenaica 
bounded? — Name the capes. — Describe the character of the country. — 
What is said of the inhabitants ? — What five cities constituted the Pen- 
tapolis ? 



130 LIBYA. 

(3.) Babca {Bdpxa), from which most of the inhahitants retired 
to Ptolema'is on the coast to enrich themselves by commerce ; 
(4.) Arsinoe QAp(Ttv6Ti)^ earlier Tauchi'ra; (5.) Apollonia 
QAitoXXatvia)j the harbor of Cyre'ne, and birthplace of Eratos'- 
thenes. 

Cyre'ne was the chief city of the Libyan Pentap'olis. It was 
founded by Battus, who led thither a Lacedaemonian colony from 
Thera, one of the Cydades (630 B.C.). Five centuries later, 
Cyre'ne, with the whole territory of the ancient Pentap'olis, was 
bequeathed to the Romans by the last of the Ptolemies, surnamed 
Apion (97 B.C.) It was afterward formed into one province 
with Creta. Cyre'ne was the birthplace of Aristippus and 
Calli'machus. a part of its inhabitants left it and founded 
Barca, in the interior (560 B.C.), which became a powerful 
state, and extended its dominion over the whole of Western 
Cyrena'ica. Fifty years later, the city was taken by the Persians. 



§ 66. AF'RICA or Africa Provincia. (^ Kapxr^dona.) 

Name. — Africa is the name by which the quarter of the world 
still called Africa was known to the Romans, who received it 
from the Carthaginians and applied it first to that part of Africa 
with which they first became acquainted, the part namely about 
Carthage, and afterward to the whole continent. 

Boundaries. — North, the Mediterranean; East, Cyrena'- 
ica ; South, Libya Interior ; West, Numidia. The Western 
limit was the river TuscA. 

Divisions. — It was divided into three parts : 

(1.) Regio Syr'tica, or Tripolita'na — now Tripoli — the 
South-Eastern^part. 

Questions. — What was the chief city ? — When and by whom was it 
founded? — When and by whom was it bequeathed to the Romans? — 

Who were natives of Cyrenaica ? — What is said of Barca? J 65. What 

did the name of Africa mean in its early and restricted sense ? — How 
was this country bounded ?— What river formed the western boundary ? 
-s it divided? 



AFRICA. 131 

(2.) Zeugita'na (which embraced the modern Frigeah, prob- 
ably a corruption of the ancient Africa), the Western part. 

(8.) Byzacium^ a narrow strip of land along the Eastern 
coast. 

Mountains. — Mons Giglius and Mons Cirna. 

Capes. — Promontorium Ceph'alje, Promontorium Mer- 
cuRii, Promontorium Can'didum (Cape Blanco), 

Gulfs. — Syrtis Major and Syrtis Minor. 

Eivers. — Cin'yphus, Triton, Bag'rada. 

Productions. — Grain and fruit in abundance. Precious stones 
were among its mineral treasures. The plains of Zeugita'na and 
Byzacium were always proverbial for their fertility. 

Inhabitants. — ^The original inhabitants were Caucasians, and 
not negroes. At an early period colonists from the Western 
coast of Asia, chiefly from Phoenicia, settled on these shores. 

Cities. — I. In Kegio Syr'tica : — 

Leptis Magna, a Sidonian colony, the birthplace of Septimius 
Seve'rus; O'ea and Sa'brata. From these three cities the 
country derived the name of Tripolita'na. 

II. In Zeugita'na : 

Ades, South of Carthage. Hanno waa conquered here by 
Ke'gulus (268 b. c.) ; U'tica, the oldest Phoenician colony, was 
the scene of Cato's suicide (47 B. c). 

III. In Byzacium : 

Capsa, in an O'asis. It waa the place where Jugurtha 
deposited his reserved treasures. It was destroyed by Marius. 

Islands. — In the Syrtis Minor are the islands Meninse and 
Cerci'na. 

QuEStiONS. — Name the mountains. — Capes. — Gulfs. — Rivers. — What 
is said of the productions ? — What of the fertility of the soil ? — What 
of the inhabitants ? — What three towns were in Regio Syrtica ? — What 
towns in Zeugitana ? — In Byzacium ? — What islands in Syrtis Minor ? 



ffiv^Mib.) 



.rrx ..•!, _' ^.^ -« a.*^** ^*.*— Tfciin* jawfy 
• •fc'^ -■*■— ■— 'jr :•-'» a. yn inLi: ',«* Bboi 

imfk — T'ltf ^ntf ru-3aji » It FSfunaa or^n and 
:. ■-'• .r-t. Tie r-17 «eiu ^ iaxv k«a so oDed to 
^ ^^ : r'.u r7* c-i-:r r*iigT.i'*'a.T .xnr i& i& Beighboriioody 

. •*» • . »j ' "r-.-a T'^? xiiliir lii; A'c«ii.'« of the princess 
'" . ,• " ▼-a^ s~ii^..»t ;a x ^tfO-zzsiLi v&ere the Afiican 
> ii: :; ;.■ ■-!« X-Locmatiua 4s«i arrn»eh« nearest 
^ •.'^>. u ra>c -f >i: '7 I-> .'1:^*1-1. Btksa. snrroanded 
. • t i«:^!« ia«I :r- «¥^i:«£ iC 2^ sgTiTi'S br a magnificent 
^ .x-.-v^.u«£ XT .£s:*£ari-i2«w w lizils n]p<« the nanow 
,^ ^ :i 5- 7%.'i •i>?L<:i. la :2»» 5;arsk eeBtiiiTB.c. its empire 
..V. .v<*«>-i*^£ je^ itr Jif i2«f Al:ars ct tfce P^ilaeniy neur the 
x; .^^ i^«i v^fsmri xru^ tLe coast to the Ocean, 
v'^ V ■*^* T^rs ia: Vv« 3i? ^ Okoiaxm'^ comprised only 
. ^ uui» rjjr^t.'r scatx titf strip of cwst along vhieh 
> ^•^ iu ^ix£ ue fcnrcraL I:s iisikibhattts were called 
Nxv-».v»-»»»s^ * »\ri^ p*.cci!a:iott frrnhed bj the intermar- 
^u<u v.»it ^ct^eni vi:a sL-e Batrrcs. At the beginning 
^...v '^ i'i X^ai^e^ vC vVo::iia^ 7CvX«X> inhabitants. In its 
..vvk'ljt"Tu ^.C3w*?. :t s*x^ became the greatest com- 
..*.ns =t'« ^' -^ wx.'Tv^l ManxiSkCtures were established 
S . o Affci cu!•^i^?^ : swat wealth flowed into the 



^ .XK >»^.t^ ^ ^"4 rf tk* aame ©f Carthag* ?— When 

,J . ifcv %Wai* -W!ky«* «s it situated ?— What was 

r vM*^<[wa* HvJ'^ ^ **'^ *^ tmpm of Carthage ex- 

"^ ll ^ »i.x x^at*l>i<^v*?-What wew the sources of its 



CART n A no 



133 



J^B^ 




city by the import of the precious metals. The dependencies 
were all obliged to pay a heavy tribute, mostly in produce. The 
military system of Carthage grew out of the necessity for foreign 
conquest which was entailed upon the state by the extension of 
her commerce. Her armies were composed of her Libyan sub- 
jects, who served by compulsion ; of the mercenaries from the 
Nomadic tribes; and finally of her slaves. Such soldiers had 
never any real attachment to the cause in which they fought, nor 
to the commanders under whom they served. The city is im- 
mortalized on account of the three wars it sustained against 
Home, each characterized by an imperishable name : — 
I. B.C. 264—241: Re'gulus. 
II. B. c. 219—202 : Han'nibal. 
III. B. 0. 149 — 146 : Scipio the Younger. 
The third Punic war terminated with the total defeat and 
demolition of Carthage by Scipio Africa'nus Minor. A century 



Questions. — Describe the military system of Carthage. — How many 
wars did it sustain against Rome? — What was the result of those wars? 
12 



•m^ J jermii izL sat oi ^nat. E^d^HEaaZJr a vk oat of tbe 

li* r-»KS lann** Jts^^^iia^*-! irni 'iTLiu^ art CypciaB. its oele- 
^nr^i iL^^.Cw loii T-stzlIZill. vou vu jrrbULT a ■oare of tihe 
r^ Is w» sLk-sx 3 j v-snswrtr^ a^ 3l 4S>, aadi ■ode tiie 
t-'.Z'iil nf xie TjL!!r:.iJL Kr!b^z«:v a Afasi. It vbs re*aV<« 
: 7 SfJiiarrcsi. a. 3. i*i^ ami ioaZj dearoroi br tke Anlis 
xi^S^ Hiritax. JL7^ ^-47. £T»a i^ n=as of Cakzhagx are 
itrw brrjj^i :r xlit* unjisc jisn^aifti : aai is srae ci^t be VotaHy 
xiX3i:«:l. rf jc'izi«( ^r:kja ar^^is :£ aa ft^-KCact £d Hit attic to 



<CT. AELS FHnJEXOrROL 

Tk5$ mf ax tE^fTxaed tUue-^u^i. tot mmr Ae bue of tbe 
G^at Srrts^ ca ibe N.ctk coast ef Afan. vbkb saiked tbe 
IccariirT brtw«» tbe terriicdes of Cakthagb and CrmiTss. 
Tbe Biae b dorrvdi £r:a tbe f ctjovin^ sit^cy : Tbe cidzeiis of 
&rcbaze aad CTT^'ae bavisf bad m«eb <i&Eefisioe le spec t in g the 
boQiKkncs of tbe t«i> states* Rsohcd to ix tbcaa at tbe pwnt 
vbere tbeir lespectzre cbtots. sent S]«tb at tbe sane time, sboold 
meet. Tvo brotbefs. saiMd PbuscL vere i^^poiBted for tbis 
Bcrrice oo the put of tbe Gaztba^riitiBS and adranced much 
farther than tbe CrTOiaBaBs. Talerios Ma'ximos states that 
thej set forth before tbe time agreed opoii ; hot Saflost mere! j 
Bays that thej were a cc use d oi tbe tzick bj Ae Cyrenjeaiis 
becaose they bad tbemselxeB mtsBBanased tbe afidr, and that 
they vodd consent to the boiuidaiy being ixed at tbe place of 
meetiDg only on condition that the Cmhaginian eoToys sboold 
snbmit to being buried aliTe on tbe qiot. Tbe ^lifaeni accepted 
'the proposal and sacrificed thdr liTcs for tbdr country. The 



QrB«nos8. — ^When was Cartha^ rebuilt ? — ^Name two celebrated men 
of Chrutian Cartliage.~Wbea did it become tbe capita] of tbe Vaad^il 

Kingdom?— Wben was it finally destroyed? { 67. Wbat were tbe 

^ Pbilstnonim ? — How is tbe name said to baxe ori^ated ? 



NUMIDIA. 135 

Altars of the Phtlasnij Arjb Phil^no'rum, were erected to 
mark the scene of their heroic deed. 



NUMIDIA. {^ Nofiadia, i. e. land of Nbmades; Algiers.^ 

Boundaries. — ^North, the Mediterranean ; East, Africa ; 
South, Libya Interior; West, Mauretania. 

Mountains. — ^Thambes, Aurasius. 

Onlf — Sinus Numid'icus. 

Capes. — ^Promontorium Hippi, Stoborrum. 

Elvers. — Rubrica'tus, Amp'saoa, and Tusca. 

Prodnctions. — Olives, oranges, dates, grain ; it was indeed one 
of the principal granaries of Rome. Its marble also was much 
esteemed. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Numidians were a faithless, merciless, 
unscnipulous race, a nation of horsemen, who formed the chief 
cavalry of the Carthaginians. King Massinissa, who, till the age 
of ninety, cotdd mount his horse with agility, represents the true 
Numidian. 

Cities. — ^The number of towns must have been considerable, as 
Numidia had in the fifth century one hundred and twenty- 
three episcopal sees: Hippo Reqius, residence of St. Augus- 
tine ; Yaqa, a large commercial town ; Cirta ( CoTistantine), the 
capital of the ancient Numidian kings; Zama, the memorable 
scene of the victory obtained by Scipio Africa'nus Major over 
Ha'nnibal(202B.c.). 

Questions. — What are the boundaries of Numidia? — Name the moun- 
tains. — Gulfs. — Capes. — Rivers. — Productions. — What is said of its in- 
habitants? — ^Who was the type of a true Numidian? — Did it contain 
many towns ? — How many episcopal 'sees did it possess in the fifth 
century ? — What was the residence of St. Augustine ? — What was the 
ancient capital ? — ^Who was defeated at Zama ? — When ? 



X.ISTJU 



§ Ca. XArr^ETAXIA. .;f Jfcnw,*-*, Morocco^ Fez.^ 



L — ^Th.'^ <«:<E:i:rj ^ns frcoL the earliest times inbabited 

»T A J•^ zl*: »n«^I J^-«-u«V Jf^^-^MffWz^f, JKm^'ytfttft), Maurtn 

i jc:*«*»/t. fr.ci zrx:.M«#^. usd : vkenee Jfcor, JIforotYti), and thus 

crLr z^:«f^ tie ::.it.w* Mji^rrr-smij^ as h is spelt in inscriptioDs and 

Sa^aduaes. — ^X:n&. tbe MEDirauuLsncAX; East, Numidia; 
S:c:i. Gjettlia; We?t» OrfAxraL 

I>XTisids&. — Mackxtaxia Cjesasxexsis, the Eastern part, 
and Maixitaxia Tingita'xa, the Weston. 

MovBtUBBL — Atlas* b\jm vhich the Ailtintie Ocean derives 
its KLsit^. The B^icre, Atl,ts^ hoverer, vas, bj the ancients^ 
giTeB oc!t to the ttoastaiB? in Manretama Tingita'na. 

Cape. — PROMoxTvvRirM Apol'usisl 

BiTOS. — Phcth, Srerm, Chixalafh. 

Ftodactioiis. — Gnin. timber, piecioos stones, and metals. 

Citm. — Igil'giuSs Saldjb, Icosirx ( J/#;t>rs — Oaesar^a); 
SiGA, the ancient residence of Srphax; TiSQis^Tangief); Saul, 
the remotest Roman city on the Western shore. Off the Western 
coast, the rxsui^ Fortcxa't^ (prob. the Canaries) were not 
follj known to the ancients until 72 b. c, and below them Hes- 
PS'itlDUM rxsuLfi, possiUj the Bissa^osj lying a little aboye 
Sierra Leone. 

QuKSTioHS. — I 6& What is said of the name of Manretania ?— What 
of its boundaries ? — How is it dirided ? — ^What mountain range is in 
ManretanU Tingitana ?— What cape?— What riyers?— Productions?— 
Towns ?— What island groups were situated off the western coast ? 



G-ffiTULIA. 137 



G^TULIA. (yj ratrouXtcL^ 

Boundaries. — ^North, Mauretania; East, Garamantes; 
South, NiOEB ; West, Oce'anus. 

Straba employs the term Gcetulia as a general designation for 
Central Africa. He speaks of the Gsetulians as the chief ele- 
ment of the population of Libya. 

Inliabitaiits. — ^The GcdtuHans and the Libyans constituted 
the two great races who originally inhabited the North-Western 
regions of Africa. When various tribes from Asia invaded the 
coast on the North, and formed permanent settlements, the 
Gsetulians were forced to retire into the interior, toward the 
regions lying South of Mount Atlas. They led a nomadic life 
upon the O'ases of the Western part of the great desert of Sahara. 
There was no correspondence of physical characteristics between 
the Gffitulians and the Negro race. The former are described as 
warlike in disposition, savage in manners, subsisting mainly on 
the flesh of animals whose skins served for garments, dwelling 
in tents, or wandering at large without any settled abode. The 
tribes who inhabited the Eastern part of the Desert were called 
Garamantes, of the same generic type with the Gsetulians. The 
large trade carried on with Libya Interior was mainly in the 
hands of the Ga&tulians and Garamantes. The extreme South- 
western portion of Africa, as well as the South-Eastem portion, 
was believed to be inhabited by iBthiopians. 

QuBSTiONS. — What are the boundaries of GsBtulia? — What did Strabo 
comprise under the term Gsetulia ? — What is said of the Qastulians ? — 
By whom were they driven into the desert ? — ^Were they negroes ? — How 
are they described ? — ^Who were their eastern neighbors ? — ^What is said 
of their trade ? — Who inhabited the interior of Africa ? 
12* 



138 £UROPA. 



§89. EFRO'PA. (jiEhpdnni,) 

Earo'p«y as known to the Ancients, corresponded with the 
mi^era cooUnent, neither in respect of houndaries; divisions, 
ph\^ottl aspect, nor popoktion. 

HaM6. — ^The earliest use of this name to designate a division 
of the Earth, is in the Homeric Hjmn to Apollo (w. 250, 251), 
where in distinction from Pdoponne'sos and the Greek islands it 
seems to denote the long and deeply embayed line of the Thracian 
shore, hence called, according to Hermann, Eurt/pa, from 
€opiK'^\ the Broad-faced Land. Bochart thinking the term 
had a Phoenician origin, pointed out its resemblance to the Heb. 
Ereby as if it were, the Event u*j Land. With this view compare 
the remarks on the derivation of Arah^ Arabia j page 89. The 
MjthoIogerSy as is well known, said that this continent took its 
name fVx>m Kuro'pa, the broad-browed danghter of the Phoenician 
king A^^'nor, who was carried to Crete by Jupiter. 

Bou&dAri6t% — ^Thej were different at different epochs. At 
tht> downfall of the Roman republic thej were as follows : North, 
IV'^k'anvs Skptkntriona'lis; East, Tanais and Palus M^o'- 
Ti»j Wt>*t» Ock'anvs Hssp£Rius, or Mars Atlan'ticum; 
S\H\lh« Mahk, or Marb Internum (Mediterranean). 

S^Mi 8tndta> and O11I& — (1.) Mars Sarma'ticum, or Scr'- 

THUM'M {^H^dhV iSei$\ 

^i)^^ Mauk SvK'virrM, or Sinus Coda'nus (the Two Belts). 
{\\ 'i Mahu Ukhman^ICVM, or Cim'bricum {German Ocean), 
{\\ KWUTVM OaCuCVM, or BritAN'niCUM {Strait of 



^\^w«^^\^^H»> I <^)Pk IVMMt a«<^W«it Europe correspond with the modern 

Vs^^^Hh^H^ ^ \<\\^\ \% M^U \^f lh«» d«HTation of the name?— What were 

^UvU^l ^\ \\\^ ^\\\^ wf (h« Rom»n repuUio? — ^Name some seas. 



EUHOPA. 139 

(5.) Mare Britan'nicum (British Channel). 

(6.) Mare Cantab'ricum (Bay of Biscay). 

(7.) Fretum Gadita'num, or Herculeum (Strait of Gib- 
raltar). 

The Mediterranean Sea contained the following Gulfs and 
Straits : 

(1.) Mare Ibe'ricum, or Balea'ricum, along the Eastern 
coast of Spain. 

(2.) Sinus Gal'licus (Gulf of Lyons). 

(3.) Mare Sardo'um, West and South of Sardinia. 

(4.) LiGu'sTicuM Mare (G\ilf of Genoa^. 

(5.) Mare Tyrrhe'num, or In'perum, West of Italy. 

(6.) Mare Sic'ulum, or Auso'nium, along the Eastern coast 
of Sicily. 

(7.) Sinus Tarenti'nus (Gulf of Taranto). 

(8.) Mare ADRiArtcuM, or Su'perum (the Adriatic). 

(9.) Mare Ionium, along the Western coast of Greece. 

(10.) Mare MoMvyL (the Archipelago), subdivided as fol- 
lows : 

a. M(we Thracium : the Northern part, North of the 
Island of Euboea. 

h. Mare MyrU/um: South of Euboea, At'tica, and Ai^golis. 

c. Mare Ica^rium: the South-East part of the ^gsean, 
along the coasts of Garia and Ionia. 

d. Mare Crefticum, along the Northern coast of the Island 
of Creta. 

§ 70. Eztent-^The surface of Europe, inclusive of the islands, 
is in fact nearly four millions of square miles. In the time of 
the Roman Empire it was estimated to contain but three millions 
of square miles; its length being supposed to raoge between 
26,800 and 30,800 stadia, and its breadth between 9,200 and 
•12,700 stadia. 

Questions. — ^What gulfs and straits did the Mediterranean contain ? 

How is the Mare ^gaeum subdivided ? 2 "^- What is said of the 

extent of Europe ? 



118 LIBYA. 



§69. NILUS (iVelioc), iV3e; El-Bahr or Bahr NU. 

As ^gypt was the principal resort of the scientific men 
of Greece, the Nile has been more accurately examined and 
described bj classical authors than any other river of the ancient 
world. 

Name. — ^The Scripture designation Sihor (Jer, ii. 18), the 
Coptic Chemi (used both of the country and the river, as in 
Gr. 6 At/uitTo^, the Nile; ^ Af/oTcroq, ^gypt) and the old Latin 
Melo (jiiXa^) were applied to it with reference to its color 
imparted by the dark slime. Virgil says of it : 

JEt viridem JEgyptum nigra feeundat arena, — ^Georg. iv. 291. 

The name NeiXoi;, Nitus^ Nil, Nile is probably the Hebrew 
Nahal, river, in which language it was also termed iVoAa^Miz- 
raim, Eiver of Egypt. 

The river is formed by the confluence of two head-streams, th^ 
As'tapus, or Bltbe River (^Bahr-el-Azrek), and the White River 
(^Bahr-d-Abiad). These two streams meet at a point near th^ 
site of the modem Khartoom. Here the united waters, after 
passing through a gloomy defile, traverse the immense plains of 
Meroe. At the extremity of the peninsular tract of Meroe, the 
Nile receives its last tributary, the Astab'obas (Tacazze). 
Between this point and Sye'ne, a distance of some seveix hundred 
miles, occur the Cataracts of the Nile, in reference to which the 
ancients invented, or credited, many astounding marvels. There 
are seven cataracts in all, none of them remarkable for their 
height. The descent of the second, or great cataract, is but 
eighty feet in a space of five miles. 

At Sye'ne the Nile enters JSgypt. Between Sye'ne and La- 
Questions. — { 59. What information do we possess in regard to the 
Nile ? — What two rivers unite to form the Nile ? — ^What is said of its 
various names ? — What river does the Nile receive beyond Meroe ?— • 
How long is the region of the Cataracts? — ^What is said of the rapids? 
— ^Where does the Nile enter J3gypt? 



NILT7S. 



119 



TOP'oLis the country is sterile and nnattractive, because deprived 
of the fertilizing benefits of the periodical inundations, in conse- 
quence of the high and rocky character of the river banks. 
Beyond Latop'olis^ descending the stream, the shores become less 
rugged, and allow a broader verge for the earthy deposits of the 
river, and at Thebes the banks present a broad plain on each 
side, little elevated above the ordinary level of the water. Near 
Dio'spoLis Pabva (How) starts the Canal of Joseph (Bahr- 
Tuisovff), which flows in a direction parallel with the river 
through Arsi'noe. A little below Memphis, the rocks on both 
sides of the river diverge again, and the river expands into the 
wide alluvial plains of the Delta. At Cebcaso'rum the river 
put forth two main branches, and beside these, five others. 
These seven arms of the Nile were known by the following 
names, going from East to West : the Pelusian, the Tanitio, 
the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitic, and the Cano- 
PiAN. Of these only two— at Damietta and Rosetta — are now 
navigable. The three main arms were the Pelusian, Seben- 
nytic, and Canopian. 

Upper and Lower ^gypt, during the periodical inundations 
from the beginning of July to the beginning of November, 
present the appearance of a vast inland lake, and the Delta, 
of a wide gulf. These inundations are caused by the torrents 
of rain in the month of May in Ethiopia. The rise of the river, 
which was ordinarily from fifteen to sixteen cubits, was carefully 
noted on instruments called Nilo'meters, at Primis, Elephanti'ne, 
and Memphis ; and its rising or falling was reported by letters 
to different parts of ^gypt, in order that the farmers might 
calculate the time for the commencement of sowing. 

The Nile, as the sole sustainer of life in a seeming valley of 
death, was worshipped with divine honors. 

Questions. — "Where does the valley of the Nile commence ?— What 
was the Canal of Joseph? — Where does the separation of the Nile 
begin ? — ^What are the three main arms ? — ^Describe the inundation of 
the river. — What was the use of the Nilometers ? — Why was the state 
of the river reported throughout the country ? — ^Why was the Nile wor- 
shipped ? 



114 LIBYA. 

race; this is proved by osteology and by tbeir monumental 
paintings^ where negroes often appear^ but always either as tribu- 
taries or captives. The valley of the Nile contained probably 
three races^ with an admixture of a fourth. On the Eastern 
shores were Arabians ; on the Western, Libyans. The ruling 
caste was an elder branch of the Syro- Arabian family. The 
fourth class was the mixed race of the ruling caste and the 
Libyans. The number of its inhabitants varied from four 
millions to six millions. 

§ 67. Cities. — I. In ^gyptus Inferior (ij xdrw x^P^l 
ElrR%f\ Lower -^gypt : 

(1.) Cano'bus, or Cano'pus (^Kdvtofio<:, or JTavaiTroc), near 
the Western (Canopian) mouth of the Nile. Before the founda- 
tion of Alexandri'a, it was an important commercial town. It 
was celebrated for the temple and oracle of Sera'pis. 

(2.) Sais (2af(:), on the Eastern bank of the Canopian arm 
of the Nile. It was the ancient capital of Lower ^gypt, and 
contained the tombs of the Pharaohs. 

(3.) Nau'cratis {Na()xpari<i)j a colony of Mile'tus, and settled 
as early as 550 b. g. It was the only place in ^gypt where the 
Greeks were allowed to settle or foreign merchants to resort 
(Hdt. ii. 178, 179). It was the birthplace of Athenaeus and 
Julius Pollux. 

(4.) Busi'ris (BooiTipi^^j celebrated for an immense temple 
dedicated to Isis. 

(5.) BuBASTUS (Boufia<rTo<:)j noted for the temple and festi- 
vals maintained in honor of Dia'na Bubastis. 

(6.) Pelusium (Jl-^Xobffiov), on the Eastern side of the East- 
ernmost mouth of the Nile, which derived its name from the 
town. In the Scriptures it is called Sin,2JidL ''the strength of 
Egypt*' {Ezek, xxx. 15), on account of its strong fortifications. 

Questions. — How many races did the valley of the Nile contain ? — 

Describe them. — What was the number of its inhabitants? § 67. 

Where was Canobus situated ? — What was the ancient capital of Lower 
^gypt? — What is said of Naucratis? — ^What temple was at Busiris?^- 
What at Bubastus? — ^Where was Pelusium situated ? — What is it called 
In the Scriptures ? 



uHGYPTUS. 



115 



It was often the scene of battles and sieges, from the epoch of 
the defeat of Sennacherib (713 B.C.) down to its capture by 
Octavia'nus (31 B. c). It was the birthplace of Ptolemy, the 
geographer. 

(7.) Heliop'olis (^HXcouizoXt^), in the Sacred Writings called 
On, or Beth' shemesh; the chief seat of the worship of the Sun. 
The priests attached to this worship were reputed to be very 
learned. Joseph married Asenath^ the daughter of one of the 
priests of On ( Gen. xli. 45). 

(8.) Heroop'olis QHpdnov itSXiq, or 'Hp6)j the residence of 
the ancient shepherd kings. In the neighborhood of this town 
was Goshen, the rich pastoral district in which the Israelites 
first dwelt. It was situated along the Eastern bank of the Nile. 
(9.) Oneion, founded by the Hebrew priest, Onias (173 B.C.). 
The city and temple existed for nearly two hundred and fifty 
years. 

(10.) Arsinoe QApffiydf^, Suez)y at the entrance of the canal 
which connected the Red Sea with th6 Nile. 

(11.) Cercaso'rus (Kepxdffdtpog), situated at the point where 
the Nile separated into different channels. 

(12.) Other towns : Nicop'olis, Hermop'olis, Androp'o- 
Lis, Gyn^oop'olis, Mendes, Tanis, Buto, Babylon. 
(13.) Alexandri'a (see page 123). 

Delta, the name of the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, 
was given by the Greeks to that part of Lower -^gypt which was 
comprised between the Canopian and Pelusian branches of the 
Nile and the sea, and which had a triangular form, somewhat 
resembling the Greek letter Delta, A. • • 

§ 58. II. In Middle jEgypt, or Hepta'nomis (ij fura^h x^P^ 
or 'ETtravofit^; Wusta'ni), which extended from the division of 
the Nile at Cercaso'rus to Chemnis : 



Questions. — ^Who was bom at Pelusium ?— What was the chief seat 
of the worship of the Sun? — Where was Goshen situated ?— What is 
said of Oneion ?-r-What of Arsinoe? — Of Cercasorus? — What is the 

Delta ? — ^Why was this name given to the northern part of -^gypt ? . 

I 58. How far did Heptanomis extend? 



106 ASIA. 



COS. (JTac, Stanco, i. e. l^ rdv Kw,) 

It lies in the mouth of the Golf of Cer'amus. Its principal 
oitj, which was immediately opposite to Halicarnassos^ bore the 
same name. It was destroyed by a severe earthquake. Cos was 
colonized from Epidaurus^ and the new settlers introduced the 
worship of JSsculapius. A school of physicians was attached to 
its temple, the great collection of votive models in which made 
it a kind of museum of anatomy and pathology. Cos was the 
birthplace of Hippo'crates, of Apelles, and of Ptolemaeus Phila- 
delphus. Its wines, unguents, and purple dyes, were famous 
throughout Oreece. 

§ 62. SAMOS. {Sdfioi:, Samo,) 

The name denotes a height^ especially one situated near the 
sea-shore. This island rises conspicuous South-East of Chios, 
opposite Mount M/cale, from which it is separated by a narrow 
strait, the scene of the battle of My'cale (479 B. c). It is a very 
rugged, though picturesque and productive island. There is 
good timber on the hills, which have abundant and valuable 
quarries of white marble. It was celebrated for its pottery. 
The population was a mixture of Carians, Lesbians, and lonians. 
They were eminent in sculpture, bronze-casting, architecture, 
painting, and ship-building. Their coins are very numerous and 
worthy of attention. Samos was in very ancient times governed 
by tyrants, the most celebrated of whom was Poly'crates (555 B.C.), 
who had a larger navy than any other Grecian prince or state of 
his time, and extended his sway over many of the neighboring 
states. After his death it became subject to Persia. The city 

Questions. — ^Where is the island of Cos situated? — What worship was 
lAtroduced there? — What is said of its temple? — Who were born at Cos? 

— For what was Cos especially celebrated ? J 62. What does the word 

Samos mean ? — Where is the island situated ? — Describe the island. — 
What is said of its population ? — What of its government ? — What is 
said of Poly crates ? — To whom was the island subject after his death? 



LESBOS. lOV 

of Samos belonged to the Ionian confederacy. It founded the 
following five colonies: Samothra'ge, Ancea, Perinthus, 
BiSANTHEy and Amorgos. Samos was the birthplace of 
Pythag'oras. Juno was the chief divinity of the island. 

CHIOS, (^/oc, Scio,) 

This is an island in the iElgsean Sea, opposite Er'tthr^. 
It is very rocky, ill provided with water, and rain seldom falls 
there. It produced, however, com and excellent wine. The 
Chian wine was exported to Italy and is often mentioi^ed by the 
Boman writers. The town of Chios was on the Eastern side of 
the island. It belonged to the Ionian confederacy, and was one 
of the places that claimed to be the birthplace of Homer. A 
rock on the Northern coast of the island is still called Homer's 
School. 

LESBOS. {AiiTpo<:, MityUn,) 

It is a mountainous and very healthy island, situated near the 
coast of Mysia, exactly opposite the opening of the Gulf of Adra- 
MTTTIUM. It contained six cities which, even in Homer's time, 
were populous and flourishing : Mittle'ne, Ptrrha, Eressus, 
Antissa, Arisba, and Methtmna. 

Inhabitants. — ^The iEolians of Lesbos were among the most 
cultivated and refined of the Greeks, and were distinguished as 
well for their mercantile enterprise and bravery as for their 
marvellous attainments in the art of poetry conjoined with music. 
Lesbos produced the poets Alca&us, Sappho, Ari'on, Terpander; 
and the philosophers Pit'tacus and Thcophrastus. 

Questions. — To what confederacy did the city of Samos belong?-^ 
How many colonies did it found? — Give the names. — Who was bom at 
Samos ? — ^What goddess was worshipped there T — Where is Chios situ- 
ated ? — ^What are its productions ? — Where was the town of Chios ? — f o 
what confederacy did the island belong? — What is Homer's School? — 
Where is Lesbos situated? — How many flourishing cities did it contain? 
— Name those cities. — What is said about the inhabitants? — What cele- 
brated men were bom at Lesbos? 



108 ASIA. 

Towni. — (1.) Mttile'ns (Mvrdijvif) was tlie most important 
city on the island, and has continned without intermission to 
flourish, up to the present day. It was originally built upon a 
small island, and possessed two harbors. The beauty of the 
ancient city and the strength of its fortifications are celebrated 
both by Oreek and Roman writers. It was the birthplace of 
Sappho and Alcasus. 

(2.) Methtmna (JTi^^ptva) was situated on the Northern 
shore of the island. It was chiefly celebrated for the excellent 
wine produced in its neighborhood : 

yon eadem arborUmt pendet vindenUa nostrii, 

Quam MethymmEo carpit depalmite Lesbos, — ^Virg. Georg. 11. 89. 

Methymna was the birthplace of the poet and musician Arisen. 

§ 68. TE'NEDOS. (TVvs^oc) 

This is a small island near Troas, which acts a prominent 
part in the Trojan legend. During the wars of the Macedonians 
with the Romans, Te'nedos, owing to its situation near the 
entrance of the Hellespont, was an important naval station. In 
the war against Mithrida'tes, Lucullus fought a great naval battle 
near Te'nedos. In Virgil's time it had fallen into insignificance : 

£st in eonspectu Tenedos notissima fama 

Insula, dives opum, Friam dum regna manehant. 

Nunc t€tntum smus, et statio mal^fida earinis, — Mn. II. 21. 

QvBSTiONS. — Describe Mytilene. — Describe Methymna. — Who was 
born there? — Describe Tenedos. — What battle was fought in its 
neighborhood? 



INSULA ABGINUSiE. lOQ 



PATMOS. (Jldrixo^, Fatmo.) 

Patmos was one of the Spo'rades in the South-Eastern part 
of the ^gsean Sea. This little island is celebrated as the place 
to which St. John was banished toward the close of the reign 
of Domitian^ and where he wrote the Revelation. The cave ie 
still shown where the Apostle is said to have received th^ 
revelation. 




raSUK^B ARGINU'S.^. (af 'Aprtvodtrat.) 

These are three small islands near the mainland of ^'olis, 
opposite Cape Malea. Off these islands the ten commanders 
of the Athenians, after a severe struggle, gained a victory over 
the Spartans, in which battle Callicra'tidas^ the brave Spartan 
king, was slain (406 b. c). 

The other islands of Asia in the Mediterranean are Car'pa- 
THUS, Chalcia, Telos, Calymna, Lepsia, Casus, Stme, 
Nist'bus, Leros, Psyba, Tnsul^ CoBASsiiB and Ic'abus, 
with the towns, Istri and (Eni. 

Questions. — What is said of Patmos? — ^Where are the ArginussB situ- 
ated ? — Who were conquered in its neighborhood ? — ^What other islands 
of Asia were situated in the Mediterranean ? 
10 



no ASIA. 



THE ISLANDS OF ASIA IN THE PROPONTIS: 

OphiU88A| Halc/ns, PROOONNsfsuS (Mat'fMyra), celebrated 
for its marhU (Lat. fnarmoT)^ Bxs'bicus and Demone'si. 



THE ISLANDS OP ASIA IN THE PONTUS EUXI'NUS : 

rNSULiB Ctanx^ or PsTRiB, two locks at the entrance of 
the Bos'poros Thncins, Thtnias^ rNSULA Gf ucuMy Abetias. 



THE ISLANDS IN THE OCE'ANUS IN'DICUS. 

Tapboba'ne (^Ceylon) was the onlj one of the East Indian 
islands which was known to anj great extent to the ancient 
geographers. 

Mountains. — Montes Ga'libi and Mons Malea. 

Kivers. — Phasis, Ganges, Aza'nus. 

Cities. — Anuroobammum and Maaqbammum. 

Other islands: Iabadius {Java\ PNsnLiE Sattro'rum 
(Anamha islands)^ and some of the Laccadives and Maldives. 

QuiSTiONs. — ^What islands of Asia are situated in the Propontis ? — 
In the Euxinus ?<— What islands in the Oceanus Indious? — ^What is said 
of Taprobane f 



LIBYA. Ill 



§54. LTBTA. (fiAtpi^:) 

This was the general term applied to the Soathem coast of 
ihe Mediterranean^ between the mouth of the Nile and the shores 
of the Atlantic. It was sometimes regarded by ancient authois 
as an independent division of the earth's sarface^ and sometimes 
as a part of Asia, and even of Europe. 

The name, Libya, comprised — 

I. In the Homeric Aqe (1000 b. o.); all that portion of the 
African Continent lying to the west of -^gypt : 

II. In the TIME OF Hbro'dotus (444 b. o.), the Southern 
coast of the Mediterranean, between the Isthmus of Suez and 
the Bed Sea in the East, and the Oce'anus in the West and 
South. Hero'dotus (iv. 42) states that some Phoenicians at the 
order of Necho, king of ^gypt, set sail out of the Red Sea, 
coasted along the shores of ^gypt and Ethiopia, passed into 
the Ocean^ and at the expiration of three years reached the 
waters of the Nile. The mariners, who took part in the voyage, 
reported the phenomenon of the sun appearing on their right 
hand, i. e. to the North, as they sailed round Li'bya. This 
expedition probably set out about 600 B.C. From the facts 
furnished by those engaged in it, Hero'dotus was led to deter- 
mine the boundaries as above given*: 

III. In the TIMES OP Ptolemy (200 a. d ), the account of 
the voyage mentioned by Hero'dotus appears either to have been 
forgotten, or to have lost credit. The Western coast was then 
known as far as the In'sulae Fortuna'taB (prob. the Canaries), 

Questions. — { 54. What is said of Libya ? — ^What did it comprise in 
Homer's time ? — ^What in the time of Herodotus ? — Give the boundaries 
of Herodotus. — How did he arrive at this determination ? — What are 
the boundaries as stated by Ptolemy? — ^Are his boundaries better or 
worse defined than those of Herodotus? 



K.imT^ 



^j&csa. lars ic l-g^, joii •^*» 7'''^^*^ Ooo^ w w|i|wnfii to be 
IcnimL— ^rXTTT^ .£:s3:fl^ Mmi, Xakmak'ica, 



Frriii :ha Sjr^arL cxsremzij of dke 4eb fonBod bj- the 
vaS(*r5^ :r ri^ N~-I»f« a, jltozt v:&ZeT kohl*^ aLoois tke eovise of the 
117 ir "t^T-ia*! Xfoir-li^ sj ^e «et:c v^ise Laxor &plaijs its 
isccci^-::::x rxfas. Amdba- ^aZ^fj cxte&«& horn this point to 
the neks ov'sr v^:k t&e XHe £&IL$ im a mu iiiim of lapids. 
T> ice West ^ tif^ens df svui ; to the East, Boantms vhose 
hftse are vk«he«i W the Ajnicia G^^ The Ddta and these 
'i^eT? ccfXLpRse cibe v^:«e of J&:TpC3& ^.S^rptos is remark- 
able as coe of the nost ssirersiIlT froitfiil countnes of the 
earth, and as the aiicde of a Terr aacieat people. 

Msbcl — ^It vas call^ bj the eax{xess inhahitants CHna 
{Blarh Land ; in the Old Testa^ment Mazok or MlZRAlM 
{Bf/nffTy or A-r/fn;, ace. to G^ecias; acc- to Bochait, the For- 
iijtfd- ; ly the Arak?^ M£sx ; in the classes^ .Sgtptts 3 and 
in the Coptic, Ei^E^exit ;rA< I-^vi.J.si^yff L^Tn*i). 

BottndaziHL — ^Xorth, the ^Ieditxr&axeax ; East, Isthmus 
or Arsixoe and Scots ARABfcrs; Soath, JBthiopia; West, 
3Iar)iar'ica and LtbTtci 3Iqxtes. 

Ittfiiioiti. — ^Delta, subdivided into ten districts, or pnmnces, 
caDed nomet (yogioi, L e. dirisions) ; HsFTA^xoMis, into seven; 
and ThebaIs, into ten. In eailier times, the nnmber of nomes 
was onlj twelve; afterward they were increased to forty-five. 
Each name had its pecoliar creed, temple, priesthood, and 
magistrates. 



(tOMno%§, — Name the different eoimtries of labya. { 65. De- 

«cHbe iEgypiufl.— What is said of ito name ?— Give the boundaries of 
iKgyptUi,— How was it divided ?— What was a nome ? 



jEaTPTUS. 118 

Extent — ^^gypt is that portion of the valley of the Nile 
between the islands of Philae and Elephanti'ne, and the Mediter- 
ranean Sea. The average breadth of this valley is abont seven 
miles^ only five of which contain arable land. The broadest part, 
between Cairo and Edfon, is about eleven miles, and the nar* 
Towest, including the river, about two miles. The length is 
about 526 miles; its area about 11,000 square miles (a little 
larger than the state of Vermont). 

§ 66. Kountains. — Montes Ara'bici, . Montes Li'btci, 
MoNB Casius, on the Wesftm flank of which was the tomb 
of Pompe'ius Magnus. 

Capes. — ^Drep'anum and Lefts. 

River.— NiLTJS (tke Nile). (See page 118.) 

Lakes. — ^Laotts Tanis, Lacus Bu'tiga, Lacus Mareo'tis, 
Lagvs MiE^RiDis (see page 120), Laous Sibbo'nidis, which 
Milton describes as 

that SerhotUan hog 
'Twixt Domiata and Mount Canus old. 
Where armiea whole have eunk, — ^Par. Lost, U. 293. 

This vast tract of morass was the scene of the partial destruo- 
tion of the Persian army 350 B. 0. 

Productions. — ^Wheat, onions, beans, melons, cotton, pap/ms, 
lotus, olives, and figs. The following animals were native to the 
soil : oxen, horses, turtles, alligators, serpents, ichneumons, the 
ibis, tro'chili, and various kinds of fishes. 

Climate. — The climate of the Delta is not so hot as Upper 
^gypt, which belongs to the tropical regions. 

Population. — ^No nation has bequeathed to us so many or 
such accurate memorials of its history and national characteristics 
as the Egyptians have done. They were darker in hue than 
the Greeks or the neighboring Asiatics, but were not a negro 

Questions. — What is the length and breadth of iEgypt ? — How manj 

square miles does it contain ? 2 ^^* Name the mountains. — The 

capes. — The rivers. — The lakes. — Describe Lacus Sirbonidis. — ^What 
anny was destroyed there? — ^Name the chief productions. — What is said 
ahoiit the climate? — ^What is said of the ^(^ptians? 
10 * H 



114 LIBYA. 

raoe; this 10 proyed by osteology and by tbeir monnmeDtal 
paintiDgs, where negroes often appear^ but always either as tribu- 
taries or captives. The valley of the Nile contained probably 
three races^ with an admixture of a fourth. On the Eastern 
shores were Arabians; on the Western, Libyans. The ruling 
caste was an elder branch of the Syro- Arabian family. The 
fourth class was the mixed race of the ruling caste and the 
Libyans. The number of its inhabitants varied from four 
millions to six millions. 

§67. Cities. — I. In ^gyptus Inferior (ij xdrw x^P^S 
ElrRif^ Lower -^gypt : 

(1.) Cano'bus, or Cano'pus (Kdvat^oi;, or KdvwT:o<:)y near 
the Western (Canopian) mouth of the Nile. Before the founda- 
tion of Alexandri'a; it was an important commercial town. It 
was celebrated for the temple and oracle of Sera'pis. 

(2.) Sais (^afc), on the Eastern bank of the Canopian arm 
of the Nile. It was the ancient capital of Lower iBgypt, and 
contained the tombs of the Pharaohs. 

(3.) Nau'cratis (^NauxpaTK:'), a colony of Mile'tus, and settled 
as early as 550 b. c. It was the only place in -^gypt where the 
Greeks were allowed to settle or foreign merchants to resort 
(Hdt. ii. 178, 179). It was the birthplace of AthenaBUS and 
Julius Pollux. 

(4.) Busi'ris (Booffipi^'), celebrated for an immense temple 
dedicated to Isis. 

(5.) BuBASTUS (BooPaffToq), noted for the temple and festi- 
vals maintained in honor of Dia'na Bubastis. 

(6.) Pelusium (n-qXo6<Tiov)y on the Eastern side of the East- 
ernmost mouth of the Nile, which derived its name from the 
town. In the Scriptures it is called iS'm,and "the strength of 
Egypt*' (Ezek. xxx. 15), on account of its strong fortifications. 

Questions. — How many races did the valley of the Nile contain? — 

Describe them. — What was the number of its inhabitants? § 67. 

Where was Canobus situated ? — What was the ancient capital of Lower 
iEgypt? — What is said of Naucratis ?—What temple was at Busiris?— 
What at Bubastus? — Where was Pelusium situated ? — What is it called 
In the Scriptures ? 



uEGYPTUS. 115 

It was often tbe scene of battles and sieges, from the epoch of 
the defeat of Sennacherib (713 B.C.) down to its capture by 
Octavia'nus (31 B. c). It was the birthplace of Ptolemy, the 
geographer. 

(7.) Heliop'olis QHkiob-noktt:'), in the Sacred Writings called 
Ouf or Beth' shemesh ; the chief seat of the worship of the Sun. 
The priests attached to this worship were reputed to be very 
learned. Joseph married Asenath^ the daughter of one of the 
priests of On ( Gen. xli. 46). 

(8.) Heroop'olis (Hpcjwv noXt^y or ^Hpw)y the residence of 
the ancient shepherd kings. In the neighborhood of this town 
was Goshen, the rich pastoral district in which the Israelites 
first dwelt. It was situated along the Eastern bank of the Nile. 

(9.) Oneion, founded by the Hebrew priest, Onias (173 B.C.). 
The city and temple existed for nearly two hundred and fifty 
years. 

(10.) Arsinoe QApfftvd-q, Suez), at the entrance of the canal 
which connected the Red Sea with th6 Nile. 

(11.) Cercaso'rus (Kepxdffwpo(;\ situated at the point where 
the Nile separated into different channels. 

(12.) Other towns : Nicop'olis, Hermop'olis, Androp'o- 
Lis, Gyn^oop'olis, Mendes, Tanis, Buto, Babylon. 

(13.) Alexandri'a (see page 123). 

Delta, the name of the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, 
was given by the Greeks to that part of Lower -^gypt which was 
comprised between the Canopian and Pelusian branches of the 
Nile and the sea, and which had a triangular form, somewhat 
resembling the Greek letter Delta, A. • • 

§ 58. II. In Middle JEgypt, or Hepta'nomis (ij fiera^b x<opa, 
or 'EizTavofit^; Wusta'ni), which extended from the division of 
the Nile at Cercaso'rus to Chemnis : 



Questions. — ^Who was bom at Pelusium ?— What was the chief seat 
of the worship of the Sun ? — Where was Goshen situated ?— What is 
said of Oneion ?-r-What of Arsinoe? — Of Cercasorus ?— What is the 

Delta ? — ^Why was this name given to the northern part of ^gypt T . 

i 58. How far did Heptanomis extend? 



116 LIBYA. 

(1.) MsMFHlS {Mi/if v:; Mem/). After the M of Thebes, 
this waa the capital of JEgyptns, and ia the time of Psammet^ir 
chns it became the rojal residence. From this period until its 
destruction by Camb/seSy it enjoyed its greatest prosperity. It 
was the centre of inland commerce^ and also of the religion 
of Apis and Sera'pis. From the priests attached to the national 
worship, the Greeks derived their knowledge of ^Egyptian annals, 
and the rudiments also of their philosophical systems. At 
Bnsi'ris in the neighborhood of Memphis were the three highest 
pyramids. (See page 120.) 

(2.) Cbocodilop'olis (Uiter, AninoBj ^Apetv^fj), the seat of 
the worship of the Crocodile. In the NorUi-West part of the 
city was the fiunoos Labyrinth (^Aafi6pty^o<:). It contained no 
less than three thoosand apartments, of which fifteen hundred 
were subterranean, and an equal number were above ground, 
the whole being surrounded by a massive wall. It was divided 
into courtSi each of which was surrounded by colonnades of 
white marble. Hero'dotus, who saw the upper part of it, was not 
allowed to enter the subterranean passages, which were the 
burial-places of its royal founders, and of the sacred Crocodiles. 
The whole arrangement of the edifice was a symbolical repre- 
sentation of the zodiac and the solar system. 

(3.) Other cities: Acanthus, Nilof^olis, Hebaoijeop'olis, 
Hebmopolita'ne Pht'lace. 

In this part of Mgj^t are included three (Vases QOdaei^^ 
Abdtret^; prob. the Coptic Ouahy a resting-place) — ^fertile spots 
in the Libyan desert — ^which, in the Roman time, were used as 
places of banishment. 



QuESTiOHB.— What city became the capital of -ffigypt after the fall 
of Thebes ?— When did Memphis become the royal residence ?— What 
temples were in Memphis? — ^What influence did they exercise upon 
Greece ?— What is said of Crocodilopolis ?— Describe the Labyrinth.— 
What are Oases ?— Whence probably the name?— Where are they 
situated? — For what purpose were they used by the Roman govem- 
ment? 



JEOYPTUS. 117 

IIL In Upper JEgypt, or Theba'is (Sr^fiaU or ol &m r6icoi; 
Said), It extended from Chemnis to Sye'ne^ where Ethiopia 
begins : 

(1.) Aby'dus (^Afiudoii), Here inis the celebrated tomb of 
Osi'ris. The celebrated list of the Pharaohs, known as the 
Tablet of Abt/du9j now in the British Museum^ was found at 
Ab/dus. 

(2.) Ten'tyra (Tivrupa, Den'derah), where still exist the 
best preserved remains of an ancient Egyptian temple. A 
portion of the ceiling, which was adorned with a representation 
of the zodiac, was taken down and transported to Paris. From 
this zodiac an extravagant idea of the antiquity of the temple was 
entertained, until the key to the interpretation of hieroglyphics 
was discovered. 

(3.) CoPTUS (Kokt6(;, Ku/t; whence probably the modem 
Kiibtf Copts, i.e. the people of ^gypt mainly descended from 
the ancient jEgyptians as distinguished from foreigners; com- 
pare the word i^f-yoTrr-oc) was noted for its extensive commerce. 
^A road led from the city to Bereni'ce (Bepevixjj), by which the 
merchandise of India was transported to the Nile. Its neighbor- 
hood was celebrated for emeralds and other precious stones. 

(4.) Sye'ne (ZoTJvjjy Assouan), at the Southern boundary of 
Egypt, near the rapids of the Nile. 

(5.) Elephanti'ne, and Phil^ QEke^avrivri, ^iXai), two 
islands in the Nile, celebrated, the former for its rock-hewn 
temples ) the latter, for its rich architectural remains. 

(6.) Other towns: Lycop'olis, Aphroditop'olis, Ptolb- 
ma'is Hermh, Hermonthis, Latop^olis, ChemniS; later 
Panop'olis. 

(7.) THEBiB. (See page 122.) 



QuBSTiONS. — How far did Thebais extend? — What is said of Abydos? 
— ^What is said of Tentyra ? — ^What of its zodiac ? — For what is Coptus 
noted? — ^What is said of the name? — What was found in its neighbor- 
hood? — What two celebrated islands were situated in the Nile? 



118 LIBYA. 



§ 60. NILUS (Aelioc), NUe; El-Bohr or Bohr NU. 

As ^gypt was the principal resort of the scientific men 
of Greece, the Nile has been more accurately examined and 
described bj classical authors than an j other river of the ancient 
world. 

Name. — ^The Scripture designation Sihor (Jer, ii. 18), the 
Coptic Ckemi (used both of the country and the river, as in 
Gr. 6 AtruTTTOi;, the Nile; ij Aironro<:, Mgy^t) and the old Latin 
Melo (fiiXa^) were' applied to it with reference to its color 
imparted by the dark slime. Virgil says of it : 

Ht viridem JE^yptum nigra fecundat arena, — Gkorg. ir. 291. 

The name NeUoq, Niltu, Nil, Nile is probably the Hebrew 
Nahalj river, in which language it was also termed NahalMi^ 
raim. River of Egypt. 

The river is formed by the confluence of two head-streams, tho 
As'tapus, or Blue Ewer (Bahr-eUAzrek), and the White River 
{Bahr-elrAhiad). These two streams meet at a point near the 
site of the modem Khartoom. Here the united waters, after 
passing through a gloomy defile, traverse the immense plains of 
Meroe. At the extremity of the peninsular tract of Meroe, the 
Nile receives its last tributary, the Astab'obas (^Tacazze). 
Between this point and Sye'ne, a distance of some sevea hundred 
miles, occur the Cataracts of the Nile, in reference to which the 
ancients invented, or credited, many astounding marvels. There 
are seven cataracts in all, none of them remarkable for their 
height. The descent of the second, or great cataract, is but 
eighty feet in a space of five miles. 

At Sye'ne the Nile enters -^gypt. Between Sye'ne and La- 
Questions. — J 69. What information do we possess in regard to the 
Nile? — ^What two rivers unite to form the Nile? — ^What is said of its 
various names? — What river does the Nile receive beyond Meroe? — 
How long is the region of the Cataracts? — What is said of the rapids? 
"^ere does the Nile enter ^gypt ? 



NILUS. 



119 



TOP'OLTS the country is sterile and unattractive, because deprived 
of tbe fertilizing benefits of the periodical inundations, in conse- 
quence of the high and rocky character of the river banks. 
Beyond Latop'olis, descending the stream, the shores become less 
rugged, and allow a broader verge for the earthy deposits of the 
river, and at Thebes the banks present a broad plain on each 
side, little elevated above the ordinary level of the water. Near 
Dio'spoLis Pabva (How) starts the Canal of Joseph (Bahr- 
Yussovff), which flows in a direction parallel with the river 
through Arsi'noe. A little below Memphis, the rocks on both 
sides of the river diverge again, and the river expands into the 
wide alluvial plains of the Delta. At Cergabo'bum the river 
put forth two main branches, and beside these, five others. 
These seven arms of the Nile were known by the following 
names, going from East to West : the Pelusian, the Tanitic^ 
the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitic, and the Cano- 
PIAN. Of these only two — at Damietta and Rosetta — are now 
navigable. The three main arms were the Pelusian, Seben- 
nytic, and Canopian. 

Upper and Lower iBgypt, during the periodical inundations 
from the beginning of July to the beginning of November, 
present the appearance of a vast inland lake, and the Delta, 
of a wide gulf. These inundations are caused by the torrents 
of rain in the month of May in Ethiopia. The rise of the river, 
which was ordinarily from fifteen to sixteen cubits, was carefully 
noted on instruments called Nilo'meters, at Primis, Elephanti'ne, 
and Memphis ; and its rising or falling was reported by letters 
to different parts of ^gypt, in order that the farmers might 
calculate the time for the commencement of sowing. 

The Nile, as the sole sustainer of life in a seeming valley of 
death, was worshipped with divine honors. 

Questions. — Where does the valley of the Nile commence? — What 
was the Canal of Joseph? — ^Where does the separation of the Nile 
begin ? — ^What are the three main arms ? — Describe the inundation of 
the river. — What was the use of the Nilometers ? — Why was the state 
of the river reported throughout the country ? — Why was the Nile wor- 
shipped ? 



120 LIBYA. 



i 60. LAKE MCERIS. (^Moipido^ Xitef^, Birket-el-Kcrun.) 

This was the most extensiye and remarkable of all the 
iEgjptiao lakes, and connected with the Nile by the Canal of 
Joseph. Its area was not less than two hundred and ten square 
miles. It was regarded by Hero'dotns (iL 149) as an artificial 
lake, but more correctly by Strabo as a natural basin. The name 
of Aasi^Noi was originally applied to a limestone valley, in the 
Southern part of which was this lake. In remote periods, the 
entire valley was a reservoir for the waters descending from the 
sorroanding hills. As the waters gradually sabsided, the highest 
points of land were cultivated, so that the whole of the lake was 
diversified by fertile islands and .peninsulas, all of which dis- 
appeared during the annual inundations. 

According to Hero'dotus, there were two pyramids in the lake 
itself, each rising three hundred feet above the surface of the 
water, and sinking to an equal depth below it. On the top of 
each was a colossal human figure of stone, seated on a throne. 



PYRAMIDS. 

The Pyramids are only found in Central -^gypt. They are 
quadrilateral piles of masonry, consisting of a series of platforms, 
rising one above the other, each smaller than the one on which 
it rests, and consequently presenting, where the smooth casing of 
stone has been removed as material for building, the appearance 
of steps which diminish in length from the bottom to the top. 
The pyramids are built in groups, some of which lie at a con- 
siderable distance from each other. It has been supposed that 

QiTESTiOHS.— J 60. What is the most remarkable of the Egyptian 
lakes?— Howls it connected with the Nile?— What is its extent?— Is 
it an arUficial lake?— In which nome was it situated ?— Describe the 
lake during the time of the inundation.— What is said about the pyra- 
rnldH In Uie lake ?-Where are the Pyramids to be found ?-What kind 
>^ are they ?— Are they built separately ? 



PYRAMIDS. 



121 



they were intended for royal sepulchres, and also as places of 
observation for astronomical purposes. They range in a line 
running exactly North and South; and while the direction of the 
faces to the East and West might have served to fix the return 
of a certain period of the year, the shadow cast by the sun, or 
the time of its coincidence with their slope, might have been 
observed for a similar purpose. The length of one of the sides 
of the base of the greatest pyramid, if multiplied five hundred 
times, is exactly equal to a geographical degree. The cube of 
the Nilo'meter, if multiplied two hundred thousand times, gives 
precisely the same measurement. 




9^*38*^ - 



The most important group of pyramids is near the modem 
village ElrGizehj distant about seven miles from the banks of 
the Nile. Here is also the largest pyramid. Hero'dotus was 
informed by the priests of Memphis that thb was built by 
Cheops, kiog of -^gypt (900 B.C.); that the body of Cheops was 
placed in a room beneath the base of the pyramid ; and that the 
chamber was surrounded by a vault, to which the waters of the 



Questions.— What were the Pyramids intended for ?— Describe how 
they were placed. — In what relation are the sides of their base to a 
geographical degree? — Which is the most celebrated group? — Which 
is the largest pyramid? — Mention the particulars that are known 
of this pyrainid. 
11 



1^ LIBYA. 

Nile wen enoTcjed bj a sabtannean passage. The entrance to 
Uie pjTunid is in tiie North faee. Within are passages leading 
to chambtfs lined with gruute, in one of which is a saroo'pbagus 
of red granite, sapposed to be the tomb of Cheops. 



S «L TH£B^ (^i^) AND ITS NECROFOLIS. 

Thebes was the religions capital of aD who worshipped Ammon, 
fnxn Pelosinm to Axn'me, and from the (Xases of Li'bja to the 
Red Sea. In the Sacred Writings it is called No, or No-x\mmon; 
its naUTC appellation was T-APB, i. e. the ffead, whence its classical 
name Theb^ : it was also designated in the classics, Dio'spolis 
MAQXA. Sitnated in an extensiTe plain, it occupied both banks 
of the Nile. On the eastern bank the population was densely 
crowded, while the western was more especially appropriated to 
the nnmeroos temples with their avennes of sacred Sphinxes. 
Rumors of its greatness had reached the Greeks of Homer's age, 
who called it the hundmi-^ied (9rj^aQ — al^ ixarojiizuXoi ei^rt^ 
n. ix. 381 seqq.), which expression may not have been intended 
as an allusion to the gates of the ct/jr (as the city was not sur- 
rounded with any waU), but employed to indicate the number 
of tempU-gaies. 

The power and prosperity of Thebes are to be ascribed to three 
causes: 

First, its trade : in ancient times it was the great emporium 
of Eastern Africa. 

Second : its manufactures of linen, glass, and pottery. 

Third : its religion. Thebes was to ^gypt and to Ethiopia 
what Rome was to medieval Christendom. When the stream 
of commerce had turned to Alexandii'a, and its manufactures 



QuBSTiONS { 61. What was the religions capital of ^gypt?— How 

was it called in the Sacred Writings? — ^What was its natiye appellation? 
—What its classical?— Where was it situated ?— How was it divided?— 
What was the difference between its two divisions?— How is it called by 
lltunur ?— What does this appellation signify ?— Name the sources of the 
Y of Thebes.— Which of these sources operated the longest? 



ALEXANDRIA. 123 

bad fallen into decay, Thebes still remained the headquarters 
of the -Egyptian priesthood, and the principal retreat of old 
J^gyptian manners and customs. The remains of the mona- 
ments of Thebes, exclusive of its sepulchral grottoes, cover on 
both aides of the river a large space, of which the extreme 
length from North to South is about two miles, and the extreme 
breadth from East to Wfst about four. The most remarkable 
buildings are the coUectiop of temples called El-Karnak, after 
a modern village in the vicinity. They lie on the Eastern bank 
of the river, and consist of a large temple and several smaller 
structures, surrounded by a massive brick wall. 

Another striking object is the Vocal Memnon, the most 
Northerly of two gigantic statues, which formerly gave forth 
at sunrise certain sounds, probably due to some unexplained 
physical cause. On the Western bank was the Necrop'olis, 
the City of the Dead, Here are found the rock-hewn painted 
tombs, the Tombs of the Kingsy whose sculptures so copiously 
illustrate the history, the arts, and the social life of ^gypt. 
Here also are the famous Obelisks, pillars of stone square 
at the base and terminating in a point, generally formed out 
of a single block of granite. Several of them have been taken 
to Europe and erected in Rome, Paris, and London. 

§ 62. ALEXANDRFA. 
(^AXe^dvdpeta, Alexandria, ElSkanderish.) 

The capital of the empire of the La'gidae, so called from 
Lagus, the father of Ptolemy, the founder of the Egyptian 
monarchy. It was the Hellenic capital of^^gypt. It was 
founded (332 B. c.) at the North East angle of the Lake 
Mareo'tis, by Alexander the Great, who himself traced the 

Questions. — How great was the extent of the city ? — Describe the 
temples of El-Kamak. — What was the Vocal Memnon? — Where was the 
Necropolis situated? — Describe the tombs of the kings. — ^What is an 

obelisk ? { 62. What was the Hellenic capital of JSgypt ?— Who was 

its founder ? 



I:i4 LIBYA. 

ground-plan. It was not completed until the reign of Ptole- 
niaeus Philadelphus, and received embellishmeDts and addi- 
tions from nearly every potentate of the Lagid dynasty. The 
city was situated on a narrow strip of land hetween the Lake 
Marco'tis and the sea, and was laid out in parallelograms, the 
streets crossing each other at right angles. The whole city was 
divided into three parts: the Greek, Egyptian, and Jewish 
quarters, each of which was surrounded hy its own walls. The 
Greek quarter contained the most conspicuous of the puhlio 
huildings. Here was the far-famed Library and Museum, 
enriched with 700,000 volumes, a part of which were placed in 
the temple of Sera'pis in the Egyptian quarter. Here were 
also deposited the 200,000 volumes of the library of Per^gamus, 
presented by Marcus Anton ius to Cleopa'tra. The library of the 
Museum was destroyed while Julius Caesar was blockading the 
Greek quarter (48 B.C.); that of the Serapeion is said, but 
without any very positive proof, to have been destroyed by the 
Saracens at the command of the Caliph Omar (a. d. 650). The 
collection was begun by Ptolemaeus Soter, and largely augmented 
by hb successors. They retained all the original manuscripts 
which were brought to Alexandri'a, and gave copies of them to 
their proper owners. Among the professors and pupils of the 
institution were Euclid, Ctesibius, Calli'machus, Ara'tus, 
Aristo'phanes, and Aristarchus, the last-named of whom 
was considered the most distinguished critic of antiquity. 

In the Greek quarter also stood the Mausole'um of the 
Ptolemies, or the SoMO, containing also the remains of Alexander 
the Great. The population of Alexandri'a was about half a mil- 

Questions. — ^Who completed his work ? — Where was the city situ- 
ated? — How was the city laid out? — ^Into how many parts was it 
divided ?— What part contained the bulk of the public institutions ? — 
Describe the library. — ^Where was a part of the library placed ? — When 
was the library of the Museum destroyed ? — ^When the Serapeion ? — 
How did they come in possession of manuscripts ? — Name some of the 
men of learning whose names are associated with the Museum. — What 
was the Mausoleum ? — ^What was the Somo ? — What is said of the popu- 
lation ? 



ALEXANDRIA. 



125 




lioD, and consisted of people from all parts of the world. They 
formed a very gay, yet very industrious, population. Beside the 
exporting trade, the city had numerous manufactories of paper, 
linen, glass, and muslin. It had four harbors, the largest of 
which was sheltered from the North winds by the island of 
Pharos. On this island, and named after it, was the celebrated 
Tower of the Pharos. It consisted of several stories and is said 
to have been four hundred feet in height. It was built about 
800 B.C., and the architect, as the inscription stated, was 
So'stratus of Cnidus. A telescopic mirror of metal was placed 
at its summit, in which vessels might be discerned at a very 
great distance. The old lighthouse of Alexandria still occupies 
the site of its ancient predecessor. 



QuBSTiONS.— .What is said of the trade of the city? — What of the 
Pharos? 



11* 



126 LIBYA. 



§ 68. ETHIOPIA. 

(ij Al^tomay Habeschy Kordo/an, and Nubia.) 

Ethiopia, as an ethnic designation, comprised those who 
dwelt between the equator, the Ked Sea, and the Atlantic. 
Strabo gives the Ethiopians the epithet Hesperian, and Hero- 
dotus treats of them as inhabiting all South Libya. The name 
Ethiopians {Ah9tone^, jEthi^opes) is probably Semitic, but the 
Greek geographers deduced it from at^w-w<pj and accordingly 
applied it to all the sun-hurnt, dark-compleximied races above 
Egypt. 

Boundaries.— North, Egyptus and Marmar'ica ; East, 
Sinus Arab'igus and Mare Rubrum ; Souih, and West, un- 
known. 

Mountains. — Gar'bata, E'lephas, Montes Ethiop'ici, 
and Montes Lun^e. 

Eivers. — As'tapus, Astab'oras, and Nilus. 

Inhabitants. — The Greeks gave them the following names: 
ICHTHYo'PHAGi (^IxOoofpdyot, Fish-eaters), inhabiting the shores 
of the Sinus Ara'bicus, South-East of Sye'ne; TROGLo'DYTiB 
(Tpwylodoraty Cave-dwellers) \ Hylo'phagi (^TXo^dyot, Wood- 
eaters) ; Elephanto'pHAGI QEXsipavrotpdyoiy Elephant-eaters). 
These tribes belonged to the Semitic race, and spoke a language 
closely allied to the Arabic. They were never wholly conquered 
by the most powerful rulers of Egypt or of Rome, while in the 
earliest times the Ethiopians often invaded Egypt, and even 
subdued it for a time. In the reign of Augustus, an Ethiopian 
queen, Can'dace, defeated C. Petronius. One of her officers of 
state was baptized by the evangelist Philip (Acts^ viii. 36). 

QuBSTiONS. — J 68. What is said of the origin of the names -Ethiopia 
and Ethiopians, and how were they used ? — Name the boundaries of 
this land. — The mountains. — The rivers. — The tribes. — To what race 
did they belong? — What language did they speak? — Who conquered 
them ? — What is said of Candace ? — What of one of her officers ? 



MERGE. 127 

In the Old Testament iBthiopia stands for the Heb. Cuth 
(the name of the son of Ham), which designates Eastern Arabia 
and the region South of ^gypt (with Ham, Heb. Cham, hot, 
comp. the Coptic name of iEgypt, Chemi, i. e. black, hot, and 
the Heb. designation of -^gjpt, the Land of Ham, Fs, cv. 23). 

The Ethiopia of the New Testament was South of j^gypt on 
the 'Nile, including the island of Me'roe, and corresponded to the 
modern Nubia and the adjacent parts of Abyssinia, forming a 
separate kingdom governed by a succession of females, all bear- 
ing the name Can'dace {KavSdxrj). Compare the designation 
Pharaoh, i. e. the King, the common title of the Egyptian 
monarchs down to the time of the Persian invasion. 



MERGE. (^ Mepdrj.) 

Me'roe was in fact a peninsula situated between the Nile, 
As'tapus, and Astab'oras. It is described, however, by the 
ancient geographers as an island. 

Frodnctions. — Gold, iron, and copper were among its mine- 
rals, and date-palms and almond trees among its valuable trees. 
It contained large meadows, affording fine grazing for cattle, and 
also forests abounding with wild beasts and game. 

From the remotest times Merge was the principal seat of 
commercial intercourse between Ethiopia and the Red Sea; 
afterward it was one of the chief centres of the great trade 
carried on between Carthage, the East, and the interior of 
Libya. 

Lihabitants. — ^The military caste of Egypt, having left their 
country on account of some injustice received from the king, 
settled in Me'roe (650 b. c). brought the natives of that region 
under their sway, and established a system of government 
somewhat similar to that of Egypt, but differing from it in the 

Questions. — ^What does jSIthiopia signify in the Sacred Writings? — 
Where was Meroe situated ? — What is said of its productions ? — What 
of its commerce ? — Who settled in Meroe ? — Why ? — What was the dif- 
ference between the goyernments of Egypt and jEthio>pia ? 



128 LIBYA. 

restniots put upon the power of the kings and in the greater 
influence of the priestly caste. 

Cities. — In Me'roe and iCthiopia: 

(1.) Auxu'me (^Auzooftyi), and Adu'ls QAdool-q, Azoole), two 
commercial towns. In the latter the JItianumentum Adulita'num 
was found (a. D. 535). It is a Greek inscription in which the 
conquests of Ptolemy Euer'getes are recorded. 

(2.) Ptolsma'is Thsron, the chief mart for the ivory 
trade. 

(3.) Merge {Mepdjf), the religious capital of Ethiopia and 
Me'roe, which contained one of the largest temples of Ammon. 

(4.) Other towns : Napa'ta, Bereni'ce Panchry'sos (i. e. 
the aU-goldenj from its vicinity to Jehd AUaki, the principal 
gold mines of the JSgyptians), and Bereni'ge £pidi'res. 



§ 64. MARMA'RICA (ij Mapfiaptx^) and the AMMONIUM. 

Boundaries. — ^North, the Mediterranean; East, JEgypttjs; 
South, Libya Interior ; West, Cyrena'ica. 

Inhabitants. — Marma'ridjs. The tribes in the interior were 
entirely different from those on the coast. The latter closely 
resembled the Egyptians. 

Cities. — Chersone'sus Magna, Taposi'ris, and PARiETo- 
NIUM (Jlapatrdvwv), also called Ammonia, a large city which was 
a dependcDcy of Egypt. 

South of Marma'rica, in the midst of the sands of the Libyan 
Desert, was a small and beautiful spot, an O'asis (now JSiwah)^ 
rich in fountains and shade, and luxuriant with verdure, in 
which stood the celebrated temple of Ammon, the ram-beaded 
god of Thebes. In a grove of dates South of the Ammonium, 
was the Fons Solis, the high temperature of which is not 

Questions. — What was the capital of Meroe ? — What is the Monu- 

mentum Adulitanum? J 64. What are the boundaries of Marmarica? 

— What is said of its inhabitants ? — What of its towns ? — Where was 
the Oasis of Ammon situated ? — ^What was Ammon ? — Describe the Fons 
Solis. 



CYRENAICA. 129 

observed during the heat of the day, bat at night it b per- 
ceptibly warmer than the surroundiog atmosphere : 

Esse apud Ammonis fanum fons luce diuma 

FrigiduSf at calidus nociumo tempore fertur, — ^Lucretius, VL 848. 

Here also was the ancient and much-famed oracle (ilmmo- 
nium), so difficult and dangerous of access through the Libyan 
deserts. It was consulted by Alexander the Great, whom it 
saluted as the Son o/Ammon. In hooor of this event^ Alex- 
ander is represented on some of his medals as bearing a ram's 
horn in his hand. 



CYRENAICA (^ Kupr^vala) or PENTAFOLIS. 

Boundaries. — North, the Mediterranean; East, Marma'- 
RICA; South, Libya Interior; West, Regio Syr'tica with 
the Ab,je Phil^enorum. 

Capes. — Promontorium Borion and Phycus. 

Konntains. — The country is dotted with mountains of con- 
siderable elevation, which reach their highest point of altitude 
near Cyre'ne. The valleys are very productive, though frequently 
traversed by ravines which carry off to the sea the winter 
freshets, and which at no season of the year are destitute of 
water. 

River. — Lathon. 

Inhabitants. — ^These were Theroean colonists who married 
Libyans. Colonists afterward came from all parts of Greece, 
principally from Peloponne'sus, Creta, and the other islands of 
the JElgasan Sea. 

Cities. — The Jive principal cities from which the country 
derives its name of Pentap'olis are: (1.) Cyre'ne (^Kopi^vrj), the 
chief city; (2.) Bereni'ce (Bepevtxrj), previously Hes'peris; 

Questions. — Who consulted the Ammonium? — How is Cyrenaica 
bounded? — Name the capes. — Describe the character of the country. — 
What is said of the inhabitants ? — ^What five cities constituted the Pen- 

tapolis ? 

I 



130 LIBYA. 

(3.) Barca {Bdpxa)f from which most of the inhabitants retired 
to Ptolema'is on the coast to enrich themselyes by commerce ; 
(4.) Arsinob (^Apciv6T{)y earlier Tanchi'ra; (5.) Apollonia 
(^AKokXm^ia)^ the harbor of Cjrre'ne, and birthplace of Eratos'- 
thenes. 

Cyre'ne was the chief city of the Libyan Pentap'olis. It was 
founded by Battos, who led thither a Lacedaemonian colony from 
TllERA, one of the C/cIades (630 b.c.). Five centuries later, 
i^yr«'ne, with the whole territory of the ancient Pentap'olis, was 
btH|ueathed to the Bomans by the last of the Ptolemies, sumamed 
Apioo (97 B.cO It was afterward formed into one province 
with Orvta. Cyre'ne was the birthplace of Aristippus and 
OAl.ia'MAClir& A part of its inhabitants left it and founded 
lUnrA, in the interior (5G0 B.C.), which became a powerful 
^U\{\\ and extended its dominion over the whole of Western 
i\\ ivui^'ioa. Fifty years later, the city was taken by the Persians. 



S 6S. AFRICA or Africa Provincia. (ly Kapxrjdovta,) 

Niun«^ — Africa is the name by which the quarter of the world 
»ltll ohUihI .{fn\^i was known to the Romans, who received it 
t\y\\\\ \\\x^ (Vrthaginians and applied it first to that part of Africa 
Vrdh wUtoh xht^y first became ac(|uainted, the part namely about 
tVMhtU'.x\ and at>orward to the whole continent 

ft«\mdArtftx -North, the Mediterranean; East, Ctrena'- 
\v\{ ^\s\\\K lanvA Intkrior; West, Numidia. The Western 

IMv(Mt«m»% \\ \f^^ divided into three parts: 

\\ \ \Um\\s S\w*noA, or Tripouta'na — now Tripoli— ^e 



Us \'*\\\\si^ Whwl >HM tl^f K^Mrf eilvr— When »nd by whom was it 
|U\^»>l>M|f \\U^xw ^\\y\ \\^' wlu\m w»s« it b<^u<Mithed to the Romans?— 

W \\\\ \\\y\\y \\\\\\\\^^\stt\\\vysmU'^1 WhM 19 sAia of lUrca? { 65. What 

\\\\\ \\\\^ mm^ \\\ \\\\y^^ H^N^H in i^« t^rl^T anti restricted sense?--How 
\\^\i^ iMn vwwwws \sm\\M\ T WImt t^ivt^r fbnu«d xh^ western boundary? 



AFRIG>^. 131 

(2.) Zeugita'na (which embraced the modem Frigtah^ prob- 
ably a corruption of the ancient Africa), the Western part. 
(3.) Byzagium, a narrow strip of land along the Eastern 



MoimtaiiiB. — Mons Gioliub and Mons Cirna. 

Capes. — Promontobium Ceph'aljs, Promontorium Mer- 
cuRii, Promontorium Can'didum (Cape Blanco). 

Q[v}b, — Syrtis Major and Syrtis Minor. 

Bivers. — ^Cin'yphus, Triton, Bao'rada. 

Frodnctions. — Grain and fruit in abundance. Precious stones 
were among its mineral treasures. The plains of Zeugita'na and 
Byzacium were always proverbial for their fertility. 

Inhabitants. — ^The original inhabitants were Caucasians, and 
not negroes. At an early period colonists from the Western 
coast of Asia, chiefly from Phoenicia, settled on these shores. 

Cities. — I. In Regio Syr'tica : — 

Leptis Magna, a Sidonian colony, the birthplace of Septimius 
Seve'rus; O'ea and Sa'brata. From these three cities the 
country derived the name of Tripolita'na. 

n. In Zeugita'na : 

Ades, South of Carthage. Hanno was conquered here by 
Ee'gulus (258 b. c.) ; U'tica, the oldest Phoenician colony, was 
the scene of Cato's suicide (47 B. c). 

III. In Byzacium : 

Capsa, in an O'asis. It was the place where Jugurtha 
deposited his reserved treasures. It was destroyed by Marius. 

Islands. — In the Syrtis Minor are the islands Meninse and 
Cerci'na. 

QuEStiONS. — Name the mountains. — Capes. — Gulfs. — Rivers. — What 
is said of the productions ? — What of the fertility of the soil ? — What 
of the inhabitants ? — What three towns were in Regio Syrtica ? — What 
towns in Zeugitana ? — In Byzacium ? — What islands in Syrtis Minor ? 



lo2 LIST A 



§ M. CAKTHA'GO. (^ Kan^m,.) 

C iKTH \ SA, iiiUMM icm^ rJxriaaqme amtra 
0$'t^ ji-rr '^««« acuJtirpu maperriatm bdU; 
ifmzm Jm%9ff^mr tfrris m-a^ ^mmibmt unam 
F^:xmW^ otoauar S«a«L — ^Tii^. JBa. L 12. 

L — T\ke lume Cvtha'go is of PhceDician origjn and 
means X^wrt'-x-m. The citj seems to have been so called to 
di>tiD^i<h it fn>3i anv4her Plratnicttn citj in its neighborhood, 
Vtkca vhich is the PhirnicLui for OM-ioK-m. 

Carthaire, accvH>iia^ to tnditioo, was founded 814 B. C. bj a 
Phoenician ivIvot fn>3i Tjre under the condact of the princess 
IHdo. The eitv was situjkied on a peninsola where the African 
short' juts out into the Meditoiranean and approaches nearest 
to the oppix<ite e^xist of SicilT. Its citadel, Btrsa, sorroonded 
bj a triple waU, and crowned at its summit by a magnificent 
temple dedicated to .£sculapioSs was built upon the narrow 
isthmus of this peninsula. In the iboith oentniy B. c. its empire 
extended eastward as fiur as the Ahars of the Phi]»ni, near the 
Great Syrtis, and westward akmg the coast to the Ocean. 
Carchedonia i^the part subject to its dominion) comprised onlj 
Zeugita'na and, farther soath« the strip of coast along which 
lay Bjnciam and the Empona. Its inhabitants were called 
Libj-Phoenieians, a mixed population formed by the intermar- 
riage of Phoenician settlers with the natives. At the beginning 
of the wars with Rome it contained 700,000 inhabitants. In its 
in&ncy an agricultural state, it soon became the greatest com- 
mercial emporium of the world. Manufactures were established 
and the mechanic arts cultivated ; great wealth flowed into the 

Questions.—} 66. What is said of the name of Carthage ?— When 
was it founded?— By whom?— Where was it situated? — ^What was 
Byrsa? — ^Where situated? — How far did the empire of Carthage ex- 
tend ? — What is said of its inhahitants? — What were the sources of ita 
wealth ? 



CARXnAOO 



133 




CAUIilAQK. 



city by the import of the precious metals. The dependencies 
were all obliged to pay a heavy tribute, mostly in produce. The 
military system of Carthage grew out of the necessity for foreign 
conquest which was entailed upon the state by the extension of 
her commerce. Her armies were composed of her Libyan sub- 
jects, who served by compulsion ; of the mercenaries from the 
Nomadic tribes; and finally of her slaves. Such soldiers had 
never any real attachment to the cause in which they fought, nor 
to the commanders under whom they served. The city is im- 
mortalized on account of the three wars it sustained against 
Eome, each characterized by an imperishable name : — 
I. B.C. 264—241: Re'gulus. 
II. B. c. 219—202 : Han'nibal. 

III. B. c. 149—146 : SciPio the Younger. 

The third Punic war terminated with the total defeat and 
demolition of Carthage by Scipio Africa'nus Minor. A century 



Questions. — Describe the military system of Carthage. — How many 
wars did it sustain against Rome ? — What was the result of those wars ? 
12 



134 LIBYA. 

afterward it was rebuilt, and again became a flourishing citj, 
only second in size to Rome. Ecclesiasticallj it was one of the 
most important of the numerous bishoprics of Africa. Among 
the great names associated with Carthage are Cyprian, its cele- 
brated bishop, and TertuUian, who was probably a native of the 
city. It was taken by Genserio, A. D. 439, and made the 
capital of the Vandal Kingdom in Africa. It was retaken 
by Belisarius, A.D. 533, and finally destroyed by the Arabs 
under Hassan, A. d. 647. Even the ruins of Carthage are 
now buried or have almost perished; and its site might be totally 
unknown, if some broken arches of an aqueduct did not serve to 
guide the footsteps of the inquisitive traveller. 



4 67. AR^ PHILJEN(yflUM. 

This was an elevated table-land, very near the base of the 
Oreat Syrtis on the North coast of Africa, which marked the 
boundary between the territories of Carthage and Cyre'ne. 
The name is derived from the following story : The citizens of 
Carthage and Cyre'no having had much dissension respecting the 
boundaries of the two states, resolved to fix them at the point 
where their respective envoys, sent forth at the same time, should 
meet. Two brothers, named Philseni, were appointed for this 
service on the part of the Carthaginians and advanced much 
further than the Cyrenseans. Valerius Ma'ximus states that 
they set forth before the time agreed upon ; but Sallust merely 
says that they were accused of the trick by the Cyrenseans 
because they had themselves mismanaged the affair, and that 
they would consent to the boundary being fixed at the place of 
meeting only on condition that the Carthaginian envoys should 
submit to being buried alive on the spot. The Philseni accepted 
'the proposal and sacrificed their lives for their country. The 

Questions. — When was Carthage rebuilt ? — Name two celebrated men 
of Christian Carthage. — When did it become the capital of the Vandal 

Kingdom ? —When was it finally destroyed? J 67. What were the 

Arae PhilsBnorum ? — How is the name said to have originated ? 



NUMIDIA. 135 

AUars of the Philceniy Arm Philjbno'rum, were erected to 
mark the scene of their heroic deed. 



NUMIDIA. (iy Nofiadia, i. e. land of Nomades; AlgiertJ) 

Boundaries. — ^North, the Mediterranean; East, Africa; 
South, Libya Interior ; West, M auretania. 

Mountains. — ^Thambes, Aurasius. 

Gulf — Sinus Numid'icus. 

Capes. — ^Promontorium Hippi, Stoborrum. 

Elvers. — Rubrica'tus, Amp'saoa, and Tusca. 

FrodiLCtions. — Olives, oranges, dates, grain ; it was indeed one 
of the principal granaries of Rome. Its marble also was much 
esteemed. 

Xnhabitants. — ^The Numidians were a faithless, merciless, 
unscrupulous race, a nation of horsemen, who formed the chief 
cavalry of the Carthaginians. King Massinissa, who, till the age 
of ninety, could mount his horse with agility, represents the true 
Numidian. 

Cities. — ^The number of towns must have been considerable, as 
Numidia had in the fifth century one hundred and twenty- 
three episcopal sees : Hippo Reqius, residence of St. Augus- 
tine; Yaga, a large commercial town; Girta {Cojistantine), the 
capital of the ancient Numidian kings; Zama, the memorable 
scene of the victory obtained by Scipio Africa'nus Major over 
Ha'nnibal(202B.o.). 

Questions. — What are the boundaries of Numidia? — Name the moun- 
tains. — Gulfs. — Capes. — Rivers. — Productions. — What is said of its in- 
habitants? — ^Who was the type of a true Numidian? — Did it contain 
many towns ? — How many episcopal 'sees did it possess in the fifth 
century ? — ^What was the residence of St. Augustine ? — What was the 
ancient capital ? — Who was defeated at Zama ? — When ? 



136 LIBYA. 

§ 68. MAURETANIA. (7 Maopoo<fia, Morocco, Fez.^ 

Vame. — ^This country was from the earliest times inhabited 
by a people called Mauruni (^MoLupovirtot, MaopTJvfftoi), Mauroi 
(^Ifaupot, from fi€iop6q\ black ; whence Moor, Morocco), and thus 
originated the name Mauretania, as it is spelt in inscriptions and 
on coins. 

Boundaries. — North, the Mediterranean; East, Numidia; 
South, GiETULiA; West, Oce'anus. 

DivisionB. — Mauretania Gjbsariensis, the Eastern part, 
and Mauretania Tingita'na, the Western. 

Mountains. — Atlas, from which the Atlantic Ocean derives 
its name. The name. Atlas, however, was, by the ancients, 
given only to the mountains in Mauretania Tingita'na. 

Cape. — Promontorium Apol'linis. 

Eivers. — Phuth, Subur, Chinalaph. 

Productions. — Grain, timber, precious stones, and metals. 

Cities. — Igil'gilis, Sald^, Icosium (^^t6r« — Ccemrefa)} 
SiGA, the ancient residence of Syphax; Tingis (^Tangier); Sala, 
the remotest Roman city on the Western shore. Off the Western 
coast, the I'NSULiE Fortuna't-«; (prob. the Canaries) were not 
fully known to the ancients until 72 b. 0., and below them Hes- 
Pe'ridum I'NSUL-flB, possibly the Bissagos, lying a little above 
Sierra Leone. 

Questions. — J 68. What is said of the name of Mauretania ? — ^What 
of its boundaries ? — How is it divided ? — What mountain range is in 
Mauretania Tingitana ?— What cape? — What rivers? — Productions? — 
Towns? — What island groups were situated off the western coast? 



Q^TULIA. 137 



G^TULIA. (37 ratroMa,) 

Bonndaries. — North, Mauretania; East, Gaeamantes; 
South, Niger ; West, Oce'anus. 

Straba employs the tenn GcetuUa as a general desigDatioD for 
Central Africa. He speaks of the G»talians as the chief ele- 
ment of the population of Libya. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Gcetulians and the Libyans constituted 
the two great races who originally inhabited the North- Western 
regions of Africa. When various tribes from Asia invaded the 
coast on the North, and formed permanent settlements, the 
Gsetulians were forced to retire into the interior, toward the 
regions lying South of Mount Atlas. They led a nomadic life 
upon the CKases of the Western part of the great desert of Sahara. 
There was no correspondence of physical characteristics between 
the Gaetulians and the Negro race. The former are described as 
warlike in disposition, savage in manners, subsisting mainly on 
the flesh of animals whose skins served for garments, dwelling 
in tents, or wandering at large without any settled abode. The 
tribes who inhabited the Eastern part of the Desert were called 
Gkiramantes, of the same generic type with the Gsetulians. The 
large trade carried on with Libya Interior was mainly in the 
hands of the Gsetulians and Garamantes. The extreme South- 
western portion of Africa, as well as the South-Eastem portion, 
was believed to be inhabited by Ethiopians. 

QuBSTiONS. — What are the boundaries of Gaetulia? — What did Strabo 
comprise under the term Gsetulia ? — What is said of the Gastulians ? — 
By whom were they driven into the desert ? — Were they negroes ? — How 
are they described ? — Who were their eastern neighbors ? — ^What is said 
of their trade ? — ^Who inhabited the interior of Africa ? 
12* 



ISS xcrmoPA. 



Eun/pa, as knon to the AncientSy corresponded with the 
modem dLPotinenty neither in respect of honndaiies, divisions^ 
ph]n?i€ml aspect, nor popobtioo. 

Same — ^The earliest use of thb name to deagoate a diyisioa 
of the Earth, is in the Homeric Hjmn to Apollo (yy. 250, 251), 
where in distinction ttom Peloponne'sos and the Greek islands it 
seems to denote tke lom<y amd defpfjf tambayed lime of the Thiacian 
shore, hence called, according to Hermann, Eurt/pay finom 
ctVi^-^S the Bnxid'fucfxi Land. Bochart thinking the term 
had a Phoenician origin, pointed ont its resemhlance to the Heb. 
Ertby as if it were, the Errnihj Land. With this view compare 
the remarks on the derivation of Araby Arabia ; page 89. The 
Mjtholqgers, as is well known, said that this continent took its 
name from Enro'pa, the broad-brtnted daughter of the Phcenician 
king Age'nor, who was carried to Crete hj Jnpiter. 

Boundaries. — ^Thej were different at different epochs. At 
the down^l of the Roman republic thej were as follows: North, 
Ocs'anus Seftentriona'lis; East, Tanais and Palus Mjeo'- 
Tis; West, OcS'anus Hksperius, or Ma&b Atuln'ticum; 
South, Mare, or Mare Internum (Mediterranean). 

Seas, Straits, and Gnlfik — (1.) Mare Sarma'ticuh, or Scr'- 
THlcnM {Baltic &a). 

(2.) Mare Sue'vicum, or Sinus Coda'nus (the Two Belts). 

(3.) Mare German^icum, or Cim'brigum (German Ocean). 

(4.) Fretum Gal'licum, or Brttan'nicum (Strait of 
Dover). 

QuESTioirs. — 2 69. Does ancient Europe correspond with the modem 
continent ? — ^What is said of the deriyation of the name ? — ^What were 
"^ boundaries at the close of the Roman republic ? — Name some seas, 
^e straits. — Some gulfs. 



EUKorA. 139 

(5.) Mare Britan'nicum (British Channel). 

(6.) Mare Cantab'ricum (Bay of Biscay). 

(7.) Fretum Gadita'num, or Herculeum (Strait of Gib- 
raltar). 

The Mediterranean Sea contained the following Gulfs and 
Straits : 

(1.) Mare Ibe'rigum, or Balea'ricum, along the Eastern 
coast of Spain. 

(2.) Sinus Gal'licus (Gulf of Lyons). 

(3.) Mare Sardo'um, West and South of Sardinia. 

(4.) LiGu'sTicuM Mare (Gulf of Genoa). 

(5.) Mare Tyrrhe'num, or In'ferum, West of Italy. 

(6.) Mare Sic'ulum, or Auso'nium, along the Eastern coast 
of Sicily. 

(7.) Sinus Tarenti'nus (GvI/o/ Taranto). 

(8.) Mare Adriat'icum, or Su'perum (the Adriatic). 

(9.) Mare Ionium, along the Western coast of Greece. 

(10.) Mare -^OiEUM (the Archipelago), subdivided as fol- 
lows : 

a. JW?we ITiracium : the Northern part, North of the 
Island of Euboea. 

b. Mare Myrto'um: South of Euboea, At'tica, and Ar'golis. 

c. Mare Ica'rium: the South-East part of the ^gaean, 
along the coasts of Caria and Ionia. 

d. Mare Cr^ticum, along the Northern coast of the Island 
of Greta. 

§ 70. Extent — The surface of Europe, inclusive of the islands, 
is in fact nearly four millions of square miles. In the time of 
the Roman Empire it was estimated to contain but three millions 
of square miles; its length being supposed to range between 
26,800 and 30,800 stadia, and its breadth between 9,200 and 
•12,700 stadia. 



QuBSTiONs. — ^What gulfs and straits did the Mediterranean contain ? 

How is the Mare iEgaeum subdivided ? \ 70. What is said of the 

extent of Europe ? 



130 LIBYA. 

(3.) Baroa (Bdpxa\ from which most of the inhabitants retired 
to Ptolema'is on the coast to enrich themselves by commerce ; 
(4.) Arsinoe (^Apmvdrj), earlier Tauchi'ra; (5.) Apollonia 
(^AtzoXXwho), the harbor of Cyre'ne, and birthplace of Eratos'- 
thenes. 

Cyre'ne waa the chief city of the Libyan Pentap'olis. It was 
founded by Battus, who led thither a Lacedaemonian colony from 
Thera, one of the Cydades (630 B.C.). Five centuries later, 
Cyre'ne, with the whole territory of the ancient Pentap'olis, was 
bequeathed to the Romans by the last of the Ptolemies, surnamed 
Apion (97 B.C.) It was afterward formed into one province 
with Greta. Cyre'ne was the birthplace of Aristippus and 
Calli'machus. a part of its inhabitants left it and founded 
Barca, in the interior (560 B.C.), which became a powerful 
state, and extended its dominion over the whole of Western 
Cyrena'ica. Fifty years later, the city was taken by the Persians. 



§ 66. AF'RICA or Africa Provincia. (ly Kappjdovta,) 

Vame. — Africa is the name by which the quarter of the world 
still called Africa was known to the Romans, who received it 
from the Carthaginians and applied it first to that part of Africa 
with which they first became acquainted, the part namely about 
Carthage, and afterward to the whole continent. 

Boundaries. — North, the Mediterranean; East, Cyrena'- 
ica ; South, Libya Interior ; West, Numidia. The Western 
limit was the river TusCA. 

Bivisions. — It was divided into three parts : 

(1.) Regio Syr'tica, or Tripolita'na — now Tripoli — the 
South-Eastern part. 

Questions. — What was the chief city ? — When and by whom was it 
founded? — When and by whom was it bequeathed to the Romans? — 

Who were natives of Cyrenaica ? — What is said of Barca? J 65. What 

did the name of Africa mean in its early and restricted sense ? — How 
was this country bounded ? — What river formed the western boundary ? 
— How was it divided ? 



AFRICA. 131 

(2.) Zeugita'na (which embraced the modern Frigeah, prob- 
ably a corruption of the ancient Africa), the Western part. 

(3.) Byzacium, a narrow strip of land along the Eastern 
coast. 

Hountams. — Mons Giglius and Mons Cirna. 

Capes. — Promontorium Ceph'al-®, Promontorium Mer- 
cuRii, Promontorium Can'didum (Cape Blanco). 

Gulfe. — Syrtis Major and Syrtis Minor. 

Elvers. — Cin'yphus, Triton, Bag'rada. 

Productions. — Grain and fruit in abundance. Precious stones 
were among its mineral treasures. The plains of Zeugita'na and 
Byzacium were always proverbial for their fertility. 

Inhabitants. — ^The original inhabitants were Caucasians, and 
not negroes. At an early period colonists from the Western 
coast of Asia, chiefly from Phoenicia, settled on these shores. 

Cities. — I. In Regio Syr'tica : — 

Leptis Magna, a Sidonian colony, the birthplace of Septimius 
Seve'rus; O'ea and Sa'brata. From these three cities the 
country derived the name of Tripolita'na. 

II. In Zeugita'na: 

Ades, South of Carthage. Hanno was conquered here by 
Re'gulus (258 b. c.) ; U'tica, the oldest Phoenician colony, was 
the scene of Cato's suicide (47 b. c). 

III. In Byzacium : 

Capsa, in an O'asis. It was the place where Jugurtha 
deposited his reserved treasures. It was destroyed by Marius. 

Islands. — In the Syrtis Minor are the islands Meninse and 
Cerci'na. 

QuEstiONS. — Name the mountains. — Capes. — Gulfs. — Rivers. — What 
is said of the productions ? — What of the fertility of the soil ? — What 
of the inhabitants ? — ^What three towns were in Regio Syrtica ? — What 
towns in Zeugitana ? — In Byzacium ? — What islands in Syrtis Minor ? 



132 LIBYA 



§ 66. CAETHA'GO. (^ Kapx^dm.) 

Urba antiquafuit, Th/rii tenuire colonic 
Carthago, Jlaliam longe Tiberinaque contra 
Ostia, dives opurOy atudiisque asperrima belli; 
Quam Junofertur terrie magia omnihuB unam 
Poathabita eoluisee Samo. — Virg. ^n. I. 12. 

Name. — The name Cartha'go is of Phoenician origin and 
means Newtown, The city seems to have been so called to 
distinguish it from another Phoenician city in its neighborhood, 
Vtica which is the Phoenician for Old-town, 

Carthage, according to tradition, was founded 814 B. c. by a 
Phoenician colony from Tyre under the conduct of the princess 
Dido. The city was situated on a peninsula where the African 
shore juts out into the Mediterranean and approaches nearest 
to the opposite coast of Sicily. Its citadel, Byrsa, surrounded 
by a triple wall, and crowned at its summit by a magnificent 
temple dedicated to .^sculapius, was built upon the narrow 
isthmus of this peninsula. In the fourth century B. C. its empire 
extended eastward as far as the Altars of the Philaeni, near the 
Great Syrtis, and westward along the coast to the Ocean. 
Carchedonia (the part subject to its dominion) comprised only 
Zeugita'na and, further south, the strip of coast along which 
lay Byzacium and the Emporia. Its inhabitants were called 
Liby-Phoenicians, a mixed population formed by the intermar- 
riage of Phoenician settlers with the natives. At the beginning 
of the wars with Rome it contained 700,000 inhabitants. In its 
infancy an agricultural state, it soon became the greatest com- 
mercial emporium of the world. Manufactures were established 
and the mechanic arts cultivated ; great wealth flowed into the 

Questions.— J 66. What is said of the name of Carthage ?— When 
was it founded?— By whom?— Where was it situated?— What was 
Byrsa? — Where situated? — How far did the empire of Carthage ex- 
tend ? — What is said of its inhabitants ? — What were the sources of its 
wealth ? 



CARXnAOO 



133 




city by the import of the precious metals. The dependencies 
were all obliged to pay a heavy tribute, mostly in produce. The 
military system of Carthage grew out of the necessity for foreign 
conquest which was entailed upon the state by the extension of 
her commerce. Her armies were composed of her Libyan sub- 
jects, who served by compulsion ; of the mercenaries from the 
Nomadic tribes; and finally of her slaves. Such soldiers had 
never any real attachment to the cause in which they fought, nor 
to the commanders under whom they served. The city is im- 
mortalized on account of the three wars it sustained against 
EomC; each characterized by an imperishable name : — 
I. B.C. 264—241: Re'gulus. 
II. B.C. 219— 202: Han'nibal. 

III. B. c. 149 — 146 : Scipio the Younger. 

The third Punic war terminated with the total defeat and 
demolition of Carthage by Scipio Africa'nus Minor. A century 



Questions. — Describe the military system of Carthage. — How many 
wars did it sustain against Rome? — What was the result of those wars? 
12 



134 LIBYA. 

afterward it was rebuilt, and again became a flourishing city, 
only second in size to Rome. Ecclesiastically it was one of the 
most important of the numerous bishoprics of Africa. Among 
the great names associated with Carthage are Cyprian, its cele- 
brated bishop, and TertuUian, who was probably a native of the 
city. It was taken by Genserio, A. D. 439, and made the 
capital of the Vandal Kingdom in Africa. It was retaken 
by Belisarius, A.D. 533, and finally destroyed by the Arabs 
under Hassan, A. D. 647. Even the ruins of Carthage are 
now buried or have almost perished; and its site might be totally- 
unknown, if some broken arches of an aqueduct did not serve to 
guide the footsteps of the inquisitive traveller. 



4 67. AR^ PHIL^N(yRUM. 

This was an elevated table-land, very near the base of the 
Oreat Syrtis on the North coast of Africa, which marked the 
boundary between the territories of Carthage and Cyre'ne. 
The name is derived from the following story : The citizens of 
Carthage and Cyre'ne having had much dissension respecting the 
boundaries of the two states, resolved to fix them at the point 
where their respective envoys, sent forth at the same time, should 
meet. Two brothers, named Philaeni, were appointed for this 
service on the part of the Carthaginians and advanced much 
further than the Cyrenaeans. Valerius Ma'ximus states that 
they set forth before the time agreed upon ; but Sallust merely 
says that they were accused of the trick by the Cyrenaeans 
because they had themselves mismanaged the a£fair, and that 
they would consent to the boundary being fixed at the place of 
meeting only on condition that the Carthaginian envoys should 
submit to being buried alive on the spot. The Philasni accepted 
'the proposal and sacrificed their lives for their country. The 

Questions. — When was Carthage rebuilt ? — Name two celebrated men 
of Christian Carthage. — When did it become the capital of the Vandal 

Kingdom ? —When was it finally destroyed? J 67. What were the 

Arte Philsenorum ? — How is the name said to have originated ? 



NUMIDIA. 135 

Altars of the Phtlamt, Arje PniLiENo'RUM, were erected to 
mark the scene of their heroic deed. 



NUMIDIA. (ij Nofiadta, i. e. land of Nbmades; Algiers.) 

Boundaries. — ^North, the Mediterranean ; East; Africa ; 
South, Libya Interior; West, Mauretania. 

Hoimtains. — ^Thambes, Aurasius. 

Gulf — Sinus Numid'ious. 

Capes. — Promontorium Hippi, Stoborrum. 

Bivers. — Rubrica'tus, Amp'saga, and Tusca. 

Productions. — Olives, oranges, dates, grain ; it was indeed one 
of the principal granaries of Rome. Its marble also was much 
esteemed. 

Inhabitants. — The Numidians were a faithless, merciless, 
unscrupulous race, a nation of horsemen, who formed the chief 
cavalry of the Carthaginians. King Massinissa, who, till the age 
of ninety, could mount his horse with agility, represents the true 
Numidian. 

Cities. — ^The number of towns must have been considerable, as 
Numidia had in the fifth century one hundred and twenty- 
three episcopal sees: Hippo Reqius, residence of St. Augus- 
tine; Vaga, a large commercial town ; Cirta {Comtantine), the 
capital of the ancient Numidian kings; Zama, the memorable 
scene of the victory obtained by Scipio Africa'nus Major over 
Ha'nnibal(202B.o.). 

Questions. — What are the boundaries of Numidia? — Name the moun- 
tains. — Gulfs. — Capes. — Rivers. — Productions. — What is said of its in- 
habitants? — Who was the type of a true Numidian? — Did it contain 
many towns ? — How many episcopal 'sees did it possess in the fifth 
century ? — ^What was the residence of St. Augustine ? — What was the 
ancient capital ? — ^Who was defeated at Zama ? — When ? 



1"" 1 T^ ^t*i ss»I»i*L _3i'"t."T»- Xc*t#»*»'«r2»c- J/ff:»rT-»<=»< « jfe«JtW 

ir^-iuri'L '-itf t.'i/n»« j7: ir-"Tni#ir- a^ X 2^ -fyiiE 5x iascrTCwns and 
Htt r •:!& 

Bsizaific5e&. — 5^-rn. :i»i Xi::maiL&5XAs:: £ksc Xumipia; 

rrrasuos. — XiT-tzTjjna Cjg^i^rry^g;. Ae E^ien pai^ 

'Mmi igj'^M. — Ar^j^w fr.nL wij:i lie ^-'ri ♦<- Oeeui derives 
5s xx3Le. T^ xinit*. JL-'.'sil 4i:'¥»rrfr. va&. ¥t tbe iiif ntffj 

Ci^ — PiM» vr»:i:Tif Af»:w'iX3fi5L 

Siren. — ?'=.-. riL. St-k^i;. ChtsaulPS. 

P^^aixetLass. — Gn'T. ilzi*^'. ?c««.t» sanms. aad ■wtak. 

ClieL — lyzLiZLZ<^ Sjjj^jl. Io>>rrM -l;-vr» — Ocaor/a); 
SiGA, iLe aacaesit i»ieaee rf STr&ax : TutGis ■ T'tiifjitT} ; Saul, 
the lesKicest B.:iBaBchTC« cbe Western sSx^cl Off the Weston 
ctnsc thjc r^sTTLX Fo«xrx&'T2 rr:iL ifce <^^»»irt« » were not 
fcIlT knovB to tbe aaci-eBts msdl 72 B. c. and belov tliem Hes- 
nfuDCM T^suLMy fOBsi^j the £j»::j*My Ypnz a little above 
SenmLeooe. 

Qronoss. — } <8. Wkat is said ot ike use of Hmctaua ?— Wliat 
of iu lK.Q]i«iaries ? — Hov is it dirided ? — Whml MOoataiB raage is in 
BUnretaaia Tingiiaaa ?— What cape?— What rircn?— Prodacdons?— 
Towns?— What island groups were situated off the veBtcn coast? 



G-ffiTULIA. 137 



G^TULIA. (57 raiTouXia.) 

Bonndaries. — ^North, Mauretania; East, Ga^amantes; 
South, Niger ; West, Oce'anus. 

Straba employs the tenn Goetulia as a general desigDatioD for 
Central Africa. He speaks of the Gaetulians as the chief ele- 
ment of the population of Libya. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Gcetulians and the Libyans constituted 
the two great races who originally inhabited the North- Western 
regions of Africa. When various tribes from Asia invaded the 
coast on the North, and formed permanent settlements, the 
GsBtulians were forced to retire into the interior, toward the 
regions lying South of Mount Atlas. They led a nomadic life 
upon the O'ases of the Western part of the great desert of Sahara. 
There was no correspondence of physical characteristics between 
the Gaetulians and the Negro race. The former are described as 
warlike in disposition, savage in manners, subsisting mainly on 
the flesh of animals whose skins served for garments, dwelling 
in tents, or wandering at lai^e without any settled abode. The 
tribes who inhabited the Eastern part of the Desert were called 
Garamantes, of the same generic type with the Gsetulians. The 
large trade carried on with Libya Interior was mainly in the 
hands of the Gsetulians and Garamantes. The extreme South- 
western portion of Africa, as well as the South-Eastem portion, 
was believed to be inhabited by Ethiopians. 

QvBSTiONS. — What are the boundaries of Gseiulia? — What did Strabo 
comprise under the term Gsetulia ? — What is said of the Gsetulians ? — 
By whom were they driven into the desert ? — Were they negroes ? — How 
are they described ? — ^Who were their eastern neighbors ? — ^What is said 
of their trade ? — Who inhabited the interior of Africa ? 
12* 



l^S XUKOPA. 



§«. EUROPA. CzEopmr^.^ 

EvTD'jn, as knon fc> the Askoeats^ c w ieEponded with the 
Bc«derB ecnt£s<sty i»eiiker is respect of bomidjiies, diviaonSy 

■aM& — ^The euiiest «se of thk sane to desiginte a diyisioa 
of the Earth, is in the Hoonmc Hthib to ApoDo (tv. 250, 251), 
where in di^ncticA from Pelcpaniie'sBS and the Greek islands it 
seems to denote Ae loft^j awid d^^pfj tml^yfd lime of the Thiacian 
shore, hence calSed, according to Hemann, Eurdpay fitom 
c*H>:ic-^\ the Brr^ni-jiKrd Land. Bochait thinking the term 
had a Phoenician origin, pMotod oat its resonhianee to the Heb. 
ITirfc, as if it were, the £*«•>. .'/.y Land. With this view compare 
the remarks on the deiirataoD of Arab, Jra&ia, page 89. The 
Mjthak^rs, as is wdl known, said that this continent took its 
name Iran Eiuo'pa, the broad-hrowed daoghter of the Phcenician 
king Age'nor, who was carried to Crete bj JnjHter. 

BoimduriM. — ^Thej were different at different epochs. At 
the down^l of the Roman repaUic thej wore as follows: North, 
Ocfi^AKCS Septextriona'us; East, Tanais and Palus Mjeo'- 
Tis; West, OcsfAxrs Hsspeuts, or Ma&b Atlan'ticum; 
South, Mare> or Mars iNTKaifUM (Mediterranean). 

S«M, Stndts, and Gnlfik— (1.) Ma&b Sarma'txcuh, or Scr"- 
TniCVM {Bidhc iSea). 

(2.) Mars Sus'vicum, or Sinus Coda'itus (the Two Belts), 
0^0 Mars QsRMAN'icrM, or Cim'briccm (German Ocean], 
(40 Frstum Gal'ucum, or Brttan'nicum (Strait of 



QvaaTiONs,^ 69, Does aneieni Europe coiTespond with the modem 

**M«eat T— What is said of the deriTmtion of the name?— What were 

^ndaHee at the elost> of the Roman republic ? — ^Name some seas. 



EUROPA. 139 

(5.) Mare Britan'nicum {British Channel). 

(6.) Mare Cantab'ricum {Bay of Biscay). 

(7.) Fretum Gadita'num, or Hergcjleum {Strait of Gib- 
raltar). 

The Mediterranean Sea contained the following Gulfs and 
Straits : 

(1.) Mare Ibe'rigum, or Balea'ricum, along the Eastern 
coast of Spain. 

(2.) Sinus Gal'licus {Gulf of Lyons). 

(3.) Mare Sardo'um, West and South of Sardinia. 

(4.) LiGu'sTicuM Mare {Gulf of Genoa). 

(5.) Mare Tyrrhe'num, or In'ferum, West of Italy. 

(6.) Mare Sic'ulum, or Auso'nium, along the Eastern coast 
of Sicily. 

(7.) Sinus Tarenti'nus {Gulf of Taranto). 

(8.) Mare Adriat'icum, or Su'perum {the Adriatic). 

(9.) Mare Ionium, along the Western coast of Greece. 

(10.) Mare -ffia^UM {the Archipelago), subdivided as fol- 
lows : 

a. M(vre Thracium : the Northern part, North of the 
Island of Euboea. 

b. Mare Myrto'um: South of Euboea, At'tica, and Ar'golis. 

c. Mare Ica'rium: the South-East part of the j^gsean, 
along the coasts of Caria and Ionia. 

d. Mare Crefticumy along the Northern coast of the Island 
of Greta. 

§ 70. Extent.— The surface of Europe, inclusive of the islands, 
is in fact nearly four millions of square miles. In the time of 
the Roman Empire it was estimated to contain but three millions 
of square miles; its length being supposed to range between 
26,800 and 30,800 stadia, and its breadth between 9,200 and 
•12,700 stadia. 

Questions. — ^What gulfs and straits did the Mediterranean contain ? 

How is the Mare iEgseum subdivided? 1 70. What is said of the 

extent of Europe ? 



140 EUROPA. 

Principal Koimtams. — Alpes; Ptren^si Montxs; H^- 
Mus (^Balkan); Montes Car'patss (^Carpathian Mountains)-, 
Sylya Herctnia — ^the general appellation for the mountains 
of Southern and Central Germany; Mons Seyo (^Mount Kjolen). 

Largest Riven. — Ister, or Danubius (the latter name was 
mostly applied to the upper part); Borys'thenes, or later, 
Dan'apris (Dnieper); Ttras, or later, Danastris (Dniester); 
Rhenus (Rhine) ; Vis'tula ( Weichsel). These rivers all flow 
through more than one country. 

Climate. — ^The mean temperature of Spain, Italy, and Greece, 
was formerly lower than at the present day; while Gaul and 
Grermany experienced in some measure the rigors of an arctic 
winter. The horns of the moose-deer, which are occasionally 
dug up in parts of Southern Germany, attest the presence of 
arctic animals in those regions in ancient times. 

Productions. — ^Asia and Africa liberally afforded means of 
luxury ; but Europe furnished a steady and bountiful supply of 
the necessaries of life. The productions of Europe were com, 
wine, and oil, timber and valuable building stone, iron and cop- 
per, and even the more precious metals, gold and silver. 

Inhabitants. — ^They belonged to the Japhetic, or Indo-Ger- 
manic family of nations, and were divided into 

(1.) Iheriansj in Hispania; 

(2.) KdtSy in Gallia, Britannia, some parts of Hispania and 
Southern Germania, and Northern Italia ; 

(3.) Teutonsy in Middle and North Germania ; 

(4.) Thracians, in Thracia, Dacia, Moesia, and Pannonia; 

(5.) PelasgO'Helle'neSf in Hellas, Epi'rus, Macedonia, the 
South of Italy, and Etruria ; 

(6.) Old Italians^ in the middle part of Italy ; 

(7.) Scythians, in Sarmatia and Scythia. 



Questions. — Name the principal mountains of Europe. — ^What are 
the largest riyers ? — ^What is said of the climate ? — Of the productions ? 
— Of the inhabitants? — What were the chief nations who inhabited 
Europe ? 



GRiGOIA. 141 

LlLngnages. — The educated Romans were very familiar with 
the Greek language ; the Greeks generally cultivated only their 
own. The dialects of the other races of Europe, heing neither 
re6ned nor fixed by a native literature, gradually vanished. In 
the Gallic and Spanish provinces of Rome the Keltic gave way in 
great measure to the Latin; and even the Germans beyond the 
Rhine adopted the language of their enemies. 

Divisions. — Gr-scia, Macedonia, Thracia, Illyr'icum, 
Italia, Hispania, Gallia, Germania, Vindelicia, Rh^- 
TiA, Nor'icum, Pannonia, McesiA; Dacia, and Sarmatia 

EUROPJEA. 

§ 71. GRjECIA (^ 'EXXd(:, HeUas and Marea) : GREECE. 

ITanie. — Originally confined to a small district in ThessaJy, 
the town and district of Hellas in Phthio'tis, the Helle'nes 
gradually spread over the rest of Greece and the countries adja- 
cent. To the countries thus settled they applied the general 
name, Hellas, which term therefore did not indicate a particular 
tract of country, but in general any country settled hy HelUnes. 
In its more restricted sense it signified all the land South of the 
Ambracian Gulf and the mouth of the river Pene'us, as far as 
the Isthmus of Corinth. But in its wider acceptation, in which 
it will here be used, it denoted all the country South of the 
Cambunii Montes, in opposition to the land of the barbarians. 

The word, Grceci {Tpatxoi), first occurs in Aristotle as the 
name of a tribe about Dodo'na in Epi'rus ; and may have been at 
one period in very general use on the Western coast, and so have 
become the particular title by which its inhabitants were known 
to the Italians on the opposite side of the Ionian Sea. In this 

Questions. — What language beside their own was used by the edu- 
cated Romans? — What is said of ^he Greeks? — ^Why haye the other 

languages died out? — Giye the diyisions of Europe. { 71. What did 

Hellas originally comprise ? — ^What did it afterward comprise ? — ^What 
is the more restricted meaning of the word ffellas f — What author first 
uses the term Qrceci f — ^Where was the original abode of that tribe ? — 
How may this name haye passed into Italy ? 




' V X *: . 5*-il3M >*?^ a 

Tif ian» -mm ilM mlts j» i^ i ju ^ ir-stita. rnm ii« We 

^rz.viudn.'Z Zji^ns. ins Tirrnin ng Zaavsk s nxTj IL.1^ 
aul*^ •- Tift final casic if -fus: strittx if -j^%ee wiZ Ve 1 
•iflfuwsTsjt 17 yjnsarmjr x '•fni zie ir^i if svmt rf Ae 
^f i»cr Vruio, Tunaim ia» >!. >T»! wrnsn aifHesj Ssosk Gmifiikay 
2^ :*// ; Ir^sasf.'naa. ami 3f^v Taci- ck& aboot -I«.«M)L 
BF^"fTr'rff — -^ ^ Ii ;ni£ 3^7^4f G?e0eeaceikCiKAr3illy 

3f//«At 0.;six«f ^<>/..Tr*r. l^'jT»i»?T 9J54 feet bigh, bdieffed 
t// k^ tLe r^id^t.^ of 2^»9 aad the ocker goJs. 

/"^.^ TLu Sonhsm Koantain-eliam is intcTBected aft li^t 
9f*fylf^ %\/fni midwaj between tlie looiaii and .^aeui SeM Ij the 
I ' / ^rid k/ftj noge of Piitdus (ni>9^\ mnniiig from North to 
Htrtiihf aod eriDntitatiDg the baekbone of Gieeee. Its difeent 
famSettiunm to the Eaat and West were: Othrts C^^P^)* 
iV/VA (Otrtj), VABnAHHVS (nap9a4r6<;XBjflsICOfl (EXtzw}. 

(%,) The moaotaiD system of PelopoDnei^sas has no oonneciion 
with ihi) rtmi of Oreeee. The loftiest peaks are in Arcadia^ the 
(mtirnl Alnir^ai of PelopoDoe'sas. Mount Ctlle'ne {KoXXijvriy 
XflHa) rlMeff to the height of 7 J88 feet above the level of the 



(^ifMNrffmii,--WhAt name did Greece bear after the Roman conquest? 

W)mt. fii'M t)i« fmundnrieii of Greece?— What is the greatest length of 
Ui'iti«<iiir WImt tlio grentoBt breadth ?— What is its area?— What moun- 
UthM urn In (hn itorih of Greece?— By what chain are they intersected? 

NHtim N(itn<i fif tin branohofi.— What is remarked about the mountain 
H^VHtniH iif l*0lii|Mititi»imM?— From what point does it radiate ?— What is 



GR^CIA. 143 

sea^ and was regarded by tbe ancients as the highest mountain 
in Peloponne'sus ; but one of the summits of Tay'getus reaches 
the elevation of 7,902 feet The Ertmanthus (Epufiav^oq) 
forms the westernmost point of this chain. 

§ 72. Capes. — (1.) On the Western coast of Northern Greece, 
ACROGERAUNIA (rd ^AxpoxepoLOvia) ; ACTIXJM (^Axuoy). 

(2.) On the Southern coast of Northern Greece, Antir'- 
RHIUM QAvrippiov). 

(3.) On the Northern coast of Peloponne'sus, Rhi'um (^Piov) ; 
ChELONA'tAS (JTe^aivaTflc). 

(4.) On the Southern coast of Peloponne'sus, Acri'tas 
(Axpiraq) ; Tje'narus or T-ffi/NARUM (Taivapoq or Taivapov, Cape 
Matapan), the southernmost point of Europe ; M a'lea (^MaXia), 

(5.) On the Eastern coast, ScYLLiEUM (^SxoXXatov); SUNIUM 
(Ibwvcov) ; Sepias (iTjmdq). 

Onlft. — (1.) Sinus Ambra'gius (^A/jfipdxtoq xdXTtoi; — Gulf of 
Arta)y between Epi'rus and Acamania. 

(2.) Sinus Corinthi'acus (^Koptv^taxdq xdX-Koq — Gulf of 
Lepanto)j between Hellas and Peloponne'sus. 

(3.) Sinus Messeni'acus {Mt(t<ninaxd^ xdXnoq — Gulf of 
Koron), between Messenia and Laco'nica. 

(4.) Sinus Lacon'icus {Aaxa)vtxd(: xdXnoiz — Gulf of Kolohy- 
thia), between Tse'narus and Malea. 

(5.) Stnus Argol'icUS (^ApyoXixdq xoXnoq — Gulf of Napoli 
di Romania), between Laco'nica and Ar'golis. 

(6.) Sinus Saron'icus (lapwvtxdq xoXtroq — Gulf of Egina^y 
between Peloponne'sus and Hellas. 

(7.) Sinus Therm-sus {Bepfiaioi: xoXizoiz — Gulf of Saloniki), 
between Thessalia and Macedonia. 

Questions. — ^Where is the Erjmanthus situated? { 72. What 

capes are to be found on the western shores of northern Qreece ? — What 
cape on its southern shores ? — What capes on the northern shores of 
Peloponnesus? — What capes are on the eastern shores of Greece? — 
Name the seven principal gulfs. — Give the situation of Sinus Ambra- 
cius. — Sinus Corinthiacus. — Sinus Messeniacus. — Sinus Laconicus. — 
Sinus Argolicus. — Sinus Saronicus. — Sinus Thermseus. 



144 KUROPA. 

Rivers. — ^None of the rivers of Greece are navigable. Most 
of them are merely winter torrents to which the Greeks gave the 
name of Xeifiappoo^, or winter-flowing streams. The most con- 
siderable rivers are : 

A. In Northern Greece and HeUca : 

(1.) Ao'us (^Aiooq). It was the chief stream of E'lyris 
GrsBca. 

(2.) Thy' AMIS (Ouafit^), which formed the boundary be- 
tween Cestri'na and Thesprotia in Epi'rus. 

(3.) Arach'thus (^Apax^o<;)y the chief river of Epi'ms. 

(4.) AcHELo'us (^Axe^^oq)f the largest river of all Greece, 
and the boundary between Acarnania and ^tolia. 

(5.) Eve'nus (£yiyyoc), which flows principally through 
JEtolia. 

(6.), (7.) Pene'us (/7iyv€«o?), flowing through the vale of 
Tempe, and Sperche'us (^Inep^^etoq), both in Thessalia. 

B. In the Peloponnesus : 

(1.) Alphe'us (^AXiptt6q)y the chief river of the peninsula. 

(2.) Pene'us {n-r^veidq), in Elis. 

(3.) Euro'tas (Eupwraq), the chief river of Laco'nica. 
§ 73. Lakes. — Though there are few rivers of considerable 
size in Greece, the nature of the soil is favorable to the forma- 
tion of marshes and lakes. From some of these the waters find 
an outlet through the cavities of limestone mountains, called 
katavo'thra by the modern Greeks ; and after disappearing 
under ground for a greater or less distance^ rise again to the 
surface. The most remarkable lakes are : 

(1.) Lacus Pambo'tis (^Ilafifi&Ttq Xtfivij), in Molossia in 
Epi'rus. 

Questions.— What is said of the rivers of Greece ?— What was the 
main stream of lUyris Grseca ? — ^What rivers were in Epirus ? — What 
was the largest river of all Greece ? — What rivers were in Thessalia ? — 
What is the principal stream of the Peloponnesus * — What river was in 

Elis? — What was the chief stream of Laoonica? { 73. What is said 

of the lakes of Greece in general ? — What are katavothra f — Name four 
large lakes. 



ORiECIA. 146 

(2.) B(EBe'1s (BotfiTjiq)y in Tbessalia. 

(3.) Tricho'nis (Tptxtaviq), m -^tolia. 

(4.) Co'PAis (K<onatq;)y in BoBotia, the largest in Greece. 
Productions. — The most fertile districts were Thessaly, Boeotia, 
and a part of Peloponne'sus; the least fertile were Arcadia and 
At'tica. Wheat, barley, flax, wine, and oil were the chief pro- 
ductions. The hills afforded excellent pasture for cattle, and 
supplied timber in abundance. The domestic animals were 
horses, asses, mules, oxen, swine, goats, and sheep. Bears, 
wolves, and boars frequented the mountains. The best marble 
quarries were at Garystus in Euboea, at Pentel'icus and Hymet- 
tus in At'tica, and in the island of Paros. Gold was found in the 
island of Thasos. The most productive silver mines were at 
Laurium in the South of At'tica. Both copper and iron were 
found near Chalcis in Euboea; there were also iron mines in 
Mount Tay'getus in Laconia. 

Climate, — Owing to the inequalities of its surface, the climate 
varies greatly in different districts. On the highlands, in the 
interior, the winter is often long and rigorous, the snow lying 
upon the ground till late in the spring ; while in the lowlands, 
near the seacoast, there is very rarely any severe weather, snow 
being almost entirely unknown there. 

Inhabitants. — Among the earliest inhabitants were the Pe- 
lasgi. In historical times (subsequent to 777 B. c.) the country 
was settled by the Helle'nes, a branch of the Pelasgi, who, by 
their superior mental and physical endowments, were able to 
conquer their kinsmen in other parts of Greece. The four great 
divisions of the people were the Dorians^ jEolianSy AchcBans, and 
lonians. 

Questions. — ^What were the most fertile districts of Greece?— What 
districts were the least fertile ? — Name the chief productions of Greece. 
— Name some of the domestic animals. — Some of the wild animals. — 
Where were the best marble quarries to be found ? — ^What island pro- 
duced gold ? — ^Where were the richest silver mines ? — ^Where were iron 
mines ? — ^What is said of the climate ? — ^Who were the oldest inhabitants 
of Greece? — Which branch of them gained the supremacy ? — What were 
the subdivisions of the Hellenes ? 

13 E 



U6 



EUROPA. 



DiviaioM.— NORTHERN GREECE. 



(1.) Epi'rus: 

Atintantay 

Chaonia, 

Thetprotia, 

Mohsstay 

Aihamania. 



(2.) Thessalia: 

Thessalio'tiSy 

Phthio'tis, 

Pdasgio'tts, 

Mestiaso'tisj 

Magnesia, 



(1.) ACARNANIA, 
(2.) ^TOLIA, 
(3.) LOCRIS, 



HELLAS PROPER. 

(4.) Doris, 
(6.) Phogis, 

(6.) BiEOTIA, 



(7.) At'tica, 
(8.) Mb'garis. 



(1.) ACHAIA; 

(2.) Elis, 
(3.) Arcadia, 



PELOPONNE'SUS. 

(4.) CORINTHIA, 
(5.) SiCYONIA, 

(6.) Ar'golis, 



(7.) Messenia, 
(8.) Lacon'ica. 



§ 74. EPI'RUS (ij ''Hnetpoq), part of ALBANIA. 

ITftme. — The Greek word "Hi^stpoi:, Epi*ro$y signified the 
mainland^ and was the name originally given -to the whole of the 
western part of Greece extending from the Acroceraunian pro- 
montory as far as the entrance of the Corinthian gulf, in contra- 
distinction to Corc/ra, and the Cephallenian Islands. Epi'rus, 
especially toward the North, was scarcely recognised as a Grecian 
state. It is a wild and mountainous country, and has in all ages 
been the resort of half-civilized tribes of robbers. 

Boundaries. — ^North, Montes Acroceraunii; East, Pindus; 
South, ^TOLiA and Acarnania; West, Mare Ionium 



Questions. — Name the two divisions of Northern Greece. — The eight 

divisions of Hellas Proper. — The eight divisions of Peloponnesus. 

J 74. What does the word Epirus signify ? — To what part of Greece was 
this name originally given? — ^Was it a Greek state? — ^Name the bound- 
aries. 



EPIRU8. 147 

Divisions. — Atintania, Chaonia, Thespbotia, Molossia^ 
and Athamania. 
Mountains. — The Acroceraunii and Pindus. 
Capes. — PosiDiUM and Agrogeraunium : 

Infamea scopuloa Aeroeeraunia, — Hor. Od. I. iii.*20. 

Eivers. — (1.) Ao'us, which flows through the Fauces Anti- 
gonenses, where Philip V., king of Macedonia, in vain attempted 
to arrest the progress of the Roman Consul, Titus Quintius 
Flamini'nus (199 B. c.). 

(2.) Ach'eron, which passed through the lake Acherusia, 
and after receiving the river Cocy'tus, flowed into the Ionian Sea. 
In mythology they are both transferred to the lower world, on 
account of the dark color of their waters. 

(3.) Achelo'us and Cha'radrus. 

Inhabitants. — ^It was inhabited by fourteen tribes, which were 
not of pure Hellenic origin. 

Cities. — (1.) Buthro'tum {Boo^ptoTov), a commercial sea- 
port opposite Corcy'ra. 

(2.) Nicop'oLis {Ntx6TzoXtq)y situated North of the entrance 
of the Ambracian Gulf, opposite to Actium, was built by 
Augustus on the site of his camp, in honor of the decisive 
victory which he gained there. After the time of Constantine 
the Great, it became the capital of the province of Epi'rus. 

(3.) Dodo'na (Ja»d(OifTj)f celebrated for the oracular oaks, and 
for the most ancient oracle of Zeus in Greece. It is said that 
the temple of Dodo'na stood at the foot of Mount Toma'rus, on 
the confines of Thesprotia and Molossia. After the rise of Delphi, 
the oracle here was consulted chiefly by the neighboring tribes. 

{4.) Other towns in Epi'rus: Ambraciaj Pandosiay 0am/ pe^ 
Onckesmus, (/ricum or (/ricus. 

Questions. — Name the divisions of Epirus. — Its mountains. — Name 
Its capes. — Qiye the names of four rivers of Epirus. — ^What happened 
at the Fauces Antigonenses ? — What is said of the Acheron and Cocy- 
tuB ? — How many tribes inhabited Epirus ? — Name three cities of Epi- 
irus. — Who founded Nicopolis? — Why? — Where was the oldest oracle 
of Zeus? 



148 SUROFA. 



§73. THESSALLL (jj 0^^aJim} 

■aae. — ^li reeeired its name horn the TVmifiaaSy a HeDenic 
people, wfab came bither fiom TbeBproda, eonquaed the plain 
of the Peoc^os, and ezpeDed the .^Bnliana, who at that time 
fonned the great body of the popolatioii. 

Baoadanei.— North, Psm^us and Oltmfus; East, Snors 
ThermjEus; South, Snius Mali^acus and (Eta; West, 

PiNDUS. 

IDiTuiaDM. — Alenas (600 b.c.) divided the oonotiy into the 
following tetrarchies : Thsssalio'tis (9e<r<ra^cdrec), Phthio'tis 
(Wc»TC^), PelASOIO'tiS (nslaaytmrK:', comp. UeXoirjroiy Pdasgx\ 
and HestIjEo'tis QE^rctaiwrK;). Later there was a fifth division 
called Magnesia (^Mapr^eia). 

■oimtains. — Montes Cambunh ; Oltmpus, with the cele- 
brated vale of Tempo (rd Tifim^); Pindus; Ossa; Pelion; 
Othrtb and (Eta, with the famous pass of Thermop'ylae (Oep- 
fidnuXoLt, Hot- Gates, so called from the Ju)t springs at the point 
where the pass was fortified). This pass, situated on the Sinus 
Mali'acus, was guarded by Mount (Eta on the West, and by deep 
morasses and the sea on the East. Here Leon'idas and bis three 
hundred Spartans made their memorable stand against Xerxes 
and the Persian host (Aug. 7, 480 B.C.). Of the brave band 
of Spartans all perished but two. 

Sivers. — Penb'us, Eni'peus, Apida'nus, and Pami'sus. 

Gulfs. — Sinus Pagas-sus and Sinus Mai,i'\cu8. 

Produotions. — The plain of Thessaly was the most fertile 

portion of Greece. It produced grain plentifully and nourished 

cattle in abundance. It contained a numerous population in the 

towns, and was noted especially foir its rich and proud aristocracy. 
^ 

QuBBTiONS. — { 75. Whence is the name Thessalia derived ?— What 
are its boundaries? — Who divided the country? — Into how many parts? 
— Name those parts. — What celebrated vale was in Thessalia? — What 
was ThermopylsB ? — ^Where situated ? — Name the rivers. — Gulfs. — What 
is said of the productions ? — What of the population ? 



HELLAS PROPER. 149 

The Thessalian horses were the finest in Greece, and the Thessa- 
lian cavalry were celebrated for their efficiency. 

Cities. — (1.) Larissa (^Adptaffo), the birthplace of Achilles; 
it was the ancient Pelasgian capital, and the residence of the 
noble family of the Aleu'adao. After the time of Constantine, it 
was the capital of the province. 

(2.) Pharsa'lus (^dpffoXoc;), situated near the confluence of 
the Apida'nus and Eni'peus, the scene of the famous battle 
between Caesar and Pompey, in which Ga&sar obtained the 
empire of the Roman World (48 B. c). 

(3.) Pherje (0€pai), situated in the South-Eastern part of 
the Thessalian plain, the residence of Jason, the celebrated chief 
of Thessaly (374 B. c). 

(4.) Lamia (^Aafiia), situated near the Maliac Gulf, the scene 
of the Lamian war of the Greek states against Macedonia 
(323 B.C.). 

(5.) ScoTUSSA (IxoToo(T(Ta)y in the vicinity of which were 
the hills called Cynosce'phalae (^Kovd^ Ke^aXaly Dog-heads), 
where Philippus IV. of Macedonia was conquered by T. Q. Fla- 
mini'nus (197 b. c). 

(6.) Igloos Qlwlxdq), the place of rendezvous of the Argo- 
nauts. 

(7.) Other towns : Phthiay Larissa, Cremaste, Serade^a, 
EcMntLSy Hx/'pata, Gomphiy Iricca^ GonnuSy Demetrius, 

§ 76. HELLAS PROPER. (Livadia.) 

Boundaries. — North, Thessalia and Epi'rus ; East, Mare 
Mqjevm', South, Sinus Saron'icus and Corinthius; West, 
Mare Ionium. 

Mountaiiis. — In its Western half is a branch of Mount Pindus, 
which extending from Mount Tymphrestas in a South- Westerly 

Qttkstions. — Name some towns of Thessalia. — "What was the residence 
of the Aleuadsa ? — Where was Pharsalus situated ? — Who was conquered 
there ?— Where was PheraB situated 1 — Who resided there ? — What cele- 
brated hills were in the neighborhood of Scotussa ? 1 76. What are 

the boundaries of Hellas Proper ? — 'What is said of its mountains ? 
13* 



150 SUBOPA. 

direction^ finally unites with the oontinoation of the Epi'rot 
Mountains, and fonns rugged and inaccessible highlands, which 
have been at all times the haunt of tribes of robbers. The South- 
Easterlj continuation of Mount Pindub passes through Phocis, 
Boeotia, and At'tioa, under the names of Parnassus, He'lioon, 
Cith»ron, and Hymettus, till it touches the seacoast at Sunium. 
Divisions. — ^Acarnania, ^Btolia^ Logris, Doris, Phocis, 
BiEOTiA, At'tica, Ms'garis. 

ACARNANIA. (^ 'Jxa/ovavea.) 

Boundaries. — North, Epi'rus; East, JEtolia; South, Mark 
Ionium ; West, Sinus Ambracius. 

■ountaill8.^3RANiA and THY'ABiUS. It is a very rough 
country; thero are, however, hero and thero a few broad and 
fertile plidns through which the Achelo'us flows. 

Bivers. — Aohelo'us, on the confines of Acamania and 
^tolia, and In'achus. 

Cape. — ^AcTiUM, the scene of the battle between Antony and 
Augustus, which decided the fate of the Roman Empire (31 B.C.). 

Towns. — AcTiUM (^Punta), with a temple of Apollo; Am- 
BRACiA, with a temple of Athe'na (Minerva); Thyri/um; 
Argos Amphilo'gicum ; Stratus, the capital; Anactorium; 
Limn.£A; Dioryctus; PALiERUs; As'tacus; CEni'adjb. 
The Corinthians founded several colonies on the coast. 

^TOLIA. (ij AlTwXia,) 

Boundaries.— North, Epi'rus and Thessalia; East, West- 
ERN LocRis; South, Sinus Corinthius; West, the Aghe- 
Lo'us, which separated it from Agarnania. 

Mountains. — ^The Northern part is very rugged, but its coast 
was fertile. 



Questions. — Name the eight diyisions of Hellas Proper. — Giye the 
boundaries of Acarnania. — Its mountains. — Its rivers. — What battle 
was fought near Actium ? — Name some of its towns. — Give the bounda- 
ries of ^tolia. — The mountains. 



LOCBIS. 151 

Bivers. — Achelo'us (Aspropotamo), tbe largest river in 
Greece, Eve'nus, Sperchb/us, and Paracheloi'tis. 

Lakes. — Tbugho'nis and Htbia were two large lakes which 
communicated with each other. 

Productions. — In the plains excellent com was grown, and 
the slopes of the mountains produced good wine and oil. It was 
also celebrated for its horses. 

Inhabitants. — Pelasgi and Helle'nes. Some of the moun- 
taineers of ^tolia are described by Thuc/dides as eating raw 
flesh and speaking a language very unintelligible. 

Divisions. — Old ^tolia and Acquired ^tolia (^ dp^aia 
AhatXta and ^ kitixr/jToq AhatXia), 

Towns. — (1.) Thermum (^^^^ov), near the mountains ; Pa- 
NiETO^LUS (^UavatTfoXoq), where the ^tolians held the meetings 
of their league. 

(2.) Ca'lydon (KaXodwv\ mentioned by Homer; Pleuron 
(nX£opd>v)j also mentioned by Homer, where was a temple sacred 
to Athe'na. The prominent part which the ^tolians took in the 
expulsion of the Gauls from Greece (279 b. g.) made them one 
of the three great powers in Greece, the other two being the 
Macedonians and Achasans. 



§77. LOCRIS. (iiAoxpi^.) 

In historical times the Locrians were divided into two distinct 
tribes, differing from each other iu customs, habits, and civili- 
zation. 

The Eastern Locrians, called the Opuntii and Epicnemidii, 
were the more ancient and refined. They dwelt upon the 
Eastern coast of Greece, opposite the island of Euboea. 

Questions. — Name the rivers of iEtolia. — Lakes. — Productions. — 
What is said of its inhabitants? — Name some of the towns. — What is 
said of Thermum ?— What of Calydon ?— What of Pleuron ?— In what 
manner did the ^tolians become one of the great powers in Greece ? — 

Name the two other great powers. J 77. How were the Locrians 

divided? — How were the Eastern Locrians called ?— Where did they 
dwell? 



152 EUROPA. 

The Western Locrians are said to have been a colony from the 
former. They are not mentioned until the time of the Pelopon- 
nesian war, and even then are represented as a semi-barbarous 
race. They inhabited the country around the Corinthian Gulf. 

Eastern Locrians. 

Boimdaries. — North, Thessalia; East, Opuntic Gulf; 
South, Bceotia; West, Phocis. 

The portion of the country occupied by them was a narrow slip 
of coast extending from the pass of Thermop'ylaB to the mouth 
of the river Cephi'sus. 

Divi9ion8. — ^The Locrians North of the territory of Daphnus 
were called Epicnemidn, from Mount Onemis, and those South 
of this territory were called Opuntti, from the city Opus, which 
was regarded as their chief town. It waa the birthplace of 
Patro'clus. 

Towns. — ^Thronium, and Cnemi'des, both situated in the 
territory of the Epicnemidian Locrians, and the latter on Mount 
Cnemis, 

Western Locrians, or Locri Oz'ol^. 

Boimdaries. — North, Doris and ^tolia; East, Phocis; 
South, Sinus Corinthius ; West, jEtolia. 

ITaixie. — The origin of the epithet Oz'olae is uncertain. Some 
derived it from o^eiv, to smelly from the strong-smelling sulphur 
springs at the foot of Mount Taphiassus; the Locrians them- 
selves referred it to the branches (o^ot) of a vine which was 
produced in their country in a marvellous manner. 

Towns. — (1.) Amphissa (^AfifpttTtra), razed to the ground 
by Philip of Ma'cedon, when acting as general of the Amphic- 
tyons (338 B.C.). 

Questions. — What is said of the Western Locrians ? — Where did they 
dwell ? — What were the boundaries of Eastern Locris ? — How was Locris 
divided ? — What territory formed the boundary between the Opuntii and 
Epicnemidii ? — What were the boundaries of Western Locris ? — Why 
were the inhabitants called Ozolss ? — ^What is said of Amphissa ? 



PHOOis. 153 

(2.) Naupactus (NauTToxToq^ Lepanto). In the time of 
Pe'rides it fell into the hands of the Athenians; during the 
Peloponnesian war (431 — 104 b. o.) it was the headquarters of 
the Athenians. 



§ 78. DORIS (^ Jtt»/>cc), previously, Dryapis. 

It is a narrow plain hetween Parnassus and (Eta. 

Boundaries. — ^North, Thessalia; East, Logris and Phocis; 
South, LocRis ; West, -SItolia. 

Eiver. — Cephi'sus or Cephissus, which flows through the 
plain of Phocis and Boeotia. 

Towns. — Four in number; hence the name Tetraj/olts 
Do'rica: PiNDUS (Ilivdof:), Ebt'neus QEptve6(;), Cytinium 
(Kormov)y B(£UM {Boi6v)» 

Doris founded many Grecian states and colonies. From this 
plain the Dorians are said to have descended to the conquest 
of Peloponne'sus. 



PHOCIS. (^ (Pwxfe.) 

Boundaries. — North and East, Looris; East, B(EOTIa; 
South, Sinus Corinthius; West, Western Locris and 
Doris. 

Mountains. — Parnassus, upward of 7,000 feet high, the 
highest mountain in central Greece, was sacred to Apollo and 
the Muses. Midway up the mountain, above the town of Delphi, 
were two lofty cliffs sacred to Diony'sus (Bacchus), between 
which flows the Castalian Fount (^Fountain of St. John) from 

Questions. — ^What is the modern name of Naupactus ? — For what is 

the town celebrated? J 78. Where was Doris situated? — Give its 

boundaries. — Its rivers. — Why was it called Tetrapolis Dorica?— Name 
the four towns. — What is said of the Dorians ? — In what relation did 
Doris stand to many of the Grecian states ? — How is Phocis bounded ? — 
What is said of Parnassus ? 



154 'EUBOPA. 

the upper part of the mountain. These cliffs are often called 
by the poets and later writers the two peaks of Parnassus : 

Moru ibi verticibtu petit ardutu caatra duobus, 
Nomine Farruums, tuperatque eacumine nubes. 

Oyid, Met. I. 316 seq. 

The Southern extremity of the Parnassian ridge was He'lieon, 
also the abode of Apollo and the Muses. Mount Cnemis formed 
the boundary between Phocis and the Locri Epicnemidii. 

Riven. — Cephi'sus and Castalia, or Fons Castaltus. 
The Castalia was the holy water of the Delphian temple. All 
who visited Delphi for any religious object purified themselves at 
this sacred fountain^ which seems to have been done chiefly by 
bathing the hair. This Apollo himself is said to have done : 

Qui rorepuro Ccutalice lavit 

Crines tolutoe, — Hor. Od. III. 4, 61 seq. 

As Apollo was protector of the Muses, the Roman poets in 
later times represented this spring as imparting poetic inspiration 
to those who drank of it : 

Mihiflaviu Apollo 
Pocula Castalia plena ministret aqua. 

Ovid, Am. I. 16, 36 seq. 

Hence also the designation of the Muses : 

Silif Castalidum decus eororum, — Martial, IV. 14. 

Towns. — The towns were situated on both sides of the Ce- 
phi'sus. 

(1.) Delphi. (See page 155.) 

(2.) Daulis ( Jaw^jV), the residence of king Tereus, and the 
scene of the story of Procne and Philome'la. 

Questions. — What name does the southern extremity of Parnassus 
bear ? — What was the boundary between Phocis and the Locri Epicne- 
midii ? — What river was in Phocis ? — Why were the Muses called CastO" 
tides f — ^Where were the towns situated ? — Name some towns. 



DELPHI. 155 

(3.) Elate'a QEXdreta) was the largest city; the surprise of 
this by Philip produced a shock at Athens, very finely described 
by Demos'thenes in his Oration on the Crown. 

(4.) Crissa {Kpiffffo), with its harbors, CiRRHA {Ktppa) and 
Antigirrha QAvTtxcppa)y celebrated for its hellebore^ the great 
remedy for madness among the ancients. 



§ 79. DELPHI. (AeX^oi, earlier, Ilu&of, Jh/tho; Kastri.) 

A town in Phocis, and one of the most celebrated places in 
the Hellenic world, in consequence of its oracle of Apollo. It 
lies in the narrow vale of the Pleistus, which is shut in oA one 
side ' by Mount Parnassus, and on the other by Mount Cirphis. 
It was surrounded by mountains on all sides except on the South, 
and on that side it was fortified by a line of walls. 

The oracle of Delphi belonged originally to the Phocian town 
of drissa, which possessed a fertile and valuable territory, 
extending down to the Corinthian Gulf, on which it had a port, 
called Cirrha. This port soon became of more importance than 
Crissa, from being the landing-place of most of the strangers who 
came to consult the oracle. The exorbitant tolls levied by them 
on visitors, in addition to other outrages, brought upon them the 
punishment of the Amphictyons, who, after a ten years' war, 
levelled the guilty city with the ground, and consecrated its fer- 
tile territory to the god of Delphi (585 B.C.). The spoils were 
employed in founding the Pythian games, which after that 
epoch were celebrated every four years. About the same time, 
the sanctuary of the god fell into the hands of the Dorian tribe 
of the Delphians, who came from Lycorei'a, the highest summit 

Questions. — What was the largest town of Phocis? — What is said 

about it? —What was the hellebore ?— Where was it found? § 79. 

What was Delphi ? — What caused its renown ? — Describe its situation. 
— To what town did the oracle originally belong ? — What was the port 
of Crissa ? — Why was Crissa destroyed ? — To whom was its territory 
given ? — What use was made of the spoils ? — What tribe took the oracle 
from the Phocians ? — To which of the Greek tribes did they belong ? 



156 



EUBOPA. 



of Parnassus ; and thereafter a violent antipathy existed between 
the Phocians and Delphians. 

The circuit of the town was only a little more than two miles. 
The most striking object among these holy places was the 
great temple dedicated to Apollo. After the old temple had 
been burnt down (548 B. o.), the Amphictyons determined that 
it should be rebuilt on a scale of magnificence suited to the 



■. ^^"^ :;f^^^«^^^ 







aiUUNT PA&:f AS8US. 



ianotity of the spot The front of this new temple was of Parian 
marblO) while the rest was of ordinary building-stone. It was 
divided into three parts : Prona'us (w/mJvoo?), Cella (va6(;\ and 
AMytuni (^^t>rf>y, yuoyrcfoy). In the Prona'us was a bronze statue 
of lloiuor, while the walls of the interior were adorned by cele- 
krutod Mayings of the Seven Wise Men, such as Know thyself , 
Mthff^tiihoH in aU (hmtjfs. In the Cella were the statues of the 
(wo ^uidoffHos of Fate, surrounded by the altars of Poseidon, 
Kt^UMi and Apollo. Here was also the iron chair on which Pindar 



QliMMtiONH. A\\u\i was tho oirouit of the town of Delphi? — What was 
(lit) nittMt t^t^Mmrki^hlct buiUUng at Delphi? — When was the first temple 
SwitT Into how many parts was the new temple divided ?— 
i(« )mr(M Df^norlbo tho Pronaus —Describe the Cella. 



BCBOTIA. 157 

is said to have sung his hymns to Apollo. A peq)etual fire 
burned on the hearth, and near it was the Om'phalos, or Navel- 
Stone, which was supposed to mark the middle-point of the earth. 
In the A'djtum was the golden statae of Apollo, and in front 
of it a fire of fir-wood constantly burning. Laurel garlands 
covered its roofs, and laurel furnished the incense of its altar ; 
in its centre was a deep fissure in the ground (/d<r/:ia), ovei 
which stood the tripod of the Pythia, or priestess of Apollo. 
The vapor rising from under this tripod was supposed to inspire 
her, and under this inspiration she uttered the revelations of the 
god. No religious institution of antiquity obtained so paramount 
an influence, and that not only in Oreece, but throughout the 
countries around the Mediterranean. Its priests formed for the 
Hellenic world a sort of hierarchical senate which proved itself 
undoubtedly the wisest legislative body known in history till the 
beginning of the Peloponnesian war. For at this time the par- 
tiality for Sparta became so manifest that the lonians began to 
lose all reverence and esteem for it, though it always had a lean- 
ing toward the Greeks of the Doric race. It continued to flou- 
rish, but without exercising political influence, to the times of 
the Empen# Julian ; and then gradually falling into decay, it 
was entirely done away with by Theodosius. 



§80. BOHOTIA. 

Boundaries. — North, Eastern Logris; East, Mare Eubcb- 
um; South, At'tica, Meg'aris, and the Sinus Corinthius; 
West, Phocis. 

Extent. — It contained about 1,000 square miles, being a little 
smaller than Rhode Island (1,306 square miles), the smallest 
state of the United States. 

Questions. — Describe the Adytum. — What is said of the influence 
of the oracle? — ^When did that influence cease to exist? — For what 

reason? — At what time was the oracle entirely abolished? } 80. 

What are the boundaries of Boeotia ? — What is its extent ? 
14 



158 EUEOPA. 

Xonntains. — Hel'icon, Parnassus, Parnes, Gith.£ron, 
which separated Boeotia from Me'garis and At'tica; its snmmit 
was sacred to Zeus and Dionysus; and was the scene of the 
metamorpho'sis of Actseon, the death of Pentheos, and the expo- 
sure of CETdipus. 

Rivers. — Cephi'sus, celebrated by Pindar; Ismb'ntjS; Aso'- 
pus, Permessus, and Triton. 

Fountaint. — Aganippe: Hippoore'ne, the verse-inspiring 
fountain, said to have been formed by the hoof of Peg'asus. 

Lakes. — Copais and Hy'lioa, which were united by a subter- 
ranean passage. In the marshes of the Copais grew the aulefticay 
or flute-reed. 

Productioiis. — ^The plain of the Copais was particularly dis- 
tinguished for its fertility. Grain, vegetables, and fruit were 
cultivated with great success, and in this part of Oreece the vine 
was first planted. The mountains yield black and gray marble, 
and iron ; the Boeotian sword-blades were very celebrated. 

Climate. — ^The air is thick and heavy in consequence of the 
vapors rising from the valleys and lakes. The winters are gene- 
rally cold and stormy. 

Inhabitants. — ^The oldest inhabitants were j^ Pelasgian 
origin. In addition to these, two other tribes appear as ruling 
Boeotia in the heroic ages: the Minym and the Cadrn^ans, or 
Cadmeo'nes, Sixty years after the Trojan war, these primitive 
tribes were conquered by the Boeotians, an ^olian people from 
Phthio'tis in Thessalia. Though this people were reproached 
with stupidity, especially by their lively neighbors, the Athe- 
nians, yet Pindar, the greatest lyric poet, and Epaminondas, the 

Questions. — Name some of the mountains of Boeotia. — Rivers. — 
Fountains. — What is said of Hippocrene? — ^What does the name sig- 
nify ? — ^What lakes are in Boeotia ? — How were they connected ? — ^What 
grew in the marshes ? — ^Name some of the productions. — ^What is men- 
tioned in regard to the vine ? — What of the iron ? — How was the cli- 
mate? — Who were the earliest inhabitants? — What tribes dwelt in 
Boeotia beside the Pelasgians? — By whom were they conquered? — 
Where did the Boeotians come from? — How were they regarded in 
Greece ? — Give the names of celebrated Boeotians. 



B(EOTIA. 159 

most accomplished general of the Qreeks, were Boeotians; as 
were also Hesiod, Corinna, and Plutarch. 

§ 81. Cities. — (1.) THEBiE (OrjPal), said to have been founded 
by Cadmus, who called it Cadmefaj a name afterward oonfiDcd 
to its citadel ; situated almost in the centre of Bceotiay on the 
little river Isme'nus. It was the scene of the sufferings of 
(E^dipus^ and the birthplace of Pindar^ whose house and descend- 
ants were spared when Thebes was utterly destroyed by Alex- 
ander (335 B. c). It was rebuilt by Cassander more than twenty 
years afterward. Under its renowned citizen, Epaminondas, it 
rose to a commanding influence in Greece. 

(2.) Cobone'a (KopfovBio), where AgesiWus conquered the 
allied forces of Greece (394 b.o.). 

(3.) Obcho'men.us C0pxopLsv6<:'), the old capital of the Minyad. 
It was a very ancient, wealthy and powerful city. It was finally 
destroyed by Thebes (367 b. o.). 

(4.) Ch^bone'a (Xatpmtia)y the scene of the victory of 
Philip, by which he became master of Greece (338 b. o.). It 
was also the birthplace of Plutarch. 

(5.) AuLis (^AbXi<;')j a harbor on the East coast of Bceotia, 
where the Greeks were detained, when they had assembled for 
their expedition against Troy, until Agamemnon had appeased 
Diana by the sacrifice of his own daughter, Iphigeni'a. 

(6.) Delium (^JijXtoy) ; the Athenians were here defeated by 
the Thebans (424 b. o.)- Soc'rates fought at this battle and 
saved the life of Xen'ophon. 

(7.) Tana'gra {Tdvaypa), the scene of a victory of the Lace- 
dsemonians over the Athenians (457 b. c). 

Questions. — { 81. Where is Thebsa situated? — By whom was it 
founded ? — How was it known in mythology ? — What poet was a natiye 
of Theb8B ? — When was the city destroyed ? — Who rebuilt the city ? — 
When ! — Under whom was it at the head of Greece ? — Who were con- 
quered near Coronea? — ^What is said of Orchomenus ? — What battle was 
fought near Chseronea? — Who was a native of Chseronea? — ^Where 
was Aulis situated ? — What happened at Aulis ? — Who were defeated 
at Delium? — Who fought in this battle? — Who were conquered near 
Tanagra? 



160 XUEOPA. 

(8.) Haijabtus QAUapr9z)j destroyed by ihe Bomans in ihe 
first Maoedooian war (171 b. c). 

(9.) Thsspls (fieeKtat), destioyed by Xerxes in ihe last 
Poaan war (480 B.C.). 

(10.) LxuGTRA (Jeuxr/Mi), the soene of the Tictoiy of Epami- 
noodasy by which Thebes attained her national sapremacj 
(371 B.C.). 

(11.) Flatjls (nXarttia£\ where the Persian general, Mar- 
doninsy was defeated by Pansanias, on the same day that the 
Persian fleet was defeated off M/cale (Sept. 479 b.c.). 

(12.) LBBA]>El'A(Je/9dde(a). Livadia, the Northern part of 
the modem kingdom of Greece derives its name from this city. 
It possessed the celebrated statne of Zens by Praxi'teles. 

(13.) Asc&A, the residence of Hesiody Mtcalessus, An- 

THXfDON. 

§ 82. ATTICA. (7 "Arrtx^, also 'Axraia, and earlier, 'Axrtxif.) 

Hame. — ^The name is probably derived from AcUy Cbos^Land 
(jixTTj), as being a projecting peninsula, in the same manner as 
the peninsula of Mount Athos was also called Acte. 

Boundaries.— North, Bceotia; East and South, Mare 
Mqmvm; West, Me'gabis. 

Divisions. — ^The oldest division was into twelve independent 
communities, which were afterward united into one state by 
Theseus. There existed another division into four tribes (fuXat)y 
which arrangement was abolished by Cleis'thenes (510 B. o.), who 
formed ten new tribes, which were augmented to twelve in 
307 B. 0., and afterward to thirteen. Each tribe was subdivided 
into ten demes (^d^fiot), in some one of which every Athenian 
citizen was obliged to be enrolled. 

Questions. — ^When was Haliartus destroyed ?— When ThespiflB ? — 
What battle was fought near Leuctra ?— Who was defeated at Plat8D8D ? 

— Whent—What is said of Lebadeia? { 82. What is the origin of the 

name Attica? — Giye the boundaries. — What is the oldest division ? — 
Who united the tweWe tribes? — What other division existed? — Who 
abolished this division ? — What was the division of Cleisthenes ? 



ATTIOA. 161 

Extent. — The area of At'tica is about 700 square mileS; ex- 
clusiye of the island of Sa'lamis, which is about forty more. So 
tibat the state of A'ttica^ the sovereign of the sea, and surpassing 
the world in point of iDtellectual supremacy, had an area com- 
prising only about one-third of that of the small state of Dela- 
ware (2,120 square mUes). 

Xountains. — ^The Cith^ron, with its branches Fames, 
Pentel'icus, and Hymettus ; Lyoabettus and Laurion. 

Capes. — CoLiAs, Zoster, and Sunium, with the celebrated 
temple of Athe'na Sunias, 

Plains. — ^The Eleusii^an and Athenian plains (sometimes 
simply rd IliSiov): the plain of Mar'athon in the Diacria 
(^Ataxpia) or Highlands, where the Athenians, under the general- 
ship of Milti'ades, defeated the Persian army (Sept. 28, 490 B.C.). 
The MESOGiEA (M£iT6j'ata)j or Midland district, and the Para- 
LIA (^IlapaXta), or the Southern coast. 

Bivers. — The rivers of At'tica are little more than mere moun- 
tain torrents, almost entirely dry in summer, and only full in 
winter, or after heavy rains. The Athenian plain is watered on 
the West by the Cephi'sus and on the East by the Ilissus, the 
former being the larger stream. 

Climate. — ^The climate is dry, with an exceedingly pure and 
transparent atmosphere. 

Productions. — It was originally not a very productive country, 
so that Attic poverty became a proverbial expression ; but the 
energy of its inhabitants made it one of the gardens of earth. 
Its chief mineral was white and blue, or black marble; the former 
variety from Pentel'icus and Hymettus, the latter from Eleusis. 
It was an important article of export. Laurium contained valu- 
able silver mines. The soil is better adapted for fruits than for 
grain, which latter was imported; figs were abundant, and olives 



Questions. — ^What is said of the extent of Attica ? — Name the moun- 
tains. — ^The capes. — The five plains. — What is said about the rivers ? — 
What was the most important river ? — ^Was it very fertile ? — What made 
it a desirable residence ? — Where was marble found ? — Where were the' 
silver mines? — Was it rich in grain? 
14* L 



1^ xomoFA. 



vere am aitide of eiputto i ki a. Skeep lad goite finned & burge 
put of the wealth of the hnnhi»iifn Momii Hymettos was 
celebntcd £ariu\ 



mm Hfw^etim mtOm Fmlaim 



§ n. Ilhahitiatl. — The inhabitmntB of At'ticm were lonians, 
who were diTided, down to the time of Clds^thenes (510 B.c.}9 
into four tribes^ eaDed, from the reqpectiTe occnpatioiis of their 
membeiSy 

Gdtamia, or Tdeomia^ the CoItiTitcn; 

.£g^coTtZy the Goatherds; 
A/gadetj the Artisans- 
Cleifl^thenes fonned ten tribes instead of four, and this number 
remained tiD 307 B. c, when two were added, and finally nnder 
Hadrian the number was thirteen. 

The popoktion of Af tica, about 317 B. c, was neariy 527,000, 
of whom abont 127,000 were free, and 400,000 slavdk. This 
would ^Te a population of about 700 to a square mile. Massa- 
chusetts, comparatiTely the most populous of the United States, 
contains but 126 inhabitants to a square mile. 

Towns. — (1.) AcHARNJB CJ/c^vo/), the principal deme of 
At'tica, which has g;iyen name to a play of Aristo'phanes. 

(2.) Eleusis QEXeoffiq)y on the high-road from Athens to the 
Isthmus, which was lined with numerous monuments, and along 
which all the sacred processions travelled. It was the chief seat 
of the worship of Deme'ier and Perse'phone, and of the mysteries 
celebrated in honor of these goddesses, which were called the 
Eleusinia. They lasted 1800 years, and were abolished by the 

QuiSTiOHS. — ^What domesticated animals were found in Attica?— 

For what was Hymettus celebrated? { 88. What is said of the 

inhabitants of Attica ? — Into how many tribes were thej divided ?— , 
What is said of the population? — What was the greatest deme of 
Attica? — Where was Eleusis situated? — ^What goddess was worshipped 
there? — ^What were the Eleusinian mysteries? — How long did they 
last?~By whom were they abolished? 



ATHENJB. 168 

Emperor Theodosius. The penalty of revealing these mysteries 

was death : 

Vetabo qui Cererit sacrum 
Vulgarit arcana, tub Udcm 

Sit trabHnu, fragHemque mecum 
Solvat phaselum, — Hor. Od. IIL 2. 26 seqq. 

(3.) Phyle (^uXjj), the fort held hy Thraayhu'lus and the 
Athenian exiles who expelled the Thirty Tyrants from Athens 
after the Peloponnesian war (401 B.C.). 

(4.) Decele'a (^AexiXeca), garrisoned hy the Lacedaemonians 
in the Peloponnesian war (414 b. o.). 

(6.) Mar'athon (Mapa^m), a small plain in the North-East- 
em part of At'tica. On the North and South are marshes ; the 
heights of Brilessus form the Western boundary. On the East 
is the bay. It comprised four towns^ Mar'athon, Probalinthus, 
Tricor'ythus, and (E'noe, which originally formed the Tetrap'olis, 
one of the twelve districts into which At'tica was divided before 
the time of Theseus. In the plain of Ma'rathon the tumulus still 
exists which was erected to the hundred and ninety-two Athenians 
who were slain in the memorable battle (490 b. c), and whose 
names were inscribed upon ten pillars, one for each tribe, placed 
upon the tomb. There was a separate monument to Milti'ades. 

(6.) Other towns: P-«:ania, Eleu'ther^, Sunium, Ram- 
Nus, Alopb-e, Obo'pus, BbauboN; Prasi-e. 



§84. ATHE'NJS. 
(at ^A^^vat, Atiniah, or Settines, that is, i^ 'AOijva^.) 

Athe'naa, the capital of At'tica, is situated four or five miles 
from the sea-coast, in the central plain of At'tica which is enclosed 
by mountains on every side except on the South, where it is open 
to the sea. After the rebuilding of the city (479 B. c.) it con- 



QuBSTiONS. — ^What is said of Phyle? — What of Decelea? — ^Describe 

the situation of Marathon. — What battle was fought there? { 84. 

Describe the situation of Athens. 



164 EuaoPA. 

tained, inclading its three portrtowns, 10,000 bouses and 180,000 
inhabitants. The circuit of the city was almost twenty miles. 

It comprised within its boundaries the following four celebrated 
hills : Acrop'olis, Areiop'agus, Pnyx, and Muse'um. 

(1.) Acrop'olis (axponoXt^), a square craggy rook rising abrupdj 
about 150 feet, with a flat summit of 1000 by 500 feet. It stood 
in the centre of the city, the heart of Athens. It formed the 
original city: therefore, in historical times, it was often called 
Polb (i:6Xt<:), Afler the Persian wars it was not inhabited as 
a place of residence, but served as the fortress, the sanctuary^ 
and the museum of the city. The rock was coyered with tern- 
pies, sanctuaries, or monuments, the whole forming a vast array 
of architecture, sculpture, and painting. The buildings stood on 
platforms communicating with each other by steps. The Acrop'- 
olis was entered by — 

a. The FropvIcBa (rd nponuXata), a marble vestibule built 
under the administration of Per'icles (437 B. c), the northern 
wing of which is still tolerably perfect. 

b. On the highest part of the Acrop'olis stood the Par^themm 
(Jlap^evtDv), the temple of Athena the Virgin QAdj^va ndp^evoq)^ 
80 called as the invincible goddess of tvar. This most perfect 
production of Grecian architecture also was built under the 
administration of Per'icles, on the site of the old Hecatom'pedon. 
It was built entirely of Pentelic marble, and rested upon a rustic 
basement of ordinary limestone. Its architecture was of the Doric 
order. The whole building was adorned within and without with 
the most exquisite pieces of sculpture executed by different artists 
under the direction of Phidias. The colossal statue of the god- 
dess, about forty feet in height, was the work of his own hand. 
The statue itself was of ivory; the dress and ornaments of solid 



Questions. — How many houses did Athens contain ? — What was the 
number of its inhabitants ? — Name the four celebrated hills. — Describe 
the Acropolis. — Describe the entrance to it. — What temple occupied the 
highest part of the Acropolis? — Describe the Parthenon. — Under whose 
supervision was the sculpture executed ?— What was the work of Phi- 
dias himself? — Describe the statue of the virgin goddess. 



ATHENA. 165 

gold. It represented the goddess standing, clothed with a tunic 
which reached to the ankles; her left hand holding her spear^ 
while her right sustained an image of Victory^ six feet high. 
She was represented girded with the bq^j a helmet on her head, 
and her shield supported on the ground by her side. 

c. The most revered of all the sanctuaries of Athens was 
the Erechthefum QEpix^twv), the temple of Poseidon {Neptune), 
built over the well of salt water produced, according to the 
ancient myth^ by the stroke of the trident. It contained also 
the sanctuary of Athe'na Polias, Atlufna the Guardian of the Cityy 
and the olive-tree from which the MoriaB, or sacred olive-trees in 
the Academi'a were derived, and from these again all other olive- 
trees which grew in the precincts of the temples and the grounds 
of private persons. The original Erechthe'um, with all the other 
buildings, was burnt down by the Persians. About 400 B. o. the 
new building of the Ionic order was completed. 




Questions. — Describe the Erechtheum. — What is said of the sacre4 
oliye trees? 



166 XUBOPA. 

These were the chief baildings of the Acrop'olis^ bat its 
summit was covered with other temples, altars, stataes^ and 
works of art. 

(2.) Immediately west of the Acrop'olis b the Areiop^agut 
(^Apetoq ndfo^j HUl of Aresy Mars). Oa its South-Eastem 
summit the council of Areiop'agus met. This hill possesses 
peculiar interest to Christians as the spot from which the 
Apostle Paul preached to the men of Athens. 

(8.) To the South-West rises a third hill, the Pnyx (JIvoS^ 
the place of assembly of the Athenian people, which formed part 
of the surface of a low rocky hill. In the middle point of this 
wall of rock a solid rectangular block projects, hewn from, but 
adhering to it on one side. This is the celebrated Bema (^B^pui, 
i. e. stq> which one mounted), often called the Stone (6 Xt^o^')^ 
whence the orators addressed the multitude in the semicircular 
area before them. 

(4.) To the South of the Pnyx is the Museum. At the 
eastern foot of this hill are three ancient excavations in the 
rock, one of which is said to have been the prison of Soc'rates. 

§ 85. Beneath the southern wall of the Acrop'olis was the 
theatre of DioDy^sus, built of stone, in which all the great pro- 
ductions of the Grecian drama were performed. Near it was 
the Music Hall QQiSsiov), North of the Areiop'agus was the 
Thesefumy at the same time temple and tomb, containing the 
booes of Theseus. It is the best preserved of all the monu- 
ments of ancient Athens. South-East of the Acrop'olis was the 
Olympie'um, sacred to Zeus Olympius, the greatest temple not 
only of Athens but of all Greece. It was one of the four most 
celebrated specimens of architecture in marble, the other three 
beiog the temples of Eph'esus, Bran'chidae, and Eleusis. It was 



Questions. — Describe the Areiopagus. — ^What peculiar interest does 
it possess for Christians ? — ^Where was the hill Pnyx situated ? — ^What 

was the Bema? — ^What was the Museum? j 86. Where were the 

great productions of the Greek drama performed ? — Describe the The- 
seum. — Describe the Olympieum. — Name the four places which con- 
tained the greatest temples of Greece. 



ATHSNJE. 167 

commenced by Pisis'tratus and nearly seven hundred years after- 
ward finished by Hadrian. West of the Acrop'olis was the 
Angora (^Ayopd), which formed a part of the Ceramei'cus (^Kepa' 
fjLstx6^y pr. Potters^ Quarter). The A'gora had an enclosure at its 
Boutherp entrance, containing the House of the Senate and the 
temple dedicated to the Mother of the gods. On the south-west 
side of the square were the statues of the Epo'nymi, or ten heroes, 
from whom the ten tribes of At'tica were named. At the eastern 
gate were two porticos, one of which, known as the Porch of the 
HemuZy contained three statues of Hermes (Mercury), bearing the 
names of those soldiers who had distinguished themselves in the 
battles against the Persians; and the other, called the PafcHe 
(^ JlotxiXfi ffTod)y adorned with fresco painting of the battle of 
Mar'athon by Polygno'tus, was the place where Zeno the founder 
of the Stoic philosophers taught. In the A'gora was the coxurt 
of the Archon, near the statues of the Epo'nymi. Here, too, was 
the police-station of the Scythians employed by the government 
in the maintenance of the peace of the city. At the north-eastern 
angle of the Acrop'olis was the Prytatidum (Jlporaveiov), where 
the Pr/tanes, the presiding officers of the Senate and the 
Assembly had their meals, and where distinguished citizens and 
the children of those who fell in battle were often entertained. 
Here also the laws of Solon were kept. 

§ 86. We have now to mention the three celebrated schools 
in the suburbs, the AcademHay the Cj/nosarges, and the Ly- 
cflum: 

(1.) The AcadefmJSa (^AxadTJfita or 'Axadjjjiieta), on the north- 
west, derived its name from the hero Acade'mus, the original 
owner of the grounds. It was afterward converted into a Gym- 
nasium. The beauty of the surrounding plane trees and olive 
plantations was particularly celebrated. The Academy was the 

Questions. — Who commenced the building of the Olympieum? — Who 
finished it? — ^Describe the principal edifices of the Agora? — What was 
the Poecile? — Where was the court of the Archon?-— Describe the Pry- 

taneum. J 86. What three celebrated schools were at Athens? — 

Describe the Academia. • 



1<S8 XUEOFA. 

aehool of Flalo, and his mwu t maiB eontiiiiiiiig to teaeh in ibe 
Mme spot, were heaee eilled the Aademic Philosophera. 

(2.) The Cynmarga^ on the esBty was a suictnaiy <tf Hei'eiiles 
and, at the aaine tune, a Ojninaaiinii. Antu^thmes, the liNinder 
of the Cjnie school, taught here. 

(3.) The Lye^um^ alao on the east» was the chief of the 
Athenian Ojmnasiay and was dedicated to Ap(^ Lyoe'os. This 
was the place in which Aristotle and his disciples tanght^ who 
were called perqpcUeticM from their practice of walking about in 
this Gymnasinm while delivering their lectnres. 

Athens had three port-towns. The PCrceeiu (Jletpatso^ was 
ihe principal port and was connected with the city by means of 
two walls, called the long walls. East of the Piraeeus was the 
second port called Munychia (^Moom^xia) ; and still further East 
the Phal^ron (fdX^paii), the least frequented of the tiiree. The 
walls, which connected the PirsDens with Uie city, were forty 
stadia (about five miles) in length, probably sixty feet high, and 
about twelve feet thick, if we may judge from the foundations 
of the northern wall. These walls were begun by Themis'tocles 
and finished by Cimon and Per'icles, and were one of the causes 
of the Peloponnesian war (431 — 404 B.C.), which ended with 
the capture of Athens by the Peloponnesians and Boeotians, and 
the loss of the Athenian supremacy. , In the seventy-fifth year 
after the battle of Sa'lamis, the sovereignty of Athens received 
its calamitous termination. 

But the intermediate times had done much toward awakening 
the genius of the people of Athens; and the love of the sciences 
and of the fine arts, which had sprung up among them, was now 
the foundation of lasting fame. In no city were the festivals 
and theatrical entertainments so magnificent and various. In 

Questions. — Describe the Cynosarges. — The Lyceum. — Name the 
three port-towns of Athens. — Which was the most important one? — 
Describe the walls by which it was connected with the city. — Who buSt 
these walls? — What war was caused by them? — When did the war 
begin ?— When did it end ?— How long was it after the battle of Sala- 
mls ? — What was the character of Athens after the destruction of her 
■upremaoy ? 



MEQARIS. 169 

manners, the people were most polished, and their enjoyments 
of life the most multiplied and refined. Commerce flourished in 
Athens, and strangers, eager for knowledge, flocked thither in 
great numbers. The public walks of Athens, the groves of the 
Lyce'um and the Academy, became the seat of a more glorious 
empire than the fate of arms could bestow or take away; and the 
victory of the Peloponnesians at j^gospo'tami destroyed only the 
material sway, not the genuine greatness, of Athens. 

§87. ME'GARIS. (ii Meyapi^.) 

Boundaries. — North, B<eotia; East, At'tica; South, Co- 
BiNTHiA and Sinus Saro'nious ; West, Sinus Alcyo'nicus. 

Extent. — It occupied the greater part of the isthmus which 
connects Hellas with Peloponne'sus. The area of the country is 
143 square miles. 

Mountains. — It is a rugged and mountainous country, and 
contains no plain except the one in which its capital, Me'gara, 
was situated. The mountains were called Oeranei'a, one of 
whose passes^ the Scironian Rocks (al Ixecpwvide^ nirpat), was 
named from the robber Sciron. 

Cape. — jEgiplanctus. 

Town. — Me'garis contained but one town of importance, 
Me'qara, with its harbor Nisasa (Niffata). In the seventh cen< 
tury before the Christian era, it was one of the most flourishing 
commercial cities of Greece, and it founded some of the earlier 
Grecian colonies^ both in Sicily and Thrace : Me'gara in Sicily, 
As'tacus in Bithynia, C/zicus in the Propontis, Chalce'don at the 
mouth of the Bos'porus, and Byzantium opposite Chalce'don. 
Me'gara was celebrated on account of its School of philosophy, 
which was founded by Eucli'des, a disciple of Soc'rates, and 

Questions.^} 87. What are the boundaries of Megaris ?— What is 
said of its extent ? — What is said of its mountains ? — What cape was in 
Megaris? — What was the only town of importance? — Give the name 
of its harbor. — What colonies were founded by Megaris? — Who was the 
founder of the school of the Megarici ? — ^Whose disciple was Euclides ? 
16 



170 EUBOPA. 

which diBtingoished itself chiefly by the culdvatioQ of dialectics. 
The philosophers of this school were called the Mega'rici. 

Other towns of note were : Rhus, on the North of Me'gara ; 
and Pegas and JBgos^theQa, on the Corinthian Gulf. 

§ 88. PELOPONNE'SUS. (^ neXo7r6yv7j<ro^, Morea.^ 

Boundaries. — The peninsula forming the lower part of Greece 
below the Sinus Corinthi'acus and the Sinus Saro'nicus was called 
the Peloponne'sus (neXoitovvqffo^y i. e. Island o/Pelops). 

Extent — Its area is 7,777 square miles^ or not quite as laige 
as the state of Massachusetts. 

Mountains. — ^The mountains of Peloponne'sus have their origin 
in Arcadia, the central district of the country, which is encircled 
by an irregular ring of mountains forming a kind of natural wall, 
from which lateral branches extend in all directions toward the 
sea. The principal mountain ranges are Ebtmanthus, Ltgjsus, 
Tay'getus. 

Capes. — Chelona'tas, Ichthys, Tae'narus, and Ma'lea. 

Eivers. — The chief river is the Alphe'us in Arcadia and 
Elis, next in size are the Euro'tas in Lacon'ica, the Pami'sus 
in Messenia, and the Pene'us in northern Elis. 

Volcanic Changes. — Earthquakes have, in aU ages, been of 
frequent occurrence in Peloponne'sus. The earthquake of 
464 B. G. destroyed almost the whole city of Sparta, and a oen-' 
tury later (373 B.C.) two cities of Achaia^ He'lice and Bura, 
were swallowed up by the sea. 

Divisions. — The central district was called Arcadia. South 
of it were Lacon'ica and Messenia; on the West Elis; 
on the North, Achaia, and on the East, Ar'golis, which was 
subdivided into Corinthia, PhliasiA; SioyoniA; Ar'golis 
and Cynuria. 

Questions. — { 88. What is- the modem name of Peloponnesus ?•— 

What are its boundaries? — What is its extent? — Describe its mountains. 

Its capes. — Its rivers. — ^What is said about yoloanic changes? — ^What 

cities were destroyed by the earthquake of 464 b. c. ? — ^Give the divisions 

"* Peloponnesus. — How was Argolis subdivided ? 



ARCADIA. 171 



§89. ARCADIA, (ii 'Apxadia,) 

Sonndaries. — North, Aghaia; East, Ab'qolis ; South, Mes- 
SENiA and Lacon'ica ; West, Elis. 

Extent. — ^Next to Lacon'ica it was the largest country in Pelo- 
ponne'sus. Its area was about 1,700 square miles. 

Mountains. — It was surrounded and traversed by different 
ranges of mountains. It has been aptly called the Switzerland 
of Greece, and was a celebrated pastoral country of the poets. 

Yirgil makes a boastful shepherd say : 

Pan etiam, Arcadia mecum n judiee eertet, 
Pan etiam Arcadia dicat te judiee victum. 

Eel. IV. 68 Beq. 

The most celebrated mountains are Cylle'ne, which the ancients 
thought was the highest in the Peloponne'sus, an honor which is 
now known to belong to one of the summits of Ta/getus ; Ebt- 

MANTHUS, M^'nALUS, LYO-ffl'US. 

Elvers. — The Alphe'us and its tributary, the Ladon. 

Lake. — Stympha'lus (Stu/jl^oXo^), the residence of the 
Harpies, the destruction of which monsters was one of the twelve 
labors of Her'cules. The lake discharged its waters through a 
mountain chasm and reappeared in Ar'golis as a river. 

Climate. — The winter is often long and rigorous; even in 
March the weather is intensely cold. 

Prodnctions. — ^The Northern mountains were covered with 
forests and abounded in game. The Eastern region is intersected 
by mountains of lower elevation, between which there are several 
small and fertile plains, producing com, oil, and wine. Of all 

Questions. — J 89. What are the boundaries of Arcadia ? — What is its 
extent? — With what modem country has it often been compared? — 
Why? — Name some of its mountains. — Some of its rivers. — What remark 
is made in regard to Lake Stymphalus ? — ^What is said of the climate ? — 
What were the chief productions ? 



172 EUROPA. 

the prodactioiifl of Arcadia, the best known were its asses, which 
were in request in every part of Greece. 
Persius bears testimony to their vigor : 

ArcaduB peeuaria rudere crediu. — Sat III. 9. 

Inhabitants. — ^It was inhabited by the same race of people 
from the earliest historical times. The Arcadians regarded them- 
selves as the most ancient inhabitants of Greece. They were a 
strong and hardy race of mountaineers, and, like the Swiss in 
modem Europe, constantly served as mercenaries. They were 
very fond of music ) Hermes is said to have invented the lyre in 
their country and the syrinx, or shepherd's pipe, was regarded 
as a contrivance of Pan, their tutelary god. The simplicity of 
the Arcadian character was exaggerated by the Homan poets into 
an ideal excellence, and its shepherds were represented as living 
in a state of perfect innocence and virtue. 

Towns. — The chief towns were situated in the Eastern valleys. 
The other parts contained only villages. 

(1.) Te'qea (^Teyia), which, after a long struggle, was obliged 
to acknowledge the authority of Sparta. 

(2.) Mantine'a {Mavrtveta), the largest and one of the most 
ancient of the Arcadian towns, the scene of the victory and 
death of Epaminondas (362 b. c.)* 

(3.) Meoalop'olis (MeyaXdicoXtq^y founded by Epaminondas 
(371 B.C.), in order to check the inroads of the Lacedsdmonians, 
was the birthplace of Philopoemen and Polybius, the historian. 

(4.) Lycosu'ra {Auxdtroupa), at the foot of Mount Lycseus. 
It was considered by the Greeks as the most ancient city in the 
world. 

(5.) Clttor (KXeiriop), in which territory was the celebrated 

Questions. — What is said of the asses of Arcadia ? — ^What is said of 
the inhabitants? — How are they described by the Roman poets? — 
Where were the chief towns of Arcadia situated? — Mention some of 
them. — What is said of Tegea? — ^Who died at Mantinea? — ^When? — 
Who founded Megalopolis? — What celebrated men were natives of 
Megalopolis ? — What was found in the neighborhood of Clitor ? 



LACONICA. 



173 



fouDtain, of whose waters those who drank lost for ever their taste 

for wine : 

CUtorio quicumque ntim de fonte Uvarit^ 
Vino fugit; ffaudetque meria (ibstemhu undis. 

Ovid. Met. XV. 322. 

(6.) Other places of note were: Orcho'menus, Pheneus, 
PsoPHis, Caphyjb, Thelpu'sa, Pallantium, and Phioalia. 



§ 90. LACON'ICA. (^ Aaxedatfiwv or AaxatvcxTJ,) 




COAST OF LAOOIflA. 



ITame. — The most ancient name was Lacedcemon (^Aaxedaifiwv), 
given as well to the country as to its capital. The usual name 
in Greek authors was Lacon'iga ; the Romans called the country 
Lacon'ica, Lacon'ice, or Lagonia. Some modern scholars are 
of opinion that the root of the word is Lac, connected with 



Questions. — § 90. What is the most ancient name of Laconica? — 
What does the name signify ? 
15* 



174 EUROPA. 

Xdxoq, Xdxxo^, Lat. lacw, lacunay Eng. hkej and that it was given 
to the central region from its being gunk between mountains. 

Boimdariea.~North, CtnuriA; Ar'golis, and Arcadia; 
East, Mare Myrto'um {Mopr^v niXa/o^) and Sinus Argol'i* 
cus; South; Sinus Mebseni'agus and Lacon'icus; West, Mes- 

BENIA. 

Extent — ^It is a long valley surrounded on three sides by 
mountains, and open only on the fourth to the sea : it contains 
about 1,900 square miles. 

Mountains. — The Western range which terminated in Gape 
Tsd'narum was called Tat'getus ; the Eastern range terminating 
in Cape Ma'lea was known by the names of Parnon (ndpvi»nf\ 
Thorax, and Zarax. 

Volcanic Changes. — Laoon'ica was called the easily shaken 
(iixrettnoq -fj AaxwnxTj). In the terrible earthquake of 464 B.C. 
not more than five houses are said to have been left standing at 
Lacedadmon ; more than 20,000 persons were believed to have 
perished, and huge masses of rock were rolled down from the 
highest peak of Ta/getus. 

Biver. — The whole drainage of the valley empties into the 
river Euro'tas (Eupwta^:, called BasUi-potamOj below the Spar- 
tan plain), which flows from the highlands of Arcadia into the 
Laconic Gulf. 

Climate. — ^The orange-tree flourishes in the valley of Sparta 
while the summits of Ta/getus are wrapped in snow. 

Productions. — The slopes of Tay'getus are clothed with forests 
of pine. This mountain-range is rich in iron, marble, and green 
porphyry. The soil is generally poor, difficult to 4)lough, and 
better suited to the cultivation of olives than of grain. 

Inhabitants. — The oldest inhabitants were the L^leges, who 



Questions. — What are the boundaries of Laconioa ?— What is the ex- 
tent? — ^What is said about the mountains? — ^When was Sparta destroyed 
by an earthquake ? — Were earthquakes common there ? — What is the 
only remarkable river of Laconica ?— What is said of the Eurotas? — 
What is said of the climate ? — What of the productions ? — Who were the 
oldest inhabitants ? 



LAOONIGA. 176 

were succeeded by the Achoeans. Eighty years after the fall of 
Troy, Lacon'ica was conquered by the Dorians. The population 
of Lacedaemon was hence divided into the three classes of Spar- 
tans, Perioeci (Ilepiotxot), and Helots (EiXofre^), The Spartans 
lived in the city of Sparta or Lacedadmon and were the ruling 
Dorian class; the Perioeci lived in the different townships in 
Lacon'ica, and though freemen^ had no share in the government| 
but received all their privileges from the ruling class at Sparta; 
the Helots were serfs bound to the soil; who cultivated it for the 
benefit of the Spartan proprietors, and the Perioeci. 

The number of the citizens of Sparta, at the time of the Per- 
sian wars, was about 8,000. After this time it gradually biit 
steadily declined, so that, about two and a half centuries later, it 
did not contain more than 700 inhabitants. 

Towns. — There were no towns of any importance in Lacon'ica 
except the capital. 

(1.) Sparta or Lacedjbmon (Zitdprri or Aaxsdalfiwv), the 
capital, on the right bank of the river Euro'tas, at the foot of 
Mount Ta/getus. The appearance of the city was much inferior 
to its fame, as there was a comparative absence of elegant temples 
or private residences. The Spartans, protected by the lofty ram- 
parts of mountains, continued to dwell in the midst of their plan- 
tations and gardens, with their original rural surroundings. This 
rural freedom formed the chief charm and beauty of the city of 
Sparta. It is at present a heap of shapeless ruins near the 
modern town of Mistra. 

(2.) One of the most ancient towns was Amt'cl-E QAfivxXai), 
the residence of the Achsdan kings. Apollo was here worshipped 
with peculiar solemnities, and his temple was superior to any 
other in Lacon'ica. Here the Hyacmthia^ a festival in honor of 

QiTESTiONs. — When was Laconica conquered by the Dorians ? — ^What 
three parts did it contain since that time ? — What is said of the Spar- 
tans ?— Who were the Perioeci ? — Who were the Helots ?— What was the 
number of citizens (Spartans) during the Persian wars ? — Did the popu- 
lation decrease or increase after that time ? — What was the capital of 
Laconica ? — Where was it situated ? — ^What was the appearance of the 
town ? — What was its chief charm ? — ^What is said of Amyclae ? 



176 SUROPA. 

Hjacinthiu, ma eelebntedL Am/cbD was aid to have beeir 
called iaciictj or the SUeni: 

taeitiM regmtmt Awtydiif 

Yirg. JEa. X. 564: 

from the fact of the inhabitants having made a law, which for- 
bade the mention of the approach of their enemies, the Spartans. 
They afterward fell victims to their absurd statute. 

(3.) Qtthium {lo^tw)^ South-West of the mouth of the 
Euro'tas, was the naval station of the Spartans. In its neighbor- 
hood was Helos (^£Xo^)y whose inhabitants the Lacedsemonians 
reduced to shivery, whence their slaves were called ffdots, 
according to the historian Eph'oms ; but others more plausibly 
make Helot synonymous with captive^ as if derived from ^Xelv. 

(4.) Sellasia {leXXaaia), where Cleom'enes, the hist of the 
royal line of the Heraoli'dsey was defeated and expelled by Anti'- 
gonus(222B.c.). 

(5.) THXRAPNSy EPIDAURUSy LiMB'rA, CuRIJE. 

§9L MESSENIA. (:i MBctF^via,) 

Bonndaries. — North, Elis and Arcadia; East, Laoon'ica; 
South, Sinus Messeni'acus ; West, Mare Ionium. 

Extent — Its area was nearly 1,200 square miles. The most 
fertile and most populous part is the basin of the Pami'sus 
(JldfiKTo^^, This basin is divided into two distinct parts, which 
are separated from each other by Mount Itho'me Ql^minj) and 
connecting highlands. The upper part was called Stenycle'rus, 
and the lower part, Macaria. 

Mountains. — ^The mountains on the Western coast of Messenia 
are much less rugged than on the Eastern coast of Lacon'ica. 

QuiSTiONS. — ^What was the naval station of the Spartans? — What is 
said of Helos and of the origin of the name Helot ? — ^What battle was 

fought near Sellasia? ^ 91. What are the boundaries of Messenia? — 

^hat is its extent? — What is said of the basin of the Pamisus? — ^What 
Md about the mountains ? 



MBSSENIA. 177 

The chief moaniain-chain was called Aiqaleon, the Northern 
range Elai'on, and the Western range Tay'gbtus. In the 
middle were the two great natural fortresseS| Itho'me and Ira 
(^Elpa), the former commanding the entrance to the lower plain, 
and the latter situated in the mountains in the Northern part of 
the upper plains. Ira held out against the Spartans, when they 
ejected the Messenians (671 B. c), and was not finally reduced 
till three centuries later. 

Gapes. — ^Acri'tas, Cyparissium, Coryphasium. 

Bays. — Sinus Cyparissius and Sinus Messeni^acus. On 
the Western coast is the deep Bay of Pylos {Niavarino), the best, 
and only really, good harbor of the Peloponne'sus, celebrated both 
in ancient and modern history. The Athenians here made 
prisoners of a hundred and twenty of the first Spartan families, 
and thus impaired the strength of the old notion that the Spar- 
tans would rather die than yield ; and in recent times a great 
battle was won in this bay by the combined fleets of England, 
France, and Russia, in conflict with the Turkish fleet (Oct. 20, 
1827). 

Elvers. — The Pami'sus flows through the entire length of 
the country, from North to South, fertilizing cultivated and 
extensive plains which constitute the largest portion of the whole 
country. The principal river in the upper plain was called 
Bal'yra (BaXupa). At its junction with the Am'phitus is a 
celebrated triangular bridge, the foundations and piers of which 
are of great antiquity. 

Climate. — The climate is often praised by the ancients aa 
temperate and soft, especially on the lower plain, which was 
hence palled Macaria (i^ Maxapia)^ the BlesL It is described as 
neither too hot in summer, nor too cold in winter. 

Questions. — What were the great natural fortresses ? — ^Which of these 
fortresses commanded the lower plain? — Which the upper plain? — 
When was Ira taken ?-— Name some promontories of Laconica. — Some 
of the bays. — ^Where is the Bay of Pylos situated ? — What happened 
there ? — ^What are the principal rivers ? — ^What is said of the Pamisus ? 
— ^What was the principal river of the upper plain? — What is at the 
junction of the Balyra and Amphitus ? — ^What is said of the climate? 

M 



KFKOPA. 



$ •*. M ■■■ !■■ ■— — Zi w» tW Bort fertile put of the Pelo- 
7» ajK ifj&. I2 wr» wiSiT^ : J Ttxj suenms sftrams, and 

TtiIa^i ^MCfc. — Titf ivlrsx rTr.ircsiaa vere Lel'igbs, wHo, 
wu. Uif ?-sc li titf F;ii c«:a'w«r.i«>. vere ronqoered by the Do- 
r2U& Ix zha iLjitiLf of lae «-Irt^ te^tmj before the Christian 
«!V a jcr-ifs xiT c:>^n2SK mad skirsi^&K o ec m ied on the borders 
ic X ^^!¥«*L^ ami Li^ni o.ni^ woj--^ £>t« rise to a eonfirmed hatred 
Hrr«a ii»f m ii:i»£r^i su:f.:ii& B>»dj wars followed, and 
TJif TK^n wiK^ n*; Esir^n-^mskv of Measenia with Lacon^ca 
r«i^5 s. r. ^ wiJif ^ TTT.kS-arig were ledneed to the ooodidoa 
^* HiorcsL T^ saVi:^ si fkiiin , bwerer, withdrew from 
X^^^^wQoa ami jvctj;^ ^ ^ixnivs fans of Greeee. A large 
^ tn SfT. X3»5fr ii»f Tw» senff af A5E«cex'eBes» aafled to Italy aod 
^«fc:.i^£ at Rterxia n>;T afrervard obtained possession of 
ro-Tv-Vw ,1a siif -rro.'tt^ <WBt of S«!t. and called it Messa'na, 
wXv:^ Itt^ »«iJ3M t^ saone WHie to the prasent day. 

I^vm. — 1 ^ AXTJLXIA J.iMftM>\ tihe capital of the MesBe- 

^:^ "* c^TKATCiJL xr^ .Trsi'.AU/^rX the capital of the Dorian 

v^ "" Mk$ssk*5:« JT-^ittit". f:w»ied br EpaBinondas at the 
i.vl v't" M.xaxt h^' JM. jft ttte swacsh of which was the citadd, 
««^ \>f t^ $(7Vtt^^i«t vaa^e» ^ t^ Fedcfitmne'siis. 

yi"^ ImA ler Kixa ^r:^£\ wfeeve tlie citiKBB maintained 
lWQM;<«^^r>w^ dmn:::^ t^ siKv^ed Mcscnsin war. 

|NNst«>SKN«^?~WW w^Mf>^ iJj* 40i«4« iaJtfcHsMiis?— By vhoa were they 
\\v«>^m^m>kI? -Willi wS6>ch ^ Umst kiBdroi ■< ig k b wre £d tihcse conquer- 
\M>» |^^ 1^ «^?--WkM «iK» tW TC«h?— Vlmn did tkis meorporatioB 
KA^^|y^l^^ .)VI tV^ wIk^V^ f<<«f«^Mtt mbwit to tlwir eosqiieron?— 
W Ku W\r \^U tK^^T 1^^ ?^r»^kr wk«\$« CNHhctct did ifcey safl to Italy ?- 

^N^WH* \>h*| w** tW AMV')^^! r«*$sdeiic^ of ti* Mess^dan kings?— 
V\ ^«l b^sv^M^^ ih^ v\i^|viiAl ^ iV IV>rkMi c<wq«i«ran? — ^Wkcre was Mes- 

** »(UMUsl If -WW was $i« 1 



ELIB. 179 

(5.) TYlJJ&0oXo(;)y and Metho'ne (Afet^cwuiy), were the chief 
towns on the Western coast. The former was the residence of 
king Nestor, famed for his wisdom and eloc^uence (II. I. 
247 seqq.). 

(6.) Other towns : Coro'ne, Ctparissus. 



§93. ELIS. C^eT.) 

Name. — The Doric name of Elis was Alls, or, written with 
the digamma, FAAIZ, perhaps connected with the Latin vallis, 
a vale, vaUey, and so signifying originally, a hollow. 

Boundaries. — North, Mare Ionium; East, Achaia and 
Arcadia; South, Messenia; West, Mare Ionium. 

Divisions. — (1.) The Northern part, or Elis Proper, or 
Hollow Elis; 

(2.) The middle part, or Pisa'tis, district of Fisa; and 

(3.) The Southern part, or Triphylia, i. e. the country of 
the three tribes, Minyas, Ele'ans, Cauco'nes. 

Gapes. — The coast of Elis is a long and almost unbroken 
sandy level, interrupted only by three rocky promontories, 
Araxus, Chelona'tas, and Ichthys, of which Chelona'tas is 
the largest. 

Mountains, — Elis has no mountain system of its own, but 
only hills and plains. Its chief mountain, Pholoe, was cele- 
brated in ancient poetry and mythology. This name comprised 
all the highlands North of the river Alphe'us. 

Valleys. — The plain of the Pene'us, being the level portion 
of Hollow Elis. Its mountain region was called Acrore'a. The 
South- West part of the plain of the Pene'us is called the plain 

Questions. — What were the chief towns on the western coast of Mes- 

senia? — ^Where was the residence of Nestor? { 93. What is the Doric 

form of Elis? — How is it written with the digamma? — With what Latin 
word does it correspond? — With what English word?— What does Elis 
signify?— How is it bounded ?— How divided ?— What does Triphylia 
signify? — What is said of the mountains? — What is the chief mountain? 
— Name the principal valleys. 



180 EUROPA. 

of Gastu'niy and Pisa'tiB comprises the loi^ valley of the 
Alphe'os. 

Biven. — ^The principal rivers are the Alphe'uSi which flows 
along a hroad and fertile valley through the centre of Elis ; and 
the river Pene'us {Gcutunt), beside a great many smaller 
streams. Along the coast of Triphylia were many lagoons. 

Productions. — The countiy was veiy populous and more fertile 
than any other in the Peloponne'sus, and is said to have been the 
only one in Greece which produced flax. Horses, cattle, and 
oxen were reared within its limits in large numbers ; it was also 
full of timber, mostly oak. 

Inhabitants. — The most ancient inhabitants of Elis appear to 
have been PelasffianSy who were called Cauco'nes, Epe'ans, 
Pylians, and Ele'ans. The Ele'ans were the first people in the 
Peloponne'sus who experienced the effects of the Dorian invasion, 
their territory being the landing-place of the invaders. 

Towns. — Elis (^HXtq) was the residence of the Dorian inva- 
ders. It was the only fortified town in the countiy. The rest 
of the towns were all unwalled villages, inhabited by the Pelas- 
gians, who all rendered obedience to the ruling class at Elis. 
The harbor of Elis was called Cylle'ne {KuXX^vrj). In Triphylia 
was the town of Scillus, given by the Lacedaemonians to the 
historian Xen'ophon, then an exile from Athens, who lived here 
more than twenty years. Other towns were : Pylos, J^isa, 
Lepreum, Sa'micum, Olympia (see § 94) 



§94. OLYMPIA. i^mufima.) 

It lay on the right bank of the Alphe'us, nearly in the centre 
of Elis, and was properly not a town, but only a collection of 



Questions. — Name the two largest rivers of Elis. — ^What is said of 
the productions ? — What product was entirely confined to Elis ? — What 
Pelasgian tribes inhabited Elis? — Where had been the landing-place 
of the Dorian conquerors ? — What was the only fortified town of the 

country ? — What was its harbor ? — What is said of Scyllus ? { 94. 

Describe the situation of Olympia. — Was it really a town ? 



OLYMPIA. 181 

Bacred buildings. It belonged originally to Pisa, and the plain 
in whicb it stood was called, in more ancient times, the plain of 
Pisa; but after the destruction of this city by the Ele'ans 
(572 B.C.), ike name of Olympia was extended to the whole 
district. This district comprises a plain surrounded on all sides 
by hills except on the West, where it opens toward the sea. 
Here was the celebrated sacred grove which surrounded the 
temple of Zeus. Olympia lay partly within and partly outside of 
the sacred grove. This grove bore the name of Altis, and was 
surrounded by a wall with several gates, but with only one 
entrance, situated in the middle of the western side, and called 
the Pompic Entrance. On the right hand of this gate, within 
the wall, was the sacred olive from which a boy with a golden 
knife cut the olive branches destined to adorn the head of the 
conqueror in the games. In the immediate neighborhood of this 
tree wi^^the Olt/mpe^umf or temple of Zeus Olympius. It was 
of the Doric order. Its length was two hundred and thirty feet, 
its breadth ninety-five feet, and its height sixty-eight feet. It 
had six columns in front, and thirteen on the sides. These 
columns were fluted, and seven feet four inches in diameter, and 
larger than any known to have belonged to any ancient temple 
of Greece. In its interior construction it resembled the Par'the- 
non at Athens. In this temple was the colossal statue of Zeus 
Olympius, the master- work of Phidias, which surpassed even his 
celebrated statue of Athe'na in the Par'thenon. The statue was 
formed of gold and ivory, fifty-eight feet in height, seated on a 
throne and almost touching the roof of the temple. Upon the 
head of the god was an olive crown ; in his right hand he bore a 
winged figure of Victory, also of gold and ivory, crowned, and 
holding a wreath. In his left hand was a lofty sceptre sur- 



QuESTiONS.— To what town did Olympia originally belong ?— What 
was the ancient name of the plain ? — When did it receive the name of 
Olympia?— When was Pisa destroyed?— By whom?— Describe the plain. 
— What was the Altis? — How many gates did it possess?— What was 
its name ? — What is said of the sacred olive ? — Describe the temple of 
Zeus Olympius. — ^Describe his statue. — Whose work was it ? 
16 



182 EURO PA. 

mounted witli an eagle. His sandals and robe were of gold, tlie 
latter painted with animab and flowers, particularly lilies. The 
throne was formed of iToiy and ebony, inlaid with gold, set with 
precious stones, and sculptured with graceful figures. The faces 
of the steps bore bas-reliefs of classic myths, and the foot-stool 
rested upon four lions couchant. In making this statue Phidias 
himself said he followed the model expressed by Homer : 

So did he speak, and, at pausing, he sign*d with his shadowy eyebrows. 
And the ambrosial curls firom the Head Everlasting were shaken, 
And at the nod of the King deep trembled the lofty Olympus. 

n. I. 528 seqq. 

The next important sites were the Stadium and Hippodrome, 
which together formed the place of exhibition for all the Olym- 
pic contests, usually called the Olympic Gtunes, the greatest of 
the national festivals of the Helle'nes. Those contests consisted 
of various trials of strength and skill in foot races ala horse 
races, wrestling and boxing. In the beginning probably con- 
fined to the Peloponnesians, the Olympic games became at length 
a festival for the whole nation, not only of Hellas, but of all the 
colonies. No one was allowed to contend in the games but 
persons of pure Helleiiic blood. After the conquest of Greece bj 
the Romans, the latter were permitted to take part in the games. 
lio women were allowed to be present. As persons from all parts 
of the Hellenic world were assembled together at the Olympic 
games, it was the best opportunity, not only for carrying on com- 
mercial transactions with persons from distant places, but also for 
the artist and the author to make their works known. Before 
the invention of printing, the easiest and surest mode of pub- 
lishing the works of an author was to read them to as large an 
assembly as could be obtained, and this was a &vorite practice 

t ^ ~~ ~ 

Questions. — What model did Phidias follow in making the statue of 
Zeus Olympius? — Where were the Olympic games celebrated? — Bj 
whom were they celebrated? — Was everybody allowed to contend in 
them? — ^What foreigners were afterward permitted to participate in 
them ? — In what did the games consist ? — What opportunity did they 
afford to merchants ? — ^What opportunity did they afford to authors ? 



AGHAIA. 183 

of the Greeks and Bomans. It is said to have been done by 
Hero'dotus, Hippias, LysiaS; Dion Cbrysos'tomas. Painters and 
other artists also exhibited their works at Oljmpia. 

These Games were celebrated about midsummer, at the con- 
clusion of every fourth year, or rather of every forty-ninth month, 
and were held for five successive days. This period of four years 
elapsing between the celebrations of the Olympic Games was 
called an Olympiad (^ ^OXofimd<i)y and the Olympiads began to 
be reckoned from the victory of Coroebus in the foot-race in the 
year 776 b. o., which thus forms the epoch of Greek history. 
The Games were totally abolished (A.D. 394) during the reign 
of Theodosius the Gteat 



§96. ACHAIA. C^/afa, earlier 'il/accc.) 

ITame. — It was originally called ^qi'alus, or ^GiALif A 
(^AiytaX6<:j AiytdXeta, i. e. the Coast). It was nothing more than 
a narrow slip of coast, lying upon the slope of the Northern 
range of Arcadia, only a little broader toward the West. 

Boundaries. — ^North, Sinus Coeinthius; West, Elis and 
Mars Ionium; South, Arcadia and Eus; East, Siotonla 
and Phliasia. 

Extent. — The extent was only 650 square miles. 

Mountains. — From the Arcadian mountain range, numerous 
ridges descend, running toward the sea-coast, and separated 
from it by narrow plains. The highest mountain is called Pana- 
cha'icus. 

Capes. — ^Each river has a promontory, which is in general 
nearly opposite to the openings at which the rivers emerge from 

QuESTiOKS. — ^What authors made use of the opportunity aflforded by 
the Olympic Games ? — When were they celebrated ? — ^What is an Olym- 
piad? — ^When were the Games abolished? 1 96. What was the 

original name of Aohaia? — ^What is its signification? — ^What are the 
boundaries ? — What is the extent ? — ^What is said about the mountains ? 
— What is the highest mountain? — ^What is said about the capes? — 
What are the most conspicuous promontories? 



184 xuaoPA. 

the mouDtains. The most conspioaoas are Dbe'panum^ Khium^ 
Abaxus. 

Biyers. — ^The plains are drained by numerous streams; but, 
in consequence of the proximity of the mountains to the sea^ the 
course of these torrents is necessarily short, and most of them are 
dry in summer. Out of its fourteen rivers there are only two of 
any importance : the Crathis and the Peirus. 

Inhabitants. — The original inhabitants were Pelasgians. The 
lonians subsequently settled the country and called it Ionia. 
They remained in possession of the country till the invasion of 
Peloponne'sus by the Dorians, when the Achaeans, who had been 
driven out of Argos and Laced»mon by the invaders, marched 
against the lonians in order to obtain new homes for themselves 
in the country of the latter. They were successful, and the 
country was thenceforth called after them, Achaia. These 
Achseans, mentioned by Homer as the ruling people of the Pelo- 
ponne'sus, are rarely noticed during the flourishing period of 
Grecian history ; but by means of the celebrated Achaean League 
they again became first among the Greeks in the last days of the 
nation's independence. Their particular importance may be 
traced to the influence of Ara'tus (251 — 213 b.o.), whose main 
object was to liberate the Peloponnesian cities from their tyrants. 
After the Roman conquest of Greece (146 B.C.), the term, 
Achaia, received an extension in its signification, principally due 
to the importance which the Achssan league had obtained. The 
Roman province of Achaia comprehended all Peloponne'sus with 
Northern Greece South of Thessaly, perhaps, not inclusive of 
Acarnania. Hence AchoeuSj in Latin, was synonymous with 
CrTcecus. 



Questions. — What is remarked of the rivers of Achaia ? — Name the 
principal rivers. — Who were the original inhabitants ? — Who settled the 
country afterward? — By whom were they driven out? — Where did 
they come from ? — Why did they leave it ? — How many times did the 
Achssans play a conspicuous part in Greek history? — ^Who was the 
great leader of the Achaean League ? — What was his object ? — What did 
the term Achaia signify during the Roman dominion ? — ^What did the 
Boman province Achaia comprehend ? 



COBINTHIA. 185 

Towns. — ^The lonians are said to have dwelt in hamlets or 
small villages. The cities in the country are supposed to have 
been first built by the Achssans. Several of these original vil- 
lages were united into one town, and twelve of the towns formed 
the league. In the time of Hero'dotus^ the twelve towns were 
Pelle'ne, iElgeira^ ^ga^^ Bura, He'lice^ iElgium^ Rhypes^ Patrse^ 
Fhsisd, O'lenus, Dyme, and Tritssa. 

Leontium and Cerynei'a afterward took the place of Bhypes 
and ^gBdf which had fallen into decay. 

(1.) He'lioe (^EXixTj), the old capital^ was destroyed by an 
earthquake (373 b. o.)* 

(2.) iBaiUM (AXytov) became afterward the seat of the cen- 
tral government. 



§ 96. COBINTHIA. (^ Koptv^ia,) 

Boundaries. — ^North, Me'oaris and the Sinus Cobinthius; 
East, Sinus Saro'nicus; South, Ae'golis; West, Sicyonia 
and Phuasia. 

Extent. — ^It was a small, but wealthy and powerful district, 
and was situated upon the isthmus which connects the Northern 
part of Greece with the Peloponne'sus. Its area was about 300 
square miles. 

Mountains. — ^The mountains to the North of the Isthmus, 
which bore the name of Geranei'a, extend across the Isthmus 
from sea to sea. The mountains to the South of the Isthmus 
were called the Oneian Bidge (rd *Ovsiov), from their resemblance 
to the back of an ass (ovoq). In the centre is a plain from which 
the solitary rock of Acrocorinthus rises to the height of 1,886 feet. 



Questions. — ^Were the lonians in the possession of towns? — ^Who 
founded the towns? — How many towns formed their league? — ^Name 
the twelye towns which formed the ancient Achaean league ? — ^What was 

the old capital? — What became afterward the seat of goTemment? 

i 96. What are the boundaries of Corinthia? — ^Wherewas it situated? — 
What was its extent ?— What mountains did it contain ?— What solitary 
rock stood in the centre ? 
16* 



186 SUBOPA. 

Capei. — ^Pbomontorium Olmub and Heeus^ with a cele- 
brated temple of Hera (Juno), 

Prodactioiis. — ^Tbe only arable land in the territory of any 
extent is the plain upon the coast, lying between Corinth and 
Sicyon, and belonging to these two cities. The fertility of this 
plain is praised in the highest terms by the ancient writers : and 
such was its value that to own what lies between Corinth and 
Sicyon became a proverbial expression for the possession of 
great wealth. It furnished Corinth and its port-towns with fruit 
and vegetables, but could not have yielded any large supply ol 
com. The wine of Corinth was proverbially bad. 

Inhabitants. — ^The oldest settlers were ^olians^ lonians, and 
also Phoenicians. It was afterward conquered by the Dorians, 
who, though the ruling class, appear to have formed only a small 
proportion of the population of Corinth. Five centuries after 
the Dorian conquest (666 b. o.), the power of the ^olians was 
restored by Cyp'selus and his son Periander, one of the Seven 
Wise Men of Greece. The inhabitants were naturally led to try 
their fortune on the sea to which their situation invited them. 

City. — CoBiNTHUS (K6ptv^o(:j most anciently ^E<pbprri) was 
built on a level rock to the North of the Acrocorinthus, which 
served as a citadel and was included within the walls. It had 
two ports. The northern, on the Corinthian Gulf, was called 
Lechoeum, and was connected with the city by two parallel walls, 
twelve stadia in length, which were partly destroyed by the Spar- 
tans (393 B.C.). The south-eastern port, Cenchrece, seventy 
stadia distant, on the Saronic Gulf, does not appear to have 
been connected with the city by walls. It was, however, a more 
considerable place than Lechaaum, and contained several temples. 

Questions. — ^Name the capes of Corinthia. — What temple adorned 
Cape Heras ? — ^Where was the only arable portion of the territory ? — 
What is said of its fertility ? — ^What was its principal produce ? — ^What 
is said of its wine ? — Name the oldest inhabitants of Corinthia. — By 
whom were they conquered ? — Who restored the power of the -ffiolians? 
— When? — What was the principal occupation of the inhabitants? — 
What was the capital of Corinthia? — Describe its situation. — What 
were its ports ? — ^Whioh of them was the more considerable ? 



OORINTHIA. 



187 




The insults which the Corinthians had offered to the Roman 
embassy^ led to the plunder and destruction of the town by L. 
Mummius (146 B. o.) according to an express decree of the 
Boman senate. All the males were slain; the women and 
children were sold as slaves ; and, after the Koman soldiers had 
pillaged what then was the richest city in all Greece/ at argiyen 
signal the place was set on fire and reduced to ashes. This act 
marks the subjugation of Greece to Koman sway. Corinth 
remained in ruins for a century. The site on which it had stood 
was devoted to the gods, and was not allowed to be inhabited. 
The greater psurt of its commerce passed over to Delos. A cen- 
tury after its destruction, it was restored by Julius Caesar, who 
sent thither a numerous colony, consisting of his veterans and 
freedmen. It soon rose again to be a populous and prosperous 
city, and when St. Paul visited it a century after its restoration, 

Questions.— What led to the plunder of the city of Corinthus ?— By 
whom ? — When ? — How long did it remain in ruins ? — What place inhe- 
rited its commerce? — Who restored the city? — Who preached the Gospel 
there ? — What was its condition at that time ? 



188 XUBOPA. 

it was the oapital of the provinoe of Aohaia. Two of the epistles 
of 8t Paul aie addressed to the flourishing Christian church 
which he founded in Corinth. 

The city was one of the earliest seats of Grecian art Paint- 
ing, architecture, and sculpture flourished here> and it was par- 
ticularly celebrated for its works in bronze (^jEs Ocnintht^acum). 
Its yases of terra-cotta were among the finest in Greece. In 
the time of Periander (600 b. o.)> poetiy was likewise much 
cultivated, but afterward little attention was paid to letters. 
The fayorable position of Corinth for commerce made it the em- 
porium of the trade between the East and the West, and, as a 
natural consequence, it became the most opulent city in Greece; 
but this accession of wealth, giving rise to luzuiy and sensual 
indulgence, made it at the same time the most licentious. The 
patron goddess of the city was Aphrodi'te ( Venus), who had a 
splendid temple on the Acrocorinthus. 

The colonies of Corinth were very numerous. Wiiih the 
exception of the colony that founded Potidsda on ^e coast of 
Chalci'dice, they were all sent out from Lechieum, and confined 
to the seas West of the Isthmus. The most celebrated were 
Syracu'ssd and Corc/ra. 

§97. PHLIASIA. (fi ^Xiauria.-) 

Boundaries.— North, Sicyonia; East, Corinthia; South^ 
Arcadia and Ar'golis; West, Achaia. 

Extent — ^This territory is a small valley about nine hundred 
feet above the level of the sea, surrounded by mountains from 
which streams flow down on every side, joining the river Aso'pus 
in the middle of the plain. Its area was about fifty square miles. 

QuBBTioNB.— What arts used to flourish at Corinth T— What was its lite- 
rary character ? — ^What made it the richest city of Greece ? — ^What was 
the result of this wealth ?— Who was the patron goddess of the city ? — 
Where did her temple stand? — ^What colony was sent out from Cenchrese? 
— From what port were the other colonies sent out? — To what seas were 
those colonies confined ? — Which were the most celebrated Corinthian 
colonies? { 97. How is Phliasia bounded? — What is its extent? 



SIOYONIA. 189 

Frodnctions. — ^The country was celebrated in antiquity for its 
wine. 

Inhabitants. — The oldest inhabitants were lonians, who, on 
the arrival of the Dorians, migrated to Samos and Clazo'menaB. 
The Dorians of Phliasia were in historical times generally allied 
with Sparta. 

Towns. — ^The old capital of the country is ARiETHYREA, but 
the inhabitants subsequently deserted it and built Phlius 
(0Xtou(;). This city is celebrated in the history of literature as 
the birthplace of Pra'tinas, the inventor of the Satyrio drama, 
and who contended with iEls'chylus for the prize at Athens. 



SICYOMA. i^Stxowvia,) 

Boundaries. — North, Sinus Corinthius; East, Corinthia; 
South, Phliasia and Ar'golis. 

Extent. — ^It was very small, containing in fact little more than 
the valley of the Aso'pus. Its area was only 84 square miles. 

Biver. — The Aso'pus, which, in the upper part of its course, 
is confined between mountains, but near the sea it opens out into 
a wide plain, which was called Asopia. 

Productions. — The plain of Asopia was celebrated for its 
fertility, and was especially adapted to the cultivation of the 
olive. The neighboring sea supplied an abundance of excellent 
fish. The wine of Sicyon was also celebrated. 

City. — SiOYON (Iixowv) was one of the most important cities 
of the Peloponne'sus and was situated upon a table-land at a dis- 
tance of about two miles from the Corinthian Gulf. It consisted 
of three parts : the acropolis, on the hill ; the lower-town, at its 

Questions. — What are the productions of Phliasia ? — ^Who were the 
oldest inhabitants ? — To what place did they migrate ? — With what state 
was it generally allied in historical times ? — ^What is the old capital ? — ■ 
What is the new capital? — For what is Phlius celebrated? — How is 
Sicyonia bounded ? — What is its extent? — What is its area? — ^What part 
of it was called Asopia ? — Whence that name ? — Name the chief pro- 
ductions of Sicyonia. — ^Where was Sicyon situated ? — Describe the town. 



190 SUBOPA. 

fool; and a wdl fiiftified poit-tafwii upon the coast It was the 
birthpbce of An'toa, the celebrated general of the Achaean 
Leapie, through whom it became one of the most important cities 
in the Peloponn^sos. The oonqvest of Corinth by the Bomans 
was also a &Torable erent for Sicjon, bnt after the restoration of 
this citj bj Julias GaQsar, Siejon rapidly declined, till an earth- 
qnake completed its rain. For a long time it was one of the 
chief seats of Grecian art, and was celebrated alike for its 
painters and its scolplots. It was also one of the most ancient 
seats of the plastic art. 



§ 98. AB'GOUS or AB60S. (i^ 'Aprolii: or rd 'J/oroc.) 



VaiM. — AigoB is said by Stiabo tahave mgnified a plain^ in 
the language of the Macedonians and Thessalians, and it is, 
then^fixraiy not improbable that it contains the same root as d/yM^?, 
the Latin oyrr, English acre. The Greek writers use the term 
Argos, to designate the city, and sometimes to designate the 
coantiy. Hero'dotos eaDs the country Aygolis; other Greek 
anthors more freqaently, Argd'a (j^ ^Apftia). The Bomans 
included under Ar'golis the whole peninwila between the Saronic 
and Argolie Gul&. 

Boundaries. — ^North, Oobinthia and Sicfonia ; East, Sinus 
Saro'nicus; South, Sinus Hx&mio'nicus and Mabe Mykto'- 
um; West, Arcadia. 

Biraions. — Ar'gous Proper, or Abosi'a; Epidaubia, 
Trcezsnia, and Hermi^onis. 

Extent — ^Its area was about 450 square miles. 

Mountains. — Parnon, Parthsnius Artemisius, Arach- 



QussTiOHB. — ^Through whom did Sieyoa become the most important 
city in Greece ? — ^When did its decline commence ? — ^What completed its 

ruin ?— In what relation did it stand to Grecian art? J 98. Explain 

the meaning of the word Argos. — ^What do Argos and Argolis signify 
in Greek authors ? — ^What did Roman authors mean by Argolis ? — How 

^ Argolis bounded ?— -How was it divided ?— What was its extent ?— 
its mountains. 



ARGOLIS. 191 

N^US QApaxvatov), on whicli was one of the beacon-lights of 
Agamemnon^ by which he announced the capture of Troy on 
the same night that it was taken (^sch. Ag. 281 seqq.). 

Capes. — BucifpHALA and ScTLL-fflUM. 

Elvers. — Of these^ which are simply mountain-torrents^ the 
principal is the I'nachus ("/i/a/oc). 

Lake. — Lerna, celebrated for the destruction of the Lerne'an 
Hydra by Her'cules. 

Productions. — The only fertile part of the country was the 
plain of Argos, which now produces com, cotton, rice, and vines. 
It was also celebrated for its excellent horses. In summer there 
is generally want of moisture ; hence Homer calls it TtoXudiiptov 
^Apyo^f very thirsty Argos, 

InhabitaiitS. — The ancient inhabitants were Pelasgians ; after- 
ward, a Phoenician colony settled among them. These nations 
were subsequently supplanted by Achasans, who, in Homeric 
times, were the predominant race on the Eastern side of Pelo- 
ponnes'us. On the conquest of the peninsula by the Dorians, 
eighty years after the Trojan war, the Achseans were mostly 
driven out, those who remained being reduced to the condition 
of a conquered people. 

Towna.— (1.) CLEo'NiB {KXswvai), which derived its chief 
importance from the Neme'an GTames being celebrated within its 
territory in the grove of Ne'mea, between Cleo'nae and Phlius. 
These GTames formed one of the great national festivals of the 
Greeks, and were celebrated in honor of Zeus regularly twice in 
every Olympiad. 

(2.) MYCE'NiE {Mvxr^vai)y one of the most ancient towns in 



Questions. — ^Wkat is mentioned of Mount ArachnsBus? — Name the 
capes. — ^What is remarked of the riTers ? — ^Name the principal river. — 
What lake Was in Argolis ? — ^What are the productions of the country ? 
—What epithet does Homer give to it?— Why ?— Name the ancient 
inhabitants. — ^Who were its inhabitants in Homer's times ? — By whom 
were they conquered ? — ^When ? — Name some of the principal towns. — 
What festivals were celebrated at Cleonae ?— What were the Nemean 
games ? 



192 SUBOPA. 

Greece, and eelebrated as the lesidenee of Agamemnon, nnder 
whose goTemment it was regarded as the first oitj in Greece. 

(3.) Aroos (^Apfw:)^ usnallj called Argi (-omm) by the 
Bomans, the most ancient city in Greece. After the Dorian con- 
quest it became also the first city in Peloponne'sns, and held this 
rank till aboat 666 B.C., when Sparta took precedence. Its 
citadel, LarUta (Pelasgic name for citadeT) was built on an 
insulated conical mountain 900 feet in height. Its port, Nauplia 
(^Saunlia^ Napoli di Bomand) was at a considerable distance 
(see 5). 

§ 99. (4.) TiRTNS (7e>>e;y?), one of the most ancient towns in 
Greece. Its massive walls, which have been regarded with 
wonder in all ages, are said to have been the work of the 
Cyclo'pes, and belong to the same age as those of Myce^nas. 
Their ruins still exist. 

(5.) Nau'plia appears, in the historical times of ancient 
history, merely as the port of Argos. In the middle ages, it 
became a place of considerable importance, and in recent times 
was the seat of the Greek central government till the king 
removed his residence to Athens. 

(6.) Efidaurus QEmdaopoq)y the capital of Epidauria, 
which, throughout the flourishing period of Grecian history, 
was an independent state. Near it was the temple of .^cn- 
lapius, which was frequented by patients from all parts of the 
Hellenic world. 

(7.) Trcezen (TpotZTJv)f the capital of Troezenia. At an early 
period it was a powerful maritime state, as is shown by its 
founding the cities of Halicamassus and Myndus in Caria. 



Questions. — Who resided at Myoenee? — ^When did Argos become 
the first town in Peloponnesus ? — When and to whom was it forced to 
yield precedence? — What is said of the Larissa? — What was its 

port of entrance? § 99. What remarkable remains are there at 

Tiryns? — When did Nauplia become a place of importance? — What 
was the capital of Epidauria ? — ^What temple was in its neighborhood ? 
— What was the capital of Troezenia? — What colonies were founded 



CTNURIA. 193 

(8.) Methone (^Me^i&yjji), fortified by the Athenians in the 
Peloponnesian war (425 B.C.). 

(9.) HsHMfoNE (^Epfit6v7f)f the capital of Hermi'onis. It was 
the chief seat of the worship of Deme'ter Chthonia. 

(10.) Lebna (^Aipva). In its neighborhood was the Leme'an 
swamp where Her'acles (Het'cules) dew the many-headed hydra. 



CTNURIA. (7 Kwoopia.) 

Boundaries. — ^North, Ab'oolis; East, Sinus Argo'lious; 
South, Lago'nica; West, Abcadia. The exact boundaries 
cannot be defined, as its inhabitants were only a tribe, and never 
formed a political body. They were almost confined to the fertile 
valley of Thyrea'tis. 

QuiBTioNS. — ^What is said of Methone? — ^What goddess was chiefly 
honored at Hermione ? — ^What is said of Lerna ? — ^Where was Cynoria 
situated ? — Give its boundaries. 



N 



194 lUROPA. 



§100. ISLANDS OF GREECE. 

The whole number was tixfy-one. The most remarkable were : 
A. ISLANDS WEST OP GREECE. 



Corcy'ra, 


Ith'aca, 


Zacynthus, 


Leucas, 


Cephaxlenia, 


Sphacterta. 


Echin'ades, 






B. ISLANDS EAST OF aREECE. 


Cythe'ra, 


-^gi'na, 


EUBCEA, 


Calaurei'a, 


Sa'lamis, 


Creta. 



The other islands were divided into two groups : 

I. CT'CLADES, so called because fancied to lie in a circle 
(^tv xoxXtfi) about Delos, which was the smallest^ but most im- 
portant island. Thej were twdve in number : 

CeoS| Siphnos, Delos, Mt'gonos^ 

Cythnos, Paros, Rhenei'a, Tenos, 

Seri'phos, Naxos, Syros, Andros. 

II. SPO'RADES (ffTztiptD, Lat. spargo), or the Scattered 
Islands, including all the others^ numbering about twenty-five. 
The most remarkable are : 

Thasos, Imbros^ Amorgos. 

Samothra'ce, Lemnos, 

Questions. — J 100. Name the islands west of Greece. — The islands 
east of Greece. — Into how many groups were the other islands divided? 
— ^What were those groups ? — What does the name Cyclades signify ? — 
Give the names of the Cyclades. — ^What is the signification of the name 
Sporades ? — Give the names of some of the Sporades. 



LEUOAS. 195 

§ 101. ISLANDS WEST OF GREECE. 
Corcy'ra. (^Kipxopa; later and on coins, K6pxupa, Corfu.) 

The modern citadel is a rock split into two lofty peaks ; these 
were called Kopoipm or Kopoipoi (comp. xopu^yj, Jiead, summit) ; 
and hence has come slightly corrupted, Kop^oi, Corfu, the 
modern name of the town and island. 

Situation. — In the Ionian Sea, opposite the coast of Chaonia 
in Epi'rus. Its most ancient name was Dre'pane. Perhaps, also, 
it is the Scheria (I^sptr)) of the Odyssey. 

Extent. — It is a mountainous island, containing an area of 
227 square miles. 

Productions. — It was celebrated for its fertility in antiquity, 
and was very industriously cultivated by its inhabitants. It 
produced wine and oil in considerable abundance. 

Inhabitants. — ^The island was peopled by Corinthian settlers 
(737 B. c), who soon became in the Western seas of Greece 
the commercial rivals of the mother country. They founded 
Epidamnus on the Illyrian coast (616 B.C.). A quarrel with 
Corinth in regard to this settlement was one of the causes of 
the Peloponnesian war. 

Towns. — Corcy'ra (Corfu), the capital, and Cassi'ope (Katr- 
aidTzyj), in which there was a temple of Zeus Cassius, at whose 
altars Nero sang. 

Leucas. (ilewzac, Santa Maura,) 

Situation. — In the Ionian Sea, separated by a narrow channel 
from the coast of Acarnania. Originally a peninsula, it was, in 

Questions. — J 101. What is the modern name of Corcyra ? — From 
what is that name derived? — ^What was the most ancient name of 
Corcyra ? — With what island of the Odyssey is it identified ? — What is 
the extent of the island ? — Who were the settlers of the island ? — ^What 
city did they found upon the Illyrian coast ? — ^What connection had it 
with the Peloponnesian war? — What towns did Corcyra contain? — 
What temple was at Cassiope ? — Where was Leucas situated ? 



196 SUROPA. 

the middle of the seyenth centnrj b. o., converted into an island 
by Corinthian settlers, who dag a canal throngh the isthmus. 

Hame. — The name of the island is derived from its white 
(Xsux6^) clifiF. 

Extent — ^The interior of the island is very ragged ; it is but 
little cultivated ; its area is about 120 square miles. 

Towns. — ^Leuoas (Asoxd^), in the Macedonian times, the 
chief town of Acamania, and the place in which the meetings 
of the Acamanian confederacy were held. The most celebrated 
spot on the island was the promontoiy Leuca'tas, rising 2,000 feet 
and crowned with the temple of Apollo. This cape was much 
dreaded by mariners. Hence Virgil says : 

Moz ti Leueata nimbota eaeutnma m<mH8, 

Et/ormidatut nauttt aperiiur Apollo. — ^^n. III. 274 seq. 

At the annual festival of Apollo celebrated at this spot, it was 
the custom to throw a criminal from the steep precipice of the 
cape into the sea. This probably gave rise to the stoiy of 
Sappho's leap from the rocks. 

Eghin'ades. (af 'Exhaty or '£/«ya^ec, v^trot,') 

It is a group of barren and ragged islands off the coast of 
Aoamania, at the mouth of the Achelo'as, which in HomePs 
time were inhabited, but afterward deserted. 

§ 102. Ith'aoa. (^IMxtj, ITiiaki.) 

This island, so celebrated as the kingdom of Ulysses, lies off 
the coast of Acamania. Its area is 45 sqaare miles ; its general 
aspect is one of ruggedness and sterility, rendered striking by 

^ Questions. — ^When and in what way did Leueas become an island ? — 
From what is the name deriyed ? — ^What is said about the island In 
general ?— What is said of the town of Leueas ? — ^What was the most 
celebrated spot on the island ? — ^Whose temple was there ? — ^What gave 
origin to the story of Sappho's leap from this rock ? — ^What are the 

Echinades? — Opposite to what river were they situated? { 102. 

What is said of Ithaca? — Who resided there? — ^Where is it situated? 



8PHA0TEBIA. 197 

tbe bold and broken outline of mountains and qUEs, indented bj 
numerous harbors and creeks. 



Cephallenia. (^Ke^aXXr^via, Cephalonia,) 

This island, called by Homer, Same, or Santos (^Idfnj, Zafioq), 
is the largest in the Ionian Sea, opposite the Corinthian Gulf 
and the coast of Acamania. Its area is about 348 square miles. 
It was a tetra'polisy containing the four towns of Same, Pale, 
Cronis, and Proni. In Homer's time it was subject to Ulysses. 



Zaoynthus. (Zdxuv^oq, Zante.) 

An island in the Sicilian Sea, lying off the Western coast 
of Peloponne'sus, opposite the promontory Chelona'tas in Elis, 
and to the South of the island of Cephallenia. It formed part 
of the dominions of Ulysses. The inhabitants were a colony 
of Achasans from Peloponne'sus, who attained considerable im- 
portance at an early period ; two hundred years before the Trojan 
war, they founded Saguntum in Spain, in conjunction with the 
Ru'tuli of Ar'dea. 

Sphagteria. (Z^axrripia, Sphagia,) 

It lies across the entrance of the Bay of Pylos (^Navarino), on 
the Western coast of Messenia. It is celebrated in ancient history 
for the defeat and capture of the Spartans by the Athenians, in 
the seventh year of the Peloponnesian war (424 B.C.). It is 
minutely described in the third chapter of the fourth book 
of Thuc/dides. 

QuBSTiONS. — ^Where is Cephallenia situated ? — How was it called by 
Homer ? — ^Why was it called a tetrapolis ? — Where was Zacynthus situ- 
ated ? — Opposite to what promontory ? — ^Who inhabited this island ? — 
What colony did they found ? — To whom were these two islands subject 
in Homer's time ? — Where is Sphacteria situated ? — What is its modem 
name ? — ^Where is it minutely described ? — ^What happened on it ? 
17* 



198 XUBOPA. 

§ 103. ISLANDS EAST OF GREECE. 
Cythe'ra (-Oram), (rd Ku^i^pa, Cerigo,') 

An island lying off the Soath-Eaatern extremity of Laco'nica. 
It was partly settled by Phoenicians^ who established here the 
headquarters of their purple fishery. They brought thither the 
worship of the Syrian Aphrodi'te (Venus), which was thence 
introduced into Greece; and consequently in the Grecian legends 
this island is said to have received the goddess after her birtk 
from the foam of the sea. Hence, in the Greek and Latin poets, 
Cythe'ra is constantly represented as one of the favorite resi- 
dences of Aphrodi'te, and, for this reason, Cytheroea is one of 
the most frequent epithets applied to her. Cythe'ra contained, 
in the interior, a town of the same name, of which Scandei'a 
{Ixavdeia) was the harbor. 

Calauria. {KaXaopia, Foro.) 

A small island in the Saronic Gulf opposite Pogon, the harbor 
of Troezen. It possessed an ancient temple of Poseidon, a sacred 
asylum, in which stood the statue of Demos'thenes, and where 
divine honors were paid to this celebrated orator, who put an end 
to his life here by poison (321 B.C.), after having fled to this 
retreat when pursued by the emissaries of Anti'pater. 

-^Gi'na. (^Aij'iva.) 

It was situated in the Saronic Gulf, and one of the most ce]e» 
brated islands in Greece. This small island, its area containing 
but 40 square miles, held, about the year 500 B. 0,, the empire 
of the sea, and was for many years the chief seat of Grecian art. 

QuBSTiONS. — 2 108. Where was Cythera situated ?— Who were its 
first settlers ? — What worship did they bring thither ? — Why is Aphro- 
dite, or Venus, so often called Cytheraea ? — ^What town did the island 
contain ? — ^Where was Calaureia situated ? — What temple was there ? — 
Who fled to this temple ?•— When ?— Where was JEgina situated '—What 
•*• said of the island ? — When did it reach its greatest prosperity ? 



SALAMIS. 199 

Fifty years later it was subdued by tbe Atbenians, and became 
a part of their empire, and on the breaking out of the Pelopon- 
nesian war (431 B.C.), the entire population was expelled, and 
by the Spartans transferred to Thyrea. After the battle of 
jEgospo'tami (404 B. c), they were restored to their own 
country ; but they never recovered their former prosperity. On 
a hill in the North-Eastern part are the remains of a magnificent 
•temple of the Doric order, the beautiful sculptures of which, 
now known as the JEgHna Marbles j found in 1811 buried under 
the ruins, are preserved at Munich, and casts from them are in 
the British Museum. 

Sa'lAMIS. (jj laXaiii^, Kuluri.) 

This lies between the Western coast of At'tica and the Eastern 
coast of Me'garis, and forming the Southern boundary of the 
Bay of Eleusis. It continued to be an independent state till 




THS OULF AND ISLAND OF 8ALAKIS. 



Questions. — When and by whom was iEgina conquered ?— To what 
place were the population transferred at the beginning of the Pelo- 
ponnesian war ? — When were they restored to their country ?— What 
are the iEgina Marbles ? —Where is Salamis situated? 



200 SUBOPA. 

620 B.c.^ when, tbrough a stratagem of Solon, it fell under iha 
8waj of the Athenians. The island is chieflj memorable oa 
account of the great batde fooght in the strait between it and 
the coast of At'tica, in which the Persian fleet of Xerxes wis 
defeated by the Greeks (480 B.C.). 

§ 104. EnB(EA. (^ Eofiota; Negropmt, in the middle ages 
Egripo, a corruption of Euri'p'os.) 

Situation. — ^It is the largest island in the ^gsean, lying along 
the coasts of At'tica, Bcsotia, Locris, and the Southern part of 
Thessaly, from which countries it is separated by the £ub<»au 
Sea, called, in its narrowest part, the EurHpw {Euptno^^. 

Mountains. — ^It is long and narrow, and throughout its entire 
extent there runs a range of mountains, which appears to be a 
continuation of the range of Ossa and Pelion, and of that of 
Othrys. 

Productions. — In the pluns of Euboea a considerable quantily 
of wheat was grown in ancient times. There is excellent pasture 
for sheep on the mountain-slopes. The mountains contain copper 
and iron. 

Inhabitants. — The island was inhabited by Ionic Greeks, and 
the Athenians are said to have taken the chief part in their 
colonization. 

Towns. — There were seven independent cities, upon which a 
few smaller places were dependent. The most important were : 

(1.) Chalois (^oAxcV), one of the greatest of the Ionic cities, 
which at an early period carried on an extensive commerce with 
almost all parts of the Hellenic world. It planted colonies upon 
the coasts of Macedonia, Italy, Sicily, and in the islands of 

Questions. — ^When did Salamis fall into the power of the Athenians? 
— What great battle was fought here? J 104. Where is Euboea situ- 
ated ? — What is the origin of its modem name ? — What is the Eurlpus ? 
— What is remarked about its mountains? — What about its productions? 
— Which of the Greek tribes inhabited the island? — How many ind«- 
pendent towns did it contain ? — ^What was the chief city of the island? — 
What is said about its colonies ? 



OBETA. 201 

the ^gSDan. It gave name to the peninsala of Cbalci'dice, 
between the Thermaio and Singitic gulfs, in consequence of the 
large number of cities which it founded in this district. It was 
the birthplace of the orator Isaeus, and there Aristotle died 
(322B.O.). 

(2.) Eretbia QEpsTpia)j next to Chalcis, the most powerful 
city of the island. At an early period, it was one of the chief 
maritime states in Greece, and sent five ships to the Athenian 
fleet which sailed to support Mile'tus and the other Ionic cities 
in their revolt from Persia (500 B. c). In consequence of this 
step the town was utterly destroyed by a Persian force under 
Datis and Artaphernes, and the inhabitants settled in the Cissian 
territory. A little further to the South, a new town arose, which 
soon became a place of considerable importance. It was the seat 
of a celebrated school of philosophy founded by Menede'mus, a 
native of the city and a disciple of Plato. 

The name of the Northern coast and promontory was Artemi- 
sium (^Apreficfftov), and off this coast the Grecian fleet gained 
their celebrated victory over the fleet of Xerxes (480 B.C.). 

§ 105. Creta. (KpTJTT)} S&rsLcenic, Khandax ; Venetian, Cbnefia; 
now, by its own inhabitants, Crete.) 

Creta Jovis magni medio Jaeet insula ponto ; 
Mons IdcBue ubi et gentis eunabula noatrae. 
Centum urhe» habitant magnas, uberrima regna, 

Yirg. ^n. III. 104 seqq. 

Situation. — It is one of the largest islands of the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, and is situated to the South of the Archipelago, 
between the Morea, Africa, and Asia Minor. 

Extent. — The interior is very mountainous and woody. It is 
intersected by fertile valleys. Its area is about 3,166 square miles. 

QuESTiONS.—What peninsula was called after Chalcis ?— Why ?— Why 
was Eretria destroyed ?— By whom ?— -Was the city rebuilt ?— Where ?— 
What philosophical school was established there? — Where was Arte- 

misium situated ? — What battle was fought here ? { 105. Where is 

Creta situated ? — Qive an account of its names. — ^What is its area? 



202 ETTROPA. 

HonntainB. — About the centre of the island was Monnt Ida, 
which rises to the height of 7,654 feet, on which Zeus (Jvpiter) 
was said to have been reared. To the West it was connected 
with the White Mountains {XtoxA oprj), and the prolongation 
eastward formed the ridge of Dicte (^ ^^cny), sacred to Zeus. 

Productions. — According to Pliny everything grew better in 
Crete than elsewhere. Among the medicinal herbs for which it 
was famed was the dictamnony dittani/ (so called from Mount 
Dicte) y celebrated among physicians, naturalists, and poets. Its 
forests could boast of the fruit-bearing poplar and the evergreen 
pla'tanus (both now extinct), the cypress, palm, and cedar; its 
wines, and especially the passum or raisin wine, were highly 
praised. The island by the bounty of He'racles was free from 
all wild beasts and noxious animals. 

Inhabitants. — During the heroic ages it was peopled by 
Dorians, who made Crete the headquarters of the worship of 
Apollo; among these, Phoenicians and Phrygians also settled. 
They appear to have been hardy and daring corsairs, and this 
characteristic gave rise to that naval supremacy assigned by 
Hero'dotus and others to the traditionary Minos and his Cretan 
subjects. The generous friendship of the heroic ages, which 
was singularly regulated by law, had degenerated into a frightful 
license, and as early as 600 B.C., Cretan was a synonym for a 
liar and a brute : 

Kpilrtf dti ipsdoraif kcucA ^pia, yaerrkpti ApyaU 

Epime^'nides, quoted by St. Paul, Tit. i. 12. 

Crete was also one of the three had kappas (rpia xdmra xdxt<rrai 
see p. 39). 

The soldiers had a high reputation as light troops and archers, 
and served as mercenaries both in Greek and Barbarian armies. 

Towns. — Homer (Odyss. XIX. 174) describes it as containing 

Questions. — What is said about the mountains of Greta? — Name 
some of its productions. — What nations inhabited the island ? — What 
was their principal occupation ? — What is said about the moral character 
of the Cretans ? — How many towns did it contain according to Homer ? 



OYOLADES. 203 

ninety cities. Many other authors speak of its containiDg a 
hundred, as Virgil in the quotation above. 

The chief towns were : 

(1.) Cydonia (Kudw)fia)j one of the most ancient and import- 
ant mentioned by Homer. Quinces derived their name from 
this place, being called by the Romans, mala Cydonia. 

(2.) Lebbn (il€/?jyv), the harbor of Gort/na. It possessed a 
temple of Asclepius (jEsculapius). 

(3.) Gnossus or Cnossus (^rvwffffdt; or Kvwffff6(;), was the royal 
city of Crete, founded by Minos and made his chief residence. 
The whole district was peculiarly connected with the worship 
of Zeus. Not only the birthplace, but also the tomb of the god 
was here shown by the lying Cretans. At an early period it was 
colonized by Dorians, and from it Dorian institutions spread over 
the whole island. The well-known Cretan Labyrinth is always 
associated with this place ; the natural caverns and excavated 
sepulchres still to be seen near Cnossus gave rise most probably 
to this fable. 

(4.) Gorty'na (r6pTuva), was the most important city next to 
Cnossus, and in early times shared with Cnossus the government 
of the whole island. 

(6.) Other towns were : Ph^stus, Rhitymnia, Lyctos. 

The island became in 67 B.O. a Roman province, and was 
annexed to Cyre'ne in Africa. 

§106. CT'CLADES. (at KuxXdd€<;,) 
Delos. (if J^Xoq, Ddo.) 
Delos was the smallest of the C/clades and was regarded as 

Questions. — What are the chief towns of Creta ? — What fhiit was 
brought into Europe from Cydonia ? — What is said of Leben ?— What > 
was the chief residence of Minos ? — ^Whose birthplace and tomb were 
shown here?-— What is said about the Cretan Labyrinth ?— What is', 
said of Gortyna? — ^When did the island fall under Roman control? — 

To what country was it annexed? J 106. Give the names of the 

principal Cyclades. 



204 BUBOPA. 

the birthplace of ApoDo and Ar^temis {Dia'na), who were henoe 
called Delius aod Delia, In the earliest times it was ooe of the 
holiest spots in Hellas, being also the centre of a great periodical 
festival in honor of the mighty Ionian god, celebrated by all the 
Ionic cities on the mainland as well as in the islands. In the 
formation of the confederacy for the purpose of carrying on the 
war against Persia, Delos was chosen as the common guardian 
of the public purse (477 B.C.)- After the fall of Corinth it 
had very great commercial importance, and in its slave-mart 
10,000 persons are said to have changed hands in one day. 

Ce08. (:} Kian;.) 

Ceos was celebrated as the birthplace of Simo^nides, the great 
lyric poet, who was frequently called emphatically, the Cean; and 
Horace, in like manner, alludes to his poetry under the name of 
Cece Camence (Carm. lY. 9, 8) and Cea namia (Carm. II. 1, 88), 
as he also composed dirges (^pr^vot), Lat. namicB. Simo'nides of 
Ceos commemorated in matchless verse some of the greatest 
deeds of Greece, as her exploits at Ma'rathon and Thermo'pylao. 

Cythnos. (i Ko^vot;, Thermia.') 

This island lies between Ceos and Seri'phos. After the deaA 
of Nero, a false Nero made his appearance here and gathered 
around him many adherents (A. d. 68). 

Seri'phos. (17 lipt^oq, Serpho.) 

This lay between Cythnos and Siphnos. It is celebrated in 
mythology as the place where Da'naS and Perseus drifted ashore 
in the ark in which they had been exposed by Acrisius. By 
the later writers it was almost always mentioned with contempt 
on account of its poverty and insignificance (CiG. de Senect. 3), 

Questions. — What gave Delos its importance ? — ^When was it chosen 
the common treasury? — What trade was especially carried on there 
after the fall of Corinth ?— What poet was bom at Ceos ?— What hap- 
pened at Cythnos after Nero*s death ? — ^Where was Seriphos situated ? — 
How is it mentioned in mythology ? 



SP0RADE8. 205 

and was therefore employed by the Eoman emperors as a place 
of banishment for state criminals. 

PaROS. (:y /Tiz/ooc.) 

Paros was one of the largest of the C/clades and famed for its 
white marble^ which was reckoned only second to that of Mount 
Pente'Iicus : 

Quale maniu addunt ebori deeut, out vbifiavo 
Argmtum Parnuvt l<gni dreumdatur auro. 

Yirg. ^n. I. 592 seq. 

Here was discovered the famous tablet, known as the Parian 
Chronicle, one of the Arundelian marbles which are now in the 
possession of the University of Oxford. During the reign of 
Charles I. this marble was broken and defaced, but when per- 
fect it contained a chronological account of the chief events of 
Greek history from the time of Cecrops down to 264 b. o. Paros 
was the birthplace of the poet Archi'lochus. 

Naxos. (^ NdSo<i) 

Naxos was the largest and the most fertile of the C/clades. 
OflF Naxos, Chabrias gained a signal victory over the Spartan 
fleet, which restored to Athens the empire of the sea (376 b. c). 

The names of the other C/clades are as follows : Rhenei^a, 
SiPHNos, Stros, My'conos, Tenos, and Andros. 

SPOTRADES. (al lT:opdde<;:) 

Thasos (Bdffo<:), was in the North of the iBgsBan Sea, off 
the coast of Thrace, celebrated for its gold mines. It was the 
birthplace of the celebrated painter, Polygno'tus. 

Samothra'ob iIafio^p^x7i\ in the North of the Mgashn Sea, 

Questions.— What is the Parian Marble ?— What poet was bom at 
Paros ?— Who gained a victory near Naxos ?— Where was Thasos situ- 
ated ?— What mines did it contain ? — What painter was bom there ? — 
Where was Samothrace situated ? 
18 



20G europa! 

oppoBite the mouth of the Hebros^ was the chief seat of the 
worship and the mysteries of the Gabei'ri. It was called Samo- 
thra'ce, Thracian Samos: 

Thretdamque Samon qwt nunc Samothrada fertur. 

Virg. iEn. VII. 208, 

to distinguish it from the Icarian Samos. 

Lbmnos (il^/ivocy Stalimene), one of the larger islands in the 
^gsoan Sea, situated nearly midway between Mount Athos and 
the Hellespont It was said to be sacred to Hephaestus ( Vuiccu- 
nu$)f who was frequently called the Lemnian god: 

Sicee pater JBhUit properat dum Lemnius oris, 

Virg. ^n. Vni. 464; 

and here Hephasstus himself says he struck when he was hurled 
down from heaven : 

Horn. n. I. 592 seq. 

The whole island still bears the strongest marks of volcanic 
fire, and hence we may account for its connection with Vulcan. 

Amobqos (^A/iopyd^), chiefly celebrated as the birthplace of 
the Iambic poet, Simo'nides of Amorgos (777 B.C.). 



§107. MACEDONIA. (^^ Maxedoy(a.) 

Boundaries. — ^North, Mobsia and Thbacia; East, Thracia; 
South, Thessalia and Mare -^g^um ; West, Epi'rus and 
Illy'ricum. 

In the time of Strabo^ it included a considerable part of Illyria 
and Thrace. 

Divisions. — It was divided into Upper and Lower Macedonia, 

Questions.— What is said of Samothrace ? — ^Why was it so called ? — 
Where was Lemnos situated? — ^Who was called the Lemnian god? — 
Why ?— Who was born at Amorgos? 1 107. What were the bounda- 
ries of Macedonia?— How was it divided ? 



MACEDONIA. 207 

and again subdivided into seventeen parts. The sea-coast was 
occupied by various tribes. 

Gnl&. — (1.) Sinus Strymo'nicus, East of the peninsula of 
Chalci'dice. 

(2.) Sinus Singi'ticuS; between tbe peninsulas of Acte and 
Sitbonia. 

(3.) Sinus Torona'icus, between Sitbonia and Palle'ne. 

(4.) Sinus THERM-ffiUS {Gulf of Salonikx), West of tbe 
peninsula of Cbalci'dice. 

Kountains. — ^Tbe face of tbe country is generally mountain- 
ous, being traversed by lateral ridges, or elevations, wbicb are 
connected with the main range of Scabdus. From tbe moun- 
tains wbicb divide Ulyria and Macedonia, two ranges run toward 
tbe Soutb-East; tbe Bermius, wbicb is tbe most southern, and 
tbe Dtso'rum, tbe most northern. At tbe extremity of tbe 
peninsula of Acte is tbe lofty mountain of Athos, now covered 
with Greek monasteries and chapels, noted in ancient times on 
account of a canal wbicb Xerxes is said to have cut through 
tbe isthmus on tbe north, twelve stadia in breadth according 
to Hero'dotus, for the passage of the Persian fleet, in order 
to escape tbe gales and boisterous seas, which swept constantly 
around tbe promontory, and wbicb bad wrecked tbe fleet of 
Mardonius (492 B.C.). The account of this canal has been 
rejected as a falsehood by many writers both ancient and 
modern, and Ju'venal speaks of it as a specimen of Greek 
mendacity : 

ereditur olim 
Velifieatiu Athos, ei quidquid Orc&cia mendax 
Audet in historia. Sat. X. 174 seqq. 

It was, however, believed by Hero'dotus, Thuc/dides, and other 
ancient writers, and distinct traces of such a work have been 
discovered by modern travellers. Tbe isthmus is found to be 
2,500 yards wide, wbicb agrees very well with tbe statement of 
Hero'dotus. 

QuBSTiONS. — Name some of the principal gulfs of Macedonia. — What 
is the nature of the country ? — What story is related about Acte ? 



208 XUEOPA. 

Biyen. — ^The conntiy is watered bj three large nvets : the 
Axius, Ltdias^ and Haliacmon, all flowing into the Sinus 
Thcrmasus. 

Inhabitants. — ^The ancients were unanimous in excludiog 
them from the true Hellenic family. Yet they are not to be 
confounded with the hordes of armed plunderers — the Illj- 
riansy Thracians, and Epi'rots — ^by whom they were surrounded, 
as they resembled more closely the Thessalians, and the other 
ruder elements of the Grecian race. The various sections 
of the population were swallowed up by those pre-eminently 
known as the Macedonians, who had their original centre at 
JRgad, or Edessa, in Lower Macedonia. This was owing to the 
energy of those who controlled the dynasty of Edessa, who 
called themselves Heraclei'dss and traced their origin back to the 
Teme'nidas of Argos. After the reign of Amyntas I. and his son 
Alexander (about 500 b. c), who were on friendly terms with the 
Peisistra'tid» of Athens, Macedonia became involved directly in 
Grecian a£fairs. Philip II. (359 — 336 B.C.) accomplished tbo 
destruction of Grecian liberties, and laid the foundations of the 
vast empire completed by his son, Alexander the Great. Maco* 
doDian settlements were planted almost everywhere, and Grecian 
manners diffused over the immense region extending from the 
temple of Ammon in the Libyan O'asis, and from Alexandri'a on 
the Western arm of the Nile, to the Northern Alexandri'a on the 
laxartes. 

Language. — ^Their language differed from the Greek; but 
there are many grammatical forms in it which are commonly 
called jEolicy and also many words which are not found in the 
Greek, but have been preserved in the Latin language. 



Questions. — Name some of the Macedonian rivers. — ^Did the inhabit- 
ants of Macedonia belong to the Hellenic family, or not ? — Where was 
the chief centre of the pure Macedonians ? — In what relation did the 
dynasty of Edessa stand to the kings ? — After what time were they in 
regular intercourse with Greece ? — Who was the destroyer of Greek 
liberty ? — Who founded the Macedonian empire ? — ^What were the con- 
sequenoes of its foundation ? — What is said of their language ? 



MACEDONIA. 209 

§ 108. Towns. — I. In Mygdonia (Muydovta), situated on the 
North of the Chalcidian Peninsula : 

ThermA; afterward called ThessahmUca (BetnraXovCxyj, Salo- 
niki) most probahly by Cassander in honor of his wife who bore 
that name. The Apostle Paul addressed two epistles to the 
Christian converts in this town. 

II. In BoTTi^is (BomaiU) : . 

Pella (JliXXa), which became the residence of the kings. 
It was the birthplace of Alexander the Great. 

III. In PiEKiA (^Iltspta), the celebrated seat of the Muses^ 
comprising the country South of the river Haliacmon : 

Pydna (^Hudva), a Greek city, in whose neighborhood the 
battle was fought which decided! the fate of the Macedonian 
monarchy (168 b, c). 

IV. In Emathia QHfia&la), which comprised the country 
North of the river Haliacmon : 

Mqm QAiyat), probably Ed^ssa, the ancient capital; when 
it had ceased to be the residence, it still continued to be the 
burial-place, of the kings. Here Philip, the father of Alexander 
the Great, was murdered by Pausanias (336 b. o.). 

y. In Chaloi' DICE (XcJixidtxyj). It was the peninsula South 
of Mygdonia, between the Thermaic and Strymonic Gulfs, and 
was called after the Chalcidians of Eubcea, who formed settle- 
ments in this country at a very early period. The peninsula of 
Ghalci'dice comprised in the South three smaller peninsulas, 
Palle'ne, Sithonia, and Acte, which contained several important 
towns, frequently mentioned in Grecian history : 

Questions.— 2 108. Where was Mygdonia situated ?— What town was 
in Mygdonia ?— -How was it called afterward ?— What was the birth- 
place of Alexander the Great?— Where was Pieria situated?— What 
battle was fought in the neighborhood of Pydna?— Where is Emathia 
situated ?— What town was there ?— Who was murdered here?— Between 
what gulfs is Chalcidice situated ?— Name the three smaller peninsulas 
which it comprised. 

18* O 



210 SUROPA. 

(1.) PoTlDJEA (Jloridata), a Dorian city^ colonized from 
Corinth, situated on the narrow isthmus connecting Palle'ne 
with the mainland. During the time of the Athenian supre- 
macy, it was subject to that city ; but in 432 b. c. it rev<dted. 
After a siege of two years, the Potidsoans surrendered and 
were allowed to quit the place, which was then colonized by a 
thousand Athenians. Philip of Ma'cedon afterward gave it up 
to the Olynthians, and extirpated or sold the Greek population. 
Cassander rebuilt this city and named it CassandrUa {Kaur<Fdv' 
dpeta) (300B.O.). 

(2.) Oltnthus (^OXov^o<:\ at the head of the Toronaic 
Gulf, between Palle'ne and Sithonia. The city is immortalized 
by the three Olynihiac orations of Demos'thenes, who induced 
the Athenians to send succors to their ancient foes, inhabit- 
ants of Oli/nthus, when the latter were besieged by Philip, who 
took and destroyed their city (347 B. c). The fall of Olynthus 
completed the conquest and destruction of no less than thirty 
Chalcidic cities, which constituted the Olynthian confederacy. 



§ 109. THRACIA. (^ Bpjxr}, Eoumdia, nearly.) 

Name. — The etymology adopted by Mure is the most satisfac- 
tory, who derives it from rpa^eXay rugged^ as indicating the geo- 
graphical character of the various districts to which it was ^ven. 

Boundaries. — It comprised formerly all that part of Europe 
which lies to the North of Greece ; hence Hero'dotus calls the 
Thracians, next to the Indians, the greatest nation on earth. In 
historical times, its boundaries were as follows : North, MoBSiA ; 
East, PoNTUS Euxi'nus and Bo'sporus Thraoius; South, 

Questions. — ^Describe the situation of Potideea ? — Of what Grecian 
city was it a colony ? — To what city was it subject ? — ^Who destroyed 
it?— Who rebuilt it?— Where is Olynthus situated?— What has given 
celebrity to this city ? — ^Who destroyed the city ? — What was the result 

of the fall of Olynthus ? ? 109. What is the derivation of Thracia?*-< 

Where was it situated ? — ^Was it a large country ? — What is the remark 
of Herodotus about it? — ^What were its boundaries in historical times? 



THBAOIA. 211 

Pbopontis^ HellespontuS; and Mare Momvm; West; Ma- 
cedonia. 

KoTmtains. — The surface of Thrace is very mountainous. 
From the chief range of the Hjsmus three chains of mountains 
branch off toward the South-East^ and with their various ramifi- 
cations occupy nearly the entire country. The most Westerly 
are the parallel ranges known as the PANaJBUS and Rho'dope^ 
the peaks of which latter attain the height of about 8,500 feet. 

Elvers. — The rivers all flow from North to South : Nestus, 
HebruS; ^oospo'tami, the scene of the famous defeat of the 
Athenian fleet by Lysander^ which brought the Peloponnesian 
war to a close (405 b. c). 

Climate. — ^The climate of Thrace is always spoken of by the 
ancients as being extremely cold and rigorous. The Hsemus 
was regarded as the abode of the North wind, and the countries 
beyond it were believed to enjoy a delightfully mild climate. 

Productions. — In ancient times vast quantities of grain and 
wine were supplied from the valley of the Hebrus. In the Iliad; 
the ships of the Achaeans are described as bringing wine every 
day to Agamemnon from Thrace; and the Marone'an wine, vinum 
Maronefum, which retained its reputation in the time of Pliny 
(N. H. xiv. 4. 6), is described in the Odyssey (ix. 196 seqq.). 
The mountainous parts of the countiy possessed mines of precious 
metals. Thrace was also feimous for its white horses. 

Inhabitants. — The oldest inhabitants of Thrace, the so-called 
mythical Thracians, were Pelasgians, agreeing in language, reli- 
gion, and other important respects, with the Greeks. They 
appear to have made settlements also extensively over Southern 
Greece. The earliest Greek poets, Orpheus, Linus, Musasus, 

Questions. — ^What is said about the mountains of Thracia ? — ^Name 
some of the rivers. — ^What battle was fought at -ffigospotami ? — ^What 
is said about the climate of Thrace? — ^Where was the fancied abode 
of the north wind ? — What was the general belief about the countries 
beyond the Heemus ? — ^What were the chief productions of Thrace ? — 
What is said of the Thracian wines ? — ^Who were the oldest inhabitants 
of Thrace ? — ^What is said of them ? 



gUBOPA., 

I oihcr^^ .« ^ represented bb coming r«,in fTli^^^ 

,nJ o«fl^ ^i^^ciMOS were, at a comparatively iate --**^ dnven 

Fel».'«p«*"- ^^^^ ^^ ^ savage race from the-iort1i, whicH we 

^d rpco^rn*^ *° historical times under the title of Thracians. 

Tb<^ historical Thracians were a barbarous people^ who, like 

ijie Cretans, sold their services in war to the highest bidder. 

Ghersone'sus Thra'cica, — ^The most important part of Thraee 
iras the peninsula extending in a South- Westerly direction iato 
the ^gasan, between the Hellespont and the Bay of Melas^ 
protected against incursions from the mainland by a wall running* 
across the Isthmus. Its ancient name was Chersone'sus Thra'cica;, 
its modem name, the peninsula of the Dardanelles. It was ori* 
ginally inhabited by Thracians, but was at a very early period 
colonized by the Athenians. 

§ 110. Towns.— I. In Chersone'sus Thra'ctca : 

(1.) Cardia {Kapdia), at the head of the Gulf of Melas, a 
Greek colony from Mile'tus, Clazo'menae, and Athe'nae. 

(2.) Calli'pous (^KaXXtnoXt^, Gallipoli), situated opposite 
to Lamp'sacus, has given the modem name to the peninsula. 

(3.) ELiEUS QEXaioo<:)j the most Southern town, a colony 
of Teos in Ionia. It was celebrated for the tomb, temple, and 
sacred grove, of the hero Protesila'us. 

(4.) Pactye (JlaxTorDy whither Alcibi'ades retired after the 
Athenians had for the second time deprived him of the com- 
mand. 

(6.) Sestus (Srj<n6<;), the principal town of the Chersone'- 
sus, and the usual point of departure for those crossing over 
from Europe to Asia. It was the Western terminus of the 
famous bridge of Xerxes for the passage of his army into Europe. 

Questions. — By whom were the Pelasgian-Thracians driyen out of 
Thrace? — ^What kind of people were the historical Thracians? — 
What was the most important part of Thrace ? — ^Where is it situated ? — 
What is the modern name ? — Who first inhabited it ? — By whom was it 

colonized ? { 110. Name some of the towns of Chersonesus Thracica. 

— Where was Cardia situated ? — Where Callipolis ? — ^What is said of 
£l88us ? — To what place did Alcibiades retire ? — What was the principal 
town of the Chersonesus? — ^What is said of it? 



THBACIA. 213 

.. In tJie remaining part of Thrace : 
^^^oar Jiar^ (^1.) Amph^polis QAiKpiitoXtq), founded by tte Athenians 
'^/{f» ^^ ^|jg IgfUj \y2txi\i of the Strymon, and regarded by them as the 

jewel of their empire. Through the supposed inactivity of the 
commander, Thuc/dides the historian^ it fell into the hands of 
the Spartan general^ Bra'sidas. This event led to the banish- 
ment of Thucy'dides. 

(2.) Abde'ba (^AfidT^pa), upon the Southern coast of 
Thrace, a colony of Teos. Demo'critus, the philosopher, was bom 
here (444 b. c), of whom Se'neca records : Democritum aiunt 
nunquam sine risu in publico /uisse. De Ira^ II. 10. 

(3.) DoRiscus {J6ptffxo<;), situated in a large plain^ where 
Xerxes numbered his army. 

(4.) Byzantium (BoZdvnov, Arabic, Constanije; Turkish, 
IstamhUl or StamhiU, a corruption of €^<r tt^v noktv), a Greek city 
which occupied part of the site of modem Constantinople. It 
was founded by a Doric colony from Me'gara (666 B.C.). Con- 
stantino the Great determined to remove the seat of empire from 
the banks of the Tiber, and impressed with the striking situation 
of Byzantium, built a new city by the side of it, which he called 
Nea Roma, It was to cover seven hills, like old Kome, and was 
divided into fourteen wards (regiones). It was for more than a 
thousand years the capital of the Eastem world, and for the last 
five centuries it has been the capital of the Ottoman Empire. 
The Ottomans took it in 1453. 

(5.) Other Greek colonies : Dio^A, Marone'a, Is'mabos, 
Stryme, Mesembria, ^nus. 

(6.) Other towns on the Propontis : Perinthus, Selym- 
BRiA (later, Eudoxo'polis). 



Questions. — ^What city was regarded by the Athenians as the jewel 
of their empire ? — Through whom was it lost to the Athenians ? — Where 
was Abdera situated ? — What philosopher was born there ? — ^What hap- 
pened in the plain near Doriscus ?-^When was Byzantium founded ? — 
Give its names. — ^Who intended it to be the capital of the Roman 
empire ? — How long was it the capital of the Eastern Roman world ?— 
When was it taken by the Ottomans ? 



214 XUBOPA. 



§m. ILLTTIICUM. 

The Greek name was FUyrU QlXiupi^). The Bomaa 11^- 
ricum was, howeyer, of yeiy diflferent extent from the Greek 
rUjriSy or Epi'ros Nova. 

Tlltbis QRMOAf or, Epf &US Nova. 

Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, annexed it to his 
dominions, whence its name of I'llyris Graeca. It was the scene 
of the first wars between Borne and Macedonia. 

Boimdaries. — ^North, Tlltbis Ba'rbaba; East, Macedonia; 
South, Epi'rus ; West, Mabs Ionium. 

Mountains. — ^AcBocEBAUNn and Gandayh Montes. 

Biven. — Ao'us ( Vwm), Apsus {Beratino). 

Inhabitants. — ^The most accurate among the ancient writers 
have always distinguished them as a separate nation from the 
Thracians and Epi'rots. They are described as a religious 
people, just and kind to strangers, loving liberality, and of a 
quiet and well-ordered life. 

Towns. — (1.) Apollonia QAitoXXwyta), a colony of the Corin- 
thians and Corcyrseans. Toward the end of the Boman republic 
it was celebrated as a seat of learning. Many Boman noblemen, 
and among them Octavia'nus, went thither for the purpose of 
studying the literature and philosophy of Greece. 

(2.) Epidamnus QEittdafivof:'), called by the Boman authors 
Dyrrhachium (now Durazzd), a colony of the Corcyrseans. The 
dispute between Corinth and Corc/ra respecting this city is 
intimately connected with the celebrated Peloponnesian war. 
Under the Bomans it was an important port; travellers going 
from Brundisium to the shores of the Bo'sporus, or to any inter^ 

Questions. — J 111. What was the Greek name of lllyricum? — When 
did one part receive the name of Illyris Grssca ? — Name the mountains. 
— Rivers. — To what race did the lUjrians belong? — What* kind of people 
were they ? — Name the principal towns. — When did Apollonia become 
most celebrated ? — Why ? — How was Epidamnus called by the Romans ? 



INSULA LIBURNICiE. 215 

mediate place, disembarked here and proceeded by the Via 
Egnatiay which led through lU/ricum and Macedonia. 

(3.) Other towns : Aulon, a port, to which persons travelling 
from Italy to Greece frequently crossed over, and from which 
they went on their way through Epi'rus into Thessaly ; O'ricum, 
Ly'chnidus. 

I'lltris Ba'rbara, or, Homa'na. 

Boundaries. — ^North, Pannonia; East, Macedonia and 
M(ESTA3 South, I'llyris Gr-eca; West, Italia and Mark 
Adria'ticum. 

Divisions. — Taptdia, Liburnia, and Dalmatia. 

Mountains. — Montes Bebh, Albitjs, and Soardtjs. 

Towns. — ^I. In Tapydia^ Metu'lum (JlirooXov), the capital. 
The inhabitants of this region followed the custom of the wild 
Thracian tribes in tattooing their bodies. 

II. In Ltbumia, Ia'dera, the capital, which afterward became 
a Boman colony. The inhabitant of Liburnia were probably 
Pelasgians originally. 

III. In Dalmatia, Epidaurus, a maritime city, besieged in 
the civil war between Pompeius and Cassar ; Scodra, a fortified 
place. This country, abounding almost everywhere with the 
olive and vine, was little noticed by ancient authors, and its real 
worth not explored, in consequence of the wildneas and predatory 
habite of the inhabitants. 



IN'SUL^ LIBUB'NICiB. 

These were small islands near the coast of Illy'ricum. 

Questions. — Give the boundaries of Illyris Barbara. — Give its divi- 
sions.— Mountains.— What is the capital of the Tapydians ?— What is 
said of them ?— What was the capital of Liburnia ?— What is said of the 
Liburnians ?— What is said of Dalmatia ?— What small islands were 
near the coast? 



216 EUROPA. 



§113. ITALIA. OraXta.) 

Italy is protected on tbe East, South, and West by the sea, 
and on the North by almost impassable mountains. With this 
protection, and with admirable seaports on both seas, it was 
situated with regard to the great nations of Western Europe, 
on the one side, and to Oreeoe and Asia on the other, in such a 
position that it seemed destined to attain universal dominion. 

Hame. — ^The geographical term, Italia^ comprised different 
countries, situated on the peninsula of the I^rrenees, which were, 
however, never politically united until they all fell under R(»nan 
sway. The name was first applied to the Southern part of the 
present peninsula of Calabria, and was afterward extended so as 
to embrace all as far North as the river Laiis, comprising the 
countries around the Tarentine Oulf. This was the generally 
established understanding of the term among the Greeks in the 
fifth century B. o. In 41 B.o. the name Italia, which in the 
populai; language of the times had been extended so as to take 
in Oallia Cisalpi'na, comprehended all the country South of the 
Alps. The word, Italia, perhaps signifies land of cattle, as 
being connected etymologically with the form, vitvlus. The 
South- West portion was also called (Enotria {Olvtorpia, perhaps 
from o7yoc, and so properly, TFTne-land). The countries on the 
shores of the Tyrrhene Sea, North of the Pondonian Gulf, 
were known by the names of CKpica and Tyrrhenia. The whole 
peninsula, lying entirely West of Greece, was called by the 
Greeks Eesperia QE(T7:epta, see p. 89), and by poetical writers, 

Questions. — Describe the situation of Italia. — ^What did the geogra- 
phical term, Italia, embrace ? — When were they united ? — To what part 
was the name Italia first applied ? — What did the term Italia comprise 
amongst the Greeks in the fifth century b. c. ? — What was its significa- 
tion after 100 b. c. ? — What does the word Italia perhaps mean ? — How 
was the south-western portion called? — What may be the meaning 
of the word (Enotria? — What was the name of the countries on the 
shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea ? — How was it called by the Greeks ? — 
Why? 



ITALIA. 217 

Ausonia, from the AuUones, a people found in Latium, and 
Satumia, from having been the fabled residence of Saturn. 

Boundaxies. — Under the Roman empire, they were as follows : 
North, Alpes; East, Mare Adria'ticum ; South, Mare Si'cu- 
I.UM, or Ausonium; West, Mare Ligu'sticum and Tyrrhe'- 
NUM, and the river Varus. Until the time of Augustus, Italia 
was understood to ejLtend only as far as the Bu'bicon on the 
Eastern, and to the Macra on the Western side. 

Extent — ^Its area is about 93,600 square miles, or about as 
large as the states of New York and Pennsylvania, which have 
together 93,000 square miles. Its greatest breadth from the 
Tuscan Apennines to the sources of the Adda is about a hun- 
dred and fifty miles. The remaining portion, which is the 
peninsula proper, extends in a South-Easterly direction between 
the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas for above five hundred 
miles, its breadth varying from a hundred and thirty miles to 
fifty, and in some parts of Calabria it is even less. 

§ 113. Mountains. — Apenni'ntjs Mons (ftie Apennines), a 
chain of mountains traversing almost the entire length of Italy. 
It may be considered as constituting the backbone of the 
country, determining its configuration and physical characters. 
The most remarkable peaks are : 

(1.) SoRAGTE, situated in Etruria^ between Falerii and the 
Tiber. It was consecrated to Apollo, who had a temple on its 
summit The god was worshipped here with peculiar religious 
rites. 

(2.) Al'gidus, a mountain of I^atium, forming part of the 
volcanic group of the Alban Hills. It was the scene of many 
conflicts between the Romans and ^quians. 



QuESTiONa.— Why was Italia called Ausonia ?— Why Satumia ? —What 
were the boundaries during the empire? — What rivers formed the 
ancient boundaries toward the north? — ^What is its area?--What its 

greatest breadth? { 113. What mountain chain traverses Italy? — 

Name some of its most remarkable peaks. — To what deity was Soracte 
consecrated ? — Where is Algidus situated ? — ^What nations often fought 
in its neighborhood ? 
19 



KUUOPA. 

^i«.^ xus MONS^ the highest and ceniot sammit of the 
^ .^ ., :v ..b. It coutaiDed the central sanctuary of the Latin 

^4 ) Mas'sicus Nons, a range of hills which formed the 
>vMiidary between Campania and Latiom Novum. Its wine was 
>t4ry celebrated. 

(5.) MoNS Saceb, a hill in the neighborhood of Rome. It is 
mentioned by ancient authors only once, on the occasion of the 
secession of the Plebeians from Rome (494 b. c). 

(6 ) Oarga'nus, the only projecting headland on the East 
coast of Italy. 

(7.) Taburnus, a mountain-group of the Apennines, atu- 
ated in Samnium. At a very short distance from its base were 
the celebrated Fu'rcuke CaudHncR^ famous as the scene of the 
great disaster of the Romans during the second Samnite war 
(321 B.C.). 

(8.) Oaurus, an extinct volcano in Campania, celebrated as 
the scene of a great victory gained by the Romans over the 

Samnite8(340B.o.). 

(9.) Vesuvius. The fearful eruption (after it had been for 
many centuries in a quiescent state) of the 24th of August, 
A. D. 79, first gave to Vesuvius the world-wide celebrity it has 
ever since maintained. That great catastrophe is described io 
detail in a celebrated letter of the younger Pliny to the historian 
Ta'citus. The mass of matter thrown out was so vast as not only 
to bury the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, at the foot of 
the volcano, but to overwhelm the more distant town of Stabiae, 
where the elder Pliny perished by suffocation. 



Questions. — ^Where was the central sanctuary of the Latin nations? 
—Where was Mons Masslcus situated? — For what is Mons Sacer cele- 
brated ?— What is said of Mons Garganus ?— Where is Taburnus situ- 
ated? — For what are the Furculae Caudinee famous? — Who were con- 
quered near Mons Qaurus? — Where was it situated? — When did the 
first eruption of Vesuvius, mentioned in antiquity, take place? — ^Who 
^8 described this event? — What cities were destroyed by this erup- 
1 ? — ^Who perished by it ? 



ITALIA. 



219 




KUIM8 OF POMPEn. 

Capes. — (1.) CiBC^UM PromontobiuM; in Latium on the 
coast of the Tyrrhene Sea. 

(2.) Mise'num, od the coast of Campania, and, after the time 
of Augustus, the permanent station of the Roman fleets. It was 
the burial-place of the hero Mise'nus : 

quo non prcMtavtior alter 
jEre dire virM, Martemque accendere cantu. 

Virg. iEn. VI. 164, 

and hence its name : 

qui nunc Misenum ab illo 
Didtur, (Btemumque tenet per tcecula nomen, 

Virg. Mn. VI. 234. 

(3.) ScYLLiEUM, on the West coast of Bruttii, almost exactly 
at the entrance of the Sicilian strait, the fabled abode of the 
monster, Scylla: 



Questions. — Name some of the capes of Italy. — ^Where was the per- 
manent naval station ? — What is said of Soyllseum ? 



218 EUUOPA. 

(8.) Alba'nus MoNSy the highest and ceDJMit sammit of the 
Alban Hills. It coutained the central sanctuarj of the Latin 
natioDB. 

(4.) Mas'sicus Mons, a range of hills which formed the 
boundary between Campania and Latiam Novum. Its wine was 
very celebrated. 

(5.) MoNS Sacer, a hill in the neighborhood of Rome. It is 
mentioned by ancient authors only once, on the occasion of the 
secession of the Plebeians from Rome (494 b. c). 

(6 ) Oarga'nus, the only projecting headland on the East 
coast of Italy. 

(7.) Taburnus, a mountain-group of the Apennines, situ- 
ated in Samnium. At a very short distance from its base were 
the celebrated Fu'rculce Caudi'fKBy famous as the scene of the 
great disaster of the Romans during the second Samnite war 
(321B.O.). 

(8.) Oaurus, an extinct volcano in Campania, celebrated as 
the scene of a great victory gained by the Romans over the 
Samnites (340 b. o.). 

(9.) Vesuvius. The fearful eruption (after it had been for 
many centuries in a quiescent state) of the 24th of August, 
A. D. 79, first gave to Vesuvius the world-wide celebrity it has 
ever since maintained That great catastrophe is described in 
detail in a celebrated letter of the younger Pliny to the historian 
Ta'citus. The mass of matter thrown out was so vast as not only 
to bury the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, at the foot of 
the volcano, but to overwhelm the more distant town of Stabiae, 
where the elder Pliny perished by suflFocation. 



Questions. — ^Where was the central sanctuary of the Latin nations ? 
— Where was Mons Massicus situated? — For what is Mons Sacer cele> 
brated ? — What is said of Mons Garganus ? — Where is Taburnus situ- 
ated? — For what are the Furculae Caudinee famous? — Who were con- 
quered near Mons Gaurus ? — Where was it situated ? — When did the 
first eruption of Vesuvius, mentioned in antiquity, take place ? — Who 
has described this event? — What cities were destroyed by this erup- 
tion ? — Who perished by it ? 



ITALIA. 



219 




KUIN8 OF POMPSn. 



Capes. — (1.) CiRC^UM Promontobium, in Latium on the 
coast of the Tyrrhene Sea. 

(2.) Mis£'num, od the coast of Campania, and, after the time 
of Augustus, the permanent station of the Roman fleets. It was 
the burial-place of the hero Mise'nus : 

quo non prcMtantior alter 
jEre dire viroe^ Martemque accendere cantu. 

Virg. ^n. VI. 164, 

and hence its name : 

qui nunc Misenum ab illo 
Dtdtur, cetemumque tenet per scecula nomen. 

Virg. iEn. VI. 284. 

(3.) ScYLL^UM, on the West coast of Bruttii, almost exactly 
at the entrance of the Sicilian strait, the fabled abode of the 
monster, Scylla: 



Questions. — Name some of the capes of Italy. — Where was the per* 
manent naval station ? — What is said of Scyllaeum ? 



220 KUBOPA. 

Dertrum Seylla latus^ Icsvum implaeata Charybdi* 
Obtidetf atque imo baratkri ter gurgiie vaatoa 
Sorbet in abruptum ftuctua, rurnuque ntb auras 
Erigit altemoSf et sidera verberat unda. 

Virg. .En. HI. 420. 

(4.) Leuco'petra, the most South- Western point, Promon- 
TOaiUM He'rculis, the most Southern^ and Zephybium^ the 
most Soath-Eastern point of Italy. 

(5.) Lacinium formed the Southern limit of the Gulf of 
Tarentum, as the lapjgian pvomontory did the Northern one. 

§ 114. Lakes. — (1 ) Laous Veeba'nus {L<igo Maggiare), one 
of the three great lakes of Northern Italy. 

(2.) Lacus Labius (^Lago di Como)y situated at the foot of 
the Alps and formed by the river Addua. On its shores were 
the three celebrated villas of the younger Pliny, 

(3.) Lacus Bena'cus {Logo di Garda), the largest of all 
the lakes in Italy, and also the roughest. Hence, Virgil (Georg. 
II. 160), in his beautiful description of Italy, says : 

FlueHbua et frtmUu a»turgm» Benaee marino. 

(4.) Lacus Tbabime'nus (^Lcigo di Perugia), the largest of 
the Etrurian lakes. It was the scene of the great victory 
obtained upon its shores by Ha'nnibal over the Eoman consul, 
Caius Flaminius (217 B.C.), one of the greatest defeats sustained 
by the Roman arms during the whole course of their history. 

(5.) Vadimo'nis Lacus (^Laghetto di Bassano), a small lake 
of Etruria, the scene of two successive defeats of the combined 
Etruscan forces by the Romans (309 and 283 b. c). 

(6.) Lacus Reqillus, a small lake in Latium, celebrated for 

Questions.— Name the three southern points of Italy. — ^What was 

the southern limit of the Gulf of Tarentum? J 114. Name some of 

the principal lakes of Italy. — Where is Lacus Larius situated? — By 
what river is it formed ?— What celebrated villas are on its shores ? — 
Which was the largest of the Etrurian lakes ? — What battle was fought 
in its neighborhood? — ^Who were defeated near Vadimonis Lacus? — 
When ? — For Vhat is Lake Begillus celebrated t 



ITALIA. 221 

the great battle between the Komans and the Latins under C. 
Mamilius (496 B. c). 

(7.) PoMPTi'NiE Paltj'des (^Pontine Marshes), formed princi- 
pally by the stagnation of the waters of two streams, Amase'nns 
and Ufens. The marshes occupy a space of about thirty miles 
in length by seven or eight miles in breadth. They were crossed 
by the celebrated Appian Way. 

(8.) MiNTURNENSES Palu'dks, in which Marius concealed 
himself, and from which he was dragged forth in ignominy with 
a rope round his neck, to Mintumse. 

(9.) Laous Avernus (^Lago (TAvemo), a small lake in Cam- 
pania, which occupies the crater of an extinct volcano, which 
was supposed to be the entrance to the infernal regions. Its 
name was connected by the ancients with "Aopvfx^y i. e. d-opvt<:, 
without birds J in allusion to the deadly effect produced on birds 
that approached its vicinity. Hence Lucretius (VI. 741) says : 

nomm id ah re 
Impositum est, quia aunt ambtu eontraria cunctis. 
E regione ea quod loca cum advenSre volantes, 
Remigii obUt<B pennarum vela remittuntf 
Frcecipitesque cadunt molli eerviee profusae 
In terrain, si forte itafert natura loeorum. 

§ 116. Bivers. — A. On the Eastern coast : 
(1.) A'thesis {Adige). On its banks near Vercellae, the 
Cimbri were defeated by Marius and Ca'tulus (101 B.C.). 

(2.) Padus (-Pc?), the largest river in Italy; hence called 
fluvianim rex by Virgil (Georg. I. 401). Its most remarkable 
tributaries are : * 

a. On the Southern, or right, bank : 

I. Trehia, on whose banks the battle was fought between 

Questions. — What were the Pomptinsa Paludes ? — By what Way were 
they crossed? — Who concealed himself in the Paludes Minturnenses? — 
Where is Lacus Avernus situated ? — From what was its name derived ? 

J 115. Name five of the most remarkable rivers on the eastern 

coast of Italy. — Near what rivers were the Cimbri defeated ? — ^What is 
the largest river in Italy ? — Name some of the southern tributaries to 
ihe Padus. — What battle was fought near the Trebia ? 
19* 



222 EUUOPA. 

Ila'nDibal and SemproDius, which was the second yictoiy in Italy 
obtained bj the Carthaginian general (218 B. c). 

II. Rkeniu {Reno), which is celebrated on account of the 
intenriew between Antonius, Octayia'nus, and Le'pidus^ which 
took place on a small island formed by its waters. 
6. On the Northern, or left, bank : 

I. TicHnus ( Ticino), whose banks were the scene of the 
first victory of Ha'nnibal in Italy (218 B.O.). 

II. Addua {Adda), in the neighborhood of which the 
Gauls were defeated by the Romans. 

(3.) Ru'bicon, the Northern boundary of Italia Proper. The 
pause of Csesar on its* banks, though not mentioned by himself, 
has given a proverbial celebrity to this little stream. 

(4.) Metaurus, in Umbria, the scene of the defeat and death 
of Ha'sdrubal, the brother of Ha'nnibal (207 B.C.). 

(5.) Au'fidus, the principal river of Apulia. Horace, whose 
native place, Yenusia, was scarcely ten miles distant from the 
Au'fidus, calls himself (Carm. lY. 9, 2) 

Lonffe sonantem natut ad Aufidum, 

B. On the South-Eastem coast : 

(1.) The SiRis, in Lucania, famous for the first victory of 
Pyrrhus, king of Epi'rus (280 b. c). 

(2.) The Saoras, North-East of Locri. It is celebrated for 
the great battle fought on its banks, in which an army of 
130,000 Crotonians is said to have been totally defeated by 
10,000 Locrians ; an event regarded as so extraordinary that it 
passed into a kind of proverb for the expression of a startling 
fact that appeared incredible. 

Question 8. — What treaty was concluded upon an island of the Rhe> 
nus? — ^Name some of the northern tributaries to the Padus. — Near what 
river did Hannibal obtain his first victory ? — What is mentioned in 
regard to the Addua ? — What event gave proverbial celebrity to the 
Rubicon ? — Where was Hasdrubal defeated ? — What was the principal 
river of Apulia ? — Name some of the rivers on the south-eastern coast 
of Italy — Where did Pyrrhus obtain his first victory? — ^When? — What 
battle was fought on the banks of the Sagras ? 



ITALIA. 223 

C. On tbe Western coast : 

(1.) The VuLTUENUS, the largest river of Campania, often 
mentioned in Roman history during the Samnite wars. 

(2.) LiRis (^Garigliano), one of the principal rivers of Central 
Italy. 

(3.) Ti'beris (^Tiher), the most important river of Italy. 
It receives numerous tributaries ] those which are of any histo- 
rical importance are the trifling streams, the Allia, on its leji, 
where the Romans were defeated by the Gauls under Brennus 
(390 B. c), which led to the capture and destruction of Rome by 
the barbarians; and the Ore^mera, on the right, celebrated for 
the memorable defeat of the 300 Fabii (477 b. o.) : 

Haecfuii Ula diesy in q-aa Veieniibus arvU 
Ter centum Fabii ter cecidire duo. 

Ovid. Fast. II. 195. 

(4.) Other rivers : Umbro, Arnus, Varus, Macra. 

§ 116. Climate. — ^The climate of Italy was in ancient times 
somewhat colder than at present, and the winters seem to have 
been more severe. Horace speaks of Soracte as white with snow, 
and Juvenal even alludes to the Tiber being covered with ice. 
The temperature of its climate was in general excellent, free 
from extremes of heat and cold, and well adapted to all kinds 
of plants and animals. 

Productioiis. — Its varied climate rendered it suitable to the 
productions of the higher as well as of the lower latitudes of 
Europe. It produced grain, olives, wines, timber, sheep, goats, 
horses, and cattle. The mountains contained mines rich in 
various metals. 

Inhabitants. — The inhabitants of Italy Proper may be grouped 

Questions. — ^Name some of the rivers on the western coast of Italy. 
— What is the most considerable river of Campania? — What is the prin- 
cipal river of Central Italy ? — What is the most celebrated river of Italy? 
— ^What are its tributaries ? — Who defeated the Romans at the AUia ?— 

What tragic event happened at the Cremera? { 116. What is said 

of the climate of Italy ? — What of the productions ? — How many differ- 
ent nations inhabited Italy ? 



224 KUBOPA. 

under five heads : the Pelasgi, the Osoi, the Sabelli^ the Umbri, 
and the £tnisci : 

(1.) The Pelasqio race, which inhabited the South-Eastern 
peninsoU of Europe and the Western peninsula of Asia, appears 
to have very early attained importance in historical times, and in 
its purest and most original form, in the Southern part of the 
peninsula alone. 

(2.) The OsCANS, called also in earlier times, (ypid and 
Op«ct, inhabited a considerable portion of Central Italy, called 
Opicioy or (ypica. They constituted an important element of 
the Latin nation. 

(3.) The Sabellians had their original abodes in the lofty 
ranges of the central Apennines and the upland valleys about 
Amiternum. They extended themselves gradually over the 
Western mountain slopes toward the Tyrrhene Sea, expelling 
the Oscans from the valley about Rea'te. At the same time 
they also sent bodies of emigrants to the East and South 
of their original abodes. Of these the most powerful and 
celebrated were the Samni'tes, the most persistent enemies of 
the Romans. 

(4.) Umbrians. They were considered in antiquity as the 
most ancient of all the races of the peninsula, and their domain 
extended at one time from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhene Sea, 
and from the mouths of the Padus to those of the Tiber. 

The three last-named nations were closely allied, being merely 
different branches of the same race. 

(5.) Etruscans, or Rase'na, were wholly distinct from the 
other races of Central Italy. 

Questions. — What part of the world was inhabited by the Pelas- 
gians ? — What part of Italy did they inhabit ? — What part of Italy was 
inhabited by the Oscans? — What name did they give to it? — ^Where 
were the original abodes of the Sabellians ? — What parts of Italy did 
they overspread ? — Which was the most powerful of their tribes ? — 
Which was the most ancient of the Italian races? — What part of 
Italy was inhabited by them ?— With whom of the Italian races were 
the Umbrians allied by race ?— What was the fifth of the Italian 
races ? 



QALLIA OISALPINA. 225 

§ 117. Divisions of Italy. 
I. NORTHERN ITALY, or GALLIA CISALPFNA. 

Subdivided into six parts : Istrta, Carnia, Venetia, Gal- 
lia Teanspada'na, Gallia Cispada'na, Liguria. 

II. CENTRAL ITALY, or ITALIA PROPRIA. 

Subdivided into six parts : Etruria, Umbria, Pice'num, 
Sabinium, Latium, and Campania. 

III. SOUTHERN ITALY, or MAGNA GR^CIA. 

Subdivided into four parts: Apulia, Calabria, Luoania, 
and Brutth. 

L GALLIA CISALPI'NA. 

Hame. — The name, OUalpi'nay denoted GaMia on the Roman 
dde South of the Alps, as opposed to TransaJpHna, or GaUia 
beyond the Alps, It was also called GaUia Togafta, to indicate 
tbe numerical superiority of the Toga'ti, or Romans, over the 
Gallic population. The oldest name of Northern Italy among 
the Romans was simply Gallia; after the Romans became 
acquainted with Gallia beyond the Alps, they added the term 
CisalpHna or Oiterior (Hither). 

Boundaries. — ^North, Alpes; East, the Arsia; South, Ru'- 
BiooN and Magra ; West, Varus. 

Inhabitants. — ^It was inhabited by Galli, who, under the reign 
of Tarquinius Prisons, emigrated from Gaul into Italy. After 

Questions. — { 117 Into what three parts was Italia divided ? — ^What 
name was given to Northern Italy ? — What name to Central Italy ? — 
What name to Southern Italy ? — How was Gallia Cisalpina subdivided ? 
— How Italia Proper? — How Magna GreBoia? — ^What does the name, 
Cisalpina, denote?— Why is it called Gallia Togata ?— What was its 
oldest name ? — ^What other name were they accustomed to apply to it ? 
—How was it bounded? — Who inhabited Gallia Cisalpina? — Under 
whose reign did the Gauls immigrate into Italy ? 

P 



226 EU&OPA. 

the Gallic cooqneBt oq the AUU (390 B.C.); the Romans became 
aware of the fact that in the Gauls they had an enemy whom 
they most destroy, or themselves suffer national extinction. 
The Romans in their long conflicts with the Gauls were fighting 
for their own existence, not for national glory. After many 
stmg^eSy the Romans, under Puhlius Cornelius Scipio Nasi'ca, 
defeated the Boii, the greatest of the Gallic nations. Their 
country was made a Roman proTince (191 B.C.). In the subju- 
gation a terrible butchery ensued : in the general massacre none 
but women, children, and old men were spared. The coantry 
was rapidly filled up with Romans, and became one of the most 
yaluable of the Roman possessions. 

Shriaioiis. — Istria, Cabnia, Venetia, Gallia Transpa- 
da'naj Gallla. Cupada'na, and LiQURLA.. 



§llft ISTRIA. 

Boundaries. — ^North-West, the Tima'vus; North, Carnia; 
East, Pannonla., the ^sis, and the Sinus Flana'ticus; 
South-West, the Adriatio Sea; West, the Sinus Teroesti'- 

NU8. 

It was subdued (177 B.C.) by the Romans, and until the lame 
of Augustus it formed a part of the Roman provinoe, 111/- 
ncum. 

Inhabitants. — The Istrians were a tribe of the Illyrian race. 

Towns. — Teroeste ( Trieste), the capital ; Pola, a very ancient 
city, which, in the time of Augustus, became a Roman colony 
under the name of Pi^ etas Julia, 



Questions. — When were the Romans conquered by the Gauls? — 
What was the character of the Gallic wars ? — Which was the principal 
of the Gallic tribes ? — By whom were they conquered ? — ^When ? — Give 

the subdivisions of Gallia Cisalpina. 2 118. Give the boundaries of 

Istria — When was it subdued by the Romans ?— To what province did 
it belong originally ? — When was it considered a part of Italy ? — What 
is said about the inhabitants ? — Name some of its towns. 



VENETTA. 227 

CARNIA. 

Boundaries. — North, Nor'icum^ East, Pannonia; South, 
Vbnetia and Istria ; West, Rh^etia. 

Mountains. — Alpes Ca'rnic^, subsequently called Alpes 
JuLliE, a mountain range that sweeps in a kind of semicircle 
round the present plain of Friovl, 

Inhabitants. — The Cami were an Alpine tribe, belonging to 
the Celtic race. They were conquered by the Komans about 
115 B. c. 

Towns. — We know of two Roman towns, Julium Ca'rnicum, 
the capital, and FoRUM JuLll. 

VENETIA. 

Boundaries. — North, Alpes Ca'rnic^; East, the Tima'yus; 
South, the Adriatic Sea ; West, the A'thesis. 

Inliabitants. — The Ve'neti were a tribe of the wide-spread 
Slavonian race. They were a commercial people, who carried on 
a trade in amber, which was brought overland from the shores 
of the Baltic, and exchanged for other articles of commerce with 
Phoenician and Greek merchants. They were subdued (183 B.C.) 
by the Romans. 

Yenetia under the Roman empire became a very rich and 
flourishing province. 

Towns. — (1.) Patavium (^Padua), situated thirty miles 
from the mouth of the river Medoa'cus (^Brenta), and according 
to Virgil and other authors, founded by the Trojan Ante'nor : 

ffic tamen tile urbem Patavi tedetque locavit 

Teucrorunif et genti nomen deditf armaquefixit 

Troia. Mn, I. 247 seqq. 

Questions. — How was Camia bounded ? — By what mountains was it 
traversed ? — To what race did its inhabitants belong ? — ^When were they 
conquered by the Romans?— What towns did Camia contain? — ^What 
are the boundaries of Yenetia ? — To what race did the Veneti belong ? — 
What is known about their trade ? — ^When was Yenetia subdued by the 
Romans ? — Name some of the towns. — Where was Patavium situated ? 



228 SUBOPA. 

It waa at an early period an opulent and powerful city, and 
coDtinued to flourish until quite a late period of the empire. 
This prosperity was brought abruptly to a close by A'ttila, who 
utterly destroyed it (a.d. 452). It was the birthplace of the 
historian Livy: 

(2.) Adria, originally a seaport of great celebrity. It is now 
distant more than fourteen miles from that sea to which it gave 
the name of Adriatic. It was an Etruscan colony : 

(3.) Alti'num, situated on the border of the lagoons, whose 
shores furnished favorite sites for the residence of the wealthy 
Komans. In the course of time these shores were lined with 
villas rivalling those of Baisd : 

JSmula Baianu AUini litora viUu — 
Vot eritit noitrcc partus, requietque seneeUc, 
Si juris /ueritU otia nostra sui. Martial, IV. 25. 

Its destruction by A'ttila (a. b. 452) gave occasion for the found- 
ing of the city of Venice : 

(4.) Aquileia, situated sixty miles from the head of the 
Adriatic Sea, between the rivers Also and Natiso. It was a 
Roman colony, founded 181 B. c, and became afterward the 
capital of the country of Venetia. The neighboring Alps con- 
tained valuable gold mines, whose product, together with the 
profits derived from trade with the Pannonians and Illyrians, 
were considerable sources of wealth, and rendered it one of the 
most important and flourishing cities of Italy. It was besieged 
by A'ttila (a. d. 452), and finally taken, plundered, and burnt to 
the ground. 



Questions. — ^What historian was born at Patavium ? — ^Who destroyed 
the city ? — What town gave its name to the Adriatic Sea ? — ^Where is 
Altinum situated ? — Describe the #tuation of Aquileia. — What is said 
of this town ? 



GALLIA TRANSPADANA. 229 



§ U9. GALLIA TRANSPADA'NA. 

In connection with Gallia Cispada'na^ it formed Gallia 
Cisalpi'na Propria, which was a Roman province subse- 
quent to 222 B. c. 

Boundaries. — North, Rh^tia and Nor'icum ; East, Vene- 
tia ; South, Padus ; West, Gallia Narbonensis. 

Nations and Towns. — (1.) The TaurHni, with the capital, 
Augusta TAURlNo'RUM(7(oriwo, Turin), & Roman colony sent 
out by Augustus, situated on the river Padus, at its junction 
with the Duria Minor. The Padus here was navigable. 

(2.) The Scdassi, with the town Augusta Prjetoria (^Aosta), 
was situated at the foot of the Alps. This also was a Roman 
colony founded by Augustus, who, after the complete subjugation 
of the Salassians by Terentius Varro, established here a body of 
three thousand veterans. It was the most North- Westerly town 
of Italy. 

(3.) The LUbict, with their chief town Vercell^, were situ- 
ated on the Western bank of the Se'ssites. This town was dis- 
tinguished for its worship of Apollo. Hence Martial (X. 12, 1) 
uses the expression, ApoUineas VerceUas, 

(4.) The Lceviy with the capital Tici'num {Pavia), were 
situated on the river Tici'nus, about five miles above its junction 
with the Padus. The city was destroyed by A'ttila (a. d. 452), 
and restored by Theodoric, the Goth, whose successors made 
it their chief stronghold in the North of Italy. After the 
Lombard invasion, it became the residence of the Lombard 



Questions. — { 119. What was Gallia Cisalpina Propria? — At what 
period did it become a Roman province ? — What were its boundaries ? — 
Name some of the nations. — ^What was the capital of the Taurini ? — 
What was the most north-westerly town of Italy ? — Of what nation was 
it the capital ? — What deity was particularly worshipped at VercellsB ? — 
Describe the situation of Ticinum. — ^Who destroyed the city? — ^Who 
restored it ? 
20 



230 SUBOPA. 

(5.) The Fmnbrt^ with— 

a. The capital MEDIOLA^'«UM {MHano^ Milan), were situ- 
ated in a hroad and fertile plaia aboat midway between the 
riTerB Tici'ans and Addna, which situation adapted it to be the 
capital of that r^ion. It was fw a long period the metropolis 
of Cisalinne Ganl itsdf. Afler the battle of GListidiura, it was 
attacked and taken by the Soman consuls, Claudius Mareellus 
and Cn. Scipio (222 B-C), uid finally subdued (190 b.c.)- 
Under the Roman em]Hrey it became the principal cily of North- 
ern Italy. Literature flourished here, and young men from the 
neighboring towns were sent hither for their education. After 
A. D. 303, it became the imperial residence, till this was trans- 
ferred to Ravenna (a. d. 404). After the fall of the Western 
empire (a. d. 476), Mediola'num became the royal residence of 
the (Gothic kings, Odoa'cer and Theodoric. 

b. Novum Comum, also a city of the Fnsubres, was situ- 
ated at the Southern extremity of the Lacus Larius, at the very 
foot of the Alps. It was the birthplace of both the elder and 
younger Pliny, the latter of whom had several villas on the 
banks of the lake, one of which is still known as the Plinia^na. 

(6.) The Cenomafniy with the following cities : 

a. Brixia {Brescia) was on the small river Mela. Under 
the Roman empire, it was a flourishing and wealthy town. 

b. Cremo'na was on the left bank of the Padus, about 
six miles below the confluence of the Addua. During the civil 
wars, it espoused the cause of Brutus, in consequence of which 
its territory was confiscated by Octavian. It is to this event that 
Virgil alludes, in the well-known line, 

Mantua vce misera nitnium vicina Cremoncs, 

Eel. IX. 28, 

Questions. — ^What was the capital of the Insubres ? — Where was it 
situated? — When was it taken by the Romans? — What was its condition 
under the empire ? — When was it the imperial residence ? — ^What city 
was the birthplace of Pliny?— Where was it situated ?— Name the 
principal cities situated in the country of the Cenomani. — Where was 
Brixia situated ? — ^Where was Cremona situated ?-^WhQ confiscated its 
territory ? — Why ? 



GALLIA TKANSPADANA. 



231 




a part of the territory of Mantua haying shared the same fate 
with that of the neighboring city. 

c. Bedri'agum, between Vero'na and Cremo'na, was the 
scene of the decisive battle between Otho and Vitellius, which 
ended with the victory of the latter (a. d. 69). 

d, Mantua was on an island formed by the waters of 
the river Mincius. Its population^ although much mixed; was 
for the greater part Etruscan : 

Mantua^ dives avis ; sed non genus omnibtts unum^ 
Oens nil triplex, populi sub gente 'quatemi : 
Ipsa caput vopulis , Tusco de sanguine vires, 

Virg. X. 201 seqq. 

Its chief celebrity was undoubtedly owing to its having been the 
birthplace of Virgil, who has, in consequence, celebrated it in 



Questions. — What battle was fought near Bedriacum ?— Where was 
Mantua situated ? — What was the birthplace of Virgil ? 



232 KUROPA. 

Mvenl passages of his works. According to Dona'tns, however, 
the actual birthplace of the poet was Andes, a village in the 
territory of Mantna. 

e. Vero'na, situated on the river A'thesis, celebrated for the 
battle fought by Marius, in the Raudii Campi, in its neighbor- 
hood, against the Gimbri. It was the birthplace of Catullus : 

Mantua Vergilio gaudet, Verona CatuUo. 

Ovid, Amor. III. 15, 7. 

/. HoSTiUA, situated on the North bank of the Padus, was 
the birthplace of Cornelius Nepos. 



§ 120. GALLIA CISPADA'NA. 

Boundaries. — North, the Padus; East^ the Adriatic Sea; 
South, the Ru'bicon and the Apenni'ni Montes ; West, Li- 

GURIA. 

Nations and Towns. — (1.) The Ananesy with the town 
Clastidium, situated on the borders of Liguria, celebrated on 
account of the victory gained by Marcellus over the Fnsubres 
(222 B.C.) : 

(2.) The AnamareSy with the town Plaoentia (^Placenza)^ 
situated near the Southern bank of the Padus, near its junction 
with the Trebia. The city was plundered by the Gauls, 200 B. c. 
Under the empire, it was a populous and flourishing city : 

(3.) The Boil, with the towns : 

a. Parma, situated about fifteen miles South of the Padus. 
It was a colonia cm'ttm, its settlers retaining the privileges of 
Roman citizens : 



Questions. — What was the birthplace of Catullus? — ^Where was it 

situated ? — ^What was the birthplace of Cornelius Nepos ? J 120. How 

is Gallia Cispadana bounded ? — Name some of the towns. — Where is 
Clastidium situated ? — ^What victory was gained there by Marcellus ? — 
"When ? — Describe the situation of Placentla. — When was it plundered? 
— What towns were situated in the country of the Boii ? — Where is 
Parma situated ? — ^What is a colonia civium ? 



LIOURIA. 

b. Brixellum {BreseHo), situated on the South bank of 
the Padus. The emperor Otho here committed suicide^ a. d. 69: 

c. Mu'tina (Modena), situated between Parma and Bono- 
nia. It was the scene of the Mutinensean war, helium Mutinente 
(43B.C.): 

d. BoNONiA {Bologna)^ an ancient Etruscan city, founded 
under the name of Felsina. It was situated on the river Rhenus, 
at the foot of the Apennines. In its neighborhood were arranged 
the terms of the second triumvirate between Antony, Le'pidus, 
and Octavian (43 b. o.) : 

e. Forum CoRNELn {Tmola)j situated on the Western bank 
of the river Vatre'nus. It was founded by the dictator, Cornelius 
Sylla, and is supposed to have derived its name from him : 

(4.) The LVvigoneSf with the following towns : 
a, Ravenna, situated a short distance from the sea-coast. 
Subsequent to the time of Augustus, it was the principal naval 
station in the Adriatic. From the beginning of the fifth century 
down to the decay of the Western Empire, Ravenna was the 
permanent imperial residence : 
h. Forum Livii (Forlt), 

LIGURIA. 

Boundaries. — ^North, the Padus; East, Gallia Cispada'na 
and the Macra ; South, Sinus Ligus'ticus ; West, the Varus 
and the Alpes Mari'tim^. 

In 14 B. 0. it became subject to the Roman power. 

Monntains. — Alpes Mari'tim^ (Maritime Alps), that por- 
tion of the Alpine range which extends to the Tyrrhene Sea. 
Their limit was at the Portus Monoeoi (^Monaco), above which 

Questions. — ^Who committed suicide at Brizellum ? — When ? — ^Where 
was the scene of the Bellum Mutinense? — Describe the situation of 
Bononia. — What happened there? — Who was the founder of Forum 
Cornelii ? — What towns were situated in the territory of the Lingones t 
— ^Where was Ravenna situated ? — When did it become the imperial resi- 
dence ? — What are the boundaries of Liguria ? — Name the mountaixuk 
20* 



234 SUBOPA. 

rises a lofty headlmnd, on wbioh stood the trophy erected by 
Augustus to commemomte the subjugation of the Alpine tribes 
( Trapceum Augusti), 

Liguria contained very few towns, the inhabitants living mostly 
in small villages. 

Towns.— (1.) NiCJEA (^Nlzza)y situated on the coast of Liguria 
near the boundary of Gaul. It was a colony of Massilia : 

(2.) Genua, the chief maritime city of Liguria, and the 
principal emporium of trade for this part of the Mediterranean. 
It became most celebrated in the Second Punic War. 

§ 121. II. ITALIA PROPRIA. 

Boundaries. — North, Ru'bicon and Gallia Cisalpi'na; 
East, Mare Su'perum; South, Si'larus andFRENTO; West, 
LiQURiA, Macra, and Mare Pnferum. 

Divisions. — Etruria, Umbria, Pice'num, Sabinium, La- 
TiuM; and Campania. 

ETRURIA, or TUSCIA. 

Name. — The universal appellation by writers of the best 
period of Roman letters is Etruria, In the later times of the 
Roman empire, Tusda was the official designation, which is still 
preserved in the modern appellation of Toscanaj or Tuscany. 
The Greek name of the country was Tyrrhenia {TuppTjvta), 

Boundaries. — North- West, Macra; North, Apennines; 
East and South, Tiber ; West, Mare Tuscum. 

Inhabitants. — The Roman authors applied to them the name 
of Etrusci, or Tusci. The Greeks called them Tyrrhenians, or 
Tyrsenians. They called themselves Rase'na, or Rasenna. The 

QuBSTioNS. — What was the TropaBum August! ? — Where was it? — Did 
Liguria contain many towns? — Name some of the towns. — What is said 

of Nicaea? — Of Genua? § 121. What is remarked about the name 

Etruria ? — What are its boundaries ? — What name was given to its in- 
habitants by the Roman authors ? — ^What name by the Greeks ? — How 
did they call themselves? 



ETRUBIA. 235 

population was mixed, containiDg Umbrians, Pelasgians, and 
Rase'na. The UmbriaDS were the original inhabitants, among 
whom a colony of the sea-faring Tyrrhene-Pelasgians settled at 
an early period. Both of these nations were afterward conquered 
by the Rase'na, who came from the Rhaetian mountains. Before 
the period of the Roman dominion, the power of the Etruscans 
was widely extended both by sea and land. It was at its height 
from 600-500 B. O. There were two principal communities, 
one in Etruria, the other in the plains of the Padus, each of 
which was composed of twelve principal cities. A third Etruscan 
confederacy once flourished in Campania. The second and third 
of these confederacies were at an early period wrested from the 
Etruscans, the one by the Oauls, the other by the Samnites, 
400 B.C. The main confederacy, in Etruria Proper, received 
the first fatal blow to its nationality at the fall of Veil (396 B.C.), 
and at the beginning of the First Punic War, the whole of Etruria 
acknowledged the supremacy of Rome (264 B. c). 

Langpiage. — The Roman writers represent the Etruscan lan- 
guage as having been wholly unintelligible to the Latins. We 
now know it only by the specimens preserved in inscriptions, 
and it is supposed to have belonged to the Gothic group of the 
Indo-Teutonic tongues. 

Civilization. — The Etruscans were by far the most cultivated 
and refined people of ancient Italy, and were especially devoted 
to the practice of the higher arts. In architecture, sculpture, 
and painting they were greatly distinguished 

Questions. — What different nations formed the population of Etruria? 
— What were the original inhabitants ? — Who settled among the Um- 
brians ? — By whom were both of those nations conquered ? — Whence 
did they come ? — ^When was the Etruscan power at its height ? — How 
many Etrurian unions were cemented at that time? — Describe their 
situation. — ^Who conquered the Etrurian confederacy in the plains of 
the Padus? — By whom was that in Campania subdued? — How many 
states constituted each of these confederacies ? — Where was the chief 
confederacy situated ? — When did it receive the first fatal blow to its 
power ? — When did it acknowledge the supremacy of Rome ? — What ia 
known of their language and literature ? — What is known about their 
ciyilization ? — In what arts had they made great progress ? 



236 suEo^A. 



L — The Etrnseaii rdigioo was paiiicnlarlj diaracter- 
ised by the grett number and peculiar strictness of its ritual 
obserranoes. The Etroscans reduced the differeDt modes of 
diTinaiion in vogue into a r^ular systematic form } and on this 
account, we find the Romans, throughout all periods of their 
history, consulting the Etruscan hartupices. 

Pditieftl ConstitiitioiL — ^They formed a confederacy of twelve 
cities, each of which was a sovereign and independent state, 
possessing, not only the right of internal self-government, but also 
that of making war, or peace, on its own account. Regularly, 
once a year, they held a general meeting at the national sane- 
tuaiy, the Fanum VoUumiuEj where they deliberated on the 
welfare of the nation, and elected their high-priest, who officiated 
in the name of the union. The internal government was aristo- 
cratic. The members of ibis body were called Lucunu/nes, 
and were at the head of the government of the towns. 

§ 122. Citias. — Nine of the twelve cities which composed the 
Etruscan league are known to us. These are as follows : 

TaRQUINII, VeII, VoLSINII, ClUSIUM, VOLATERRiB, VeTU- 

LONiA, Pjeeusia, Corto'na, and Arretium. Gjere and Fa- 
LERii also most probably belonged to their number. The 
twelfth, though unknown, was probably RusELLiB. 

(1.) Tarquinii, the most ancient of the cities of Etruria, 
was situated near the Tyrrhene Sea. A nobleman of this city 
went to Rome, where he became king, under the name of Lucius 
Tarquinius (616-679 B.C.). 

(2.) Yeii, an ancient and purely Etruscan city, was situated 
about twelve miles North of Rome. It is chiefly celebrated on 

Questions. — What is known about the religion of the Etruscans ? — 
What influence did it exercise on Rome ? — What is said of their political 
constitution ? — What was the character of their government ? — ^Where 
was their general congress held ? — What topics were discussed at this 
meeting ? — What was the form of the internal government? — What was 

a Lucumo ? J 122. How many cities composed the Etruscan league? 

— How many of them are known to us? — What are their names? — 
What two cities probably belonged to their number ? — ^What was the 
connection between Tarquinii and Rome ? — What is said of Veil ? 



ETIiUEIA. 237 

account of the wars it waged with the Romans. It was finally 
taken by Camillas (396 B.O.); after a siege of ten years. 

(3.) VoLSiNii was situated on the shore of a lake of the same 
name. The old city was destroyed (280 b. c.) by the Romans, 
who compelled the inhabitants to migrate to another spot The 
new city was the birthplace of Seja'nus^ the chancellor of Tibe- 
rius. Juvenal (III. 191) says of it : 

PosUit nemorosa inter Juga Volnnm. . 

(4.) Clusium (^Chiusi), originally an Umbrian city, at an 
early period fell into the hands of the Rase'na. It was the 
residence of Po'rsena, the friend and ally of Tarquinius Prisons. 

(5.) VoLATERKffl was the largest and most powerful of all the 
Etruscan cities. It was the birthplace of the satirist, A. Persius 
(A.D. 34). 

(6.) Vetulonia was the city whence the Romans received 
the insignia of magistracy. 

(7.) Perusia was situated on the right bank of the Tiber, at 
one period one of the most powerful cities of Italy. The ancient 
city was destroyed by Octavia'nus. 

(8.) Corto'na was situated in the neighborhood of Lacus 
Trasime'nus. 

(9.) Arretium (Arezzo), the most inland city of Etruria, 
was situated near the foot of the Apennines. 

(10.) CiERE, by the Greeks called Agylla (^Ay^uXXa), situated 
near the coast of the Tyrrhene Sea. It was an ancient Pelasgio 
city which, about 500 B.C., was taken by the Etruscans. When 
subsequently conquered by the Romans (353 b. o.), the inhabit- 
ants received the Roman franchise, but without the right of 
suffrage. Hence the proverbial expression for disfranchising a 
Roman citizen : in tahulas Cceritium re/erre. 

Questions. — ^Where was Volsinii situated ? — When and by whom was 
the old town destroyed ? — Who was a native of the new town ? — What 
was the residence of Porsena ? — What was the native place of the poet 
A. Persius? — What did the Romans receive from Vetulonia? — Where 
was Perusia situated ? — ^Who destroyed the ancient town ? — ^Where was 
Cortona situated? — ^Where Arretium? — ^Where Caere? — What is said of 
it ? — To what proverb did Caere give rise ? 



288 suROPA. 

(11.) Falebii, situated West of the Tiber and Nortb of 
Moant Soracte, was the scene of the well-known stoij of the 
schoolmaster and Camillas. 

(12 ) RuSELLiB {RoBeUd) was not far from the river Umhro 
(^Ornhnme), The city was taken by the Romans 294 b.o. 

Beside these twelve principal cities^ there are the following : 

a. North of the Amu$ : 
LuNAy LuoAy PiSiB, FlorsntiA; PisTORiAy and Vj^svue, 
the two last named both known from their connection with the 
conspiracy of Catiline : 

6. Between the Amus and the Umhro : 

Beside Yolaterrss and Rosellsd; already spoken of, Sena 
and PopuLONiuM : 

c. South of the Umhro : 

CosA and Yulci may be added to those already mentioned 
as important cities. There were also many others^ among which 
may be mentioned 6r avisos, the birthplace of Seja'nus^ and 
Fescennium, which has given the name to the Carmina Fes- 
cenntna, originally simple rustic dialogues, which, at a later 
period, degenerated into loose songs. 



§128. UMBRIA. 

Bouiidariei. — North, the Ru'bicon; East, the Abriatio 
Sea; South, Pice'num and Sabinium; West, the Tiber. 

Productions. — ^The cattle of the valley of the Clitumous were 
very celebrated. On its mountain slopes fed numerous flocks 
of sheep. The lower portions of the country abounded in fruit- 
trees, vines, and olives. Propertius (I. 22, 10) calls it, terris 
fertilis uheribus. 

Questions. — ^Where is Falerii situated? — ^What happened there? — 
Where is Rusellse situated ? — What towns were situated north of the 
Amus? — What towns between the Arnus and Umbro? — What towns 
south of the Umbro ? — Who was born at Grayiscae ? — ^What were the 

Carmina Fescennina? J 123. What are the boundaries of Umbria? 

— ^What is said of the productions ? 



T7MBRIA. 239 

Inhabitants. — ^Tbe Umbrians were of Gallic origin^ and one 
of the most ancient races established in Italy. At a very early 
period tbey appear to have been a great and powerful nation in 
the nortbem half of Central Italy, wbose dominion extended 
from sea to sea, and comprised the fertile district on both sides 
of the Apennines. In 800 b.o. they were subdued by the 
Romans. 

Towns. — The towns were numerous, though few were of spe- 
cial importance. 

(1.) OcRic'uLUM, the Soutbernmost town of Umbria. It 
was here tbat Fabius Mazimus took tbe command of the 
army of Seryilius, after the battle of the lake Trasime'nus 
(217B.C.): 

(2.) Narnia, an ancient and important city, which before 
the Eoman conquest (299 B.C.) bore the name of Nequi'num. 
It was the birthplace of the emperor Nerva : 

(3.) Ameria, the birthplace of Sextus Koscius the actor, 
who was defended in so masterly a speech by Cicero : 

(4.) Spoletium, the scene of the battle between the generals 
of Sylla and Carbo (82 b. o.) : 

(5.) Mevania, situated on the river Tinia, in a broad and 
fertile valley, which was celebrated for its breed of white oxen, 
the only ones thought worthy to be sacrificed on solemn occa- 
sions : 

(6.) HisPELLUM, the birthplace of Propertius (52 b. c.) : 

(7.) TiPERNUM Tiberi'num, often mentioned in the epistles 
of the younger Pliny, who was a generous patron of the city, and 
built there, at his own cost, a temple to Ceres. His villa was in 
its neighborhood : 



Questions. — ^What is said of the Umbrians ? — ^When were they sub- 
dued by Rome ? — Name some of the towns. — ^Where is Oriculum situ- 
ated ? — Which of the Roman emperors was a native of Narnia ? — What 
made Ameria celebrated ? — ^What battle took place at Spoletium ? — 
Where was Meyania situated? — For what was it celebrated? — What 
place was the birthplace of Propertius ? — ^Who was the patron of Tifer- 
num Tiberinum ? 



240 EUROPA. 

(8.) Aaf MINUM, sitaated on the coast of ihe Adriatic^ near 
the mouth of the river Ari'minos. It was justly considered as 
the key of Gallia Cisalpi'na, on the one side, and of the Eastern 
coast of Italia Propria on the other : 

(9.) PiSAuauM (Petaro)y an important, but unhealthfol place, 
which suffered severely from an earthquake (31 B.C.) : 

(10.) Sena Ga'llica (Smtgaglid), on the coast of the 
Adriatic, where the two consuls, livius and Nero, united their 
forces before the battle of the Metaurus (207 b. c.) : 

(11.) Sa'rsina, situated in the Apennines, on the left bank 
of the river Sapis. It was the birthplace of the comic poet, 
Plautus (254 b c.) : 

(12.) Other cities : Interamna (i. e. tnter-amnuy as sur- 
rounded by the river Nar; comp. the Greek name Mesopo- 
tamia) j the birthplace of the historian Ta'oitus (a. d. 60); 
Cameri'num. 



§ 124. PICE'NUM, or AQER PICE'NUS. 

Boundaries. — North, the ^sis ; East, the Adriatic Sea ; 
South, the Matri'nus; West, Umbria and the Sabi'ni. 

Bivers. — The whole country is traversed by numerous streams, 
which render it one of the pleasantest regions of Italy. These 
streams are the Matri'nus, Voma'nus, Bati'nus, Truentus, 
and others. 

Productions. — Pice'num is a district of great fertility and 
beauty. Extending in a broad band of almost uniform width 
from the central ranges of the Apennines, it slopes gradually 
toward the sea. The greater portion is occupied by high hills 
whose summits are clothed with extensive forests, while the 

Questions.-— Where was Aiiminum situated ?— What is said of the 
Importance of this situation ?— What of Pisaurum ?— What of Sena 
Gallica ?-— What was the birthplace of Plautus ? — What is said of Inter- 
amna? J 124. How was Picenum bounded? — What is said of its 

streams? — Name some of them. — ^What was the character of the 
country ? — Name some of its productions. 



SABINI. 241 

lower slopes produce abundance of froit-trees and olives^ and also 
excellent wine and corn : 

Picenu eedunt pomit THburtia tueeo. 

Hor. Sat. II. 4, 70. 

Inhabitants. — The Picentes were of Sabine origin. The 
region j^ej occupied was one of the most populous districts 
of Italy. After many years of alliance with Rome, they were 
subdued (268 b. c). They afterward took a prominent part in 
the Social War (90 B.C.). - 

Towns. — The towns are numerous, but few have any historical 
celebrity : 

(1.) Ancon or Anco'na, situated on a promontory, which 
forms a remarkable curve, or elbow, dy^xtov, whence its name. 
It was the only Greek colony on this part of the coast of Italy. 
It was founded by Syracusan exiles (380 B.C.). The triumphal 
arch erected in honor of Trajan still remains. Its once cele- 
brated temple of Venus has entirely disappeared : 

(2.) As'cuLUM, the ancient capital, a strongly fortified place, 
situated on the river Truentus. Here occurred the first open 
outbreak of the Social War (90 B.C.) : 

(3.) Adria, or Hadria, a colony of the celebrated Etruscan 
city of that name. The family of the emperor Hadrian was 
originally from this place. 



§ 125. SABINI. 

Bonndaries. — North, the iBsis and Pice'num; East, the 
Adriatic Sea; South, the Frento. Apulia, and Lucania; 
West, Campania, Latium, and Etruria. 

Questions. — ^What is said of the inhabitants of Picenum? — When 
were they subdued by the Romans? — In what war did they take a 
prominent part ? — Name some of the towns. — ^Where is Ancon situated ? 
— What is said of it ? — Where was the first outbreak of the Social War ? 

—Where was it situated ?— What is said of Adria? { 126. What are 

(he boundaries of Sabinium ? 

21 Q 



242 SUROPA. 

Kovntauis. — Montes Ourgures^ a portion of the central 
and highest ranges of the Apennioes. Tabumus Mons is often 

mentioned bj Virgil : 

JuveU Ismara Baeeho 
Caiuerere^ atqiu olea magnum veatire Tabumum. 

Georg. IL 37. 

Inhabitants. — The Sabi'ni were one of the most ancient races 
of Italy, and constituted one of the elements of the Boman 
people, whilst, at the same time, they were the original progeni- 
tors of the Picentes, Peligni, and Samni'tes, and most probably 
of the Marsi, Marmci'ni, and Vesti'ni. They were brave, hardy, 
and fmgal mountaineers, dwelling principally in villages, or in 
nnwalled towns. Subsequent to 268 b. o. they enjoyed the full 
rights of Roman citizens, and, therefore, in the Social War, took 
sides with Rome. 

SiTUions. — It was divided into two large parts; the most 
Northern part was called Sabi'na^ and the most Southern, Sam- 

NIUM. 

Sabi'na, or the Oountri/ of the SaheHi. 

It was for the most part of a rugged and mountainous 
character. 
Nations and Towna.— (1.) The SaMni, with— 

a. The capital. Cubes, the birthplace of Numa Pompilius. 
6. Rea'te, one of the first places occupied by the Sabines, 
when they descended from the neighborhood of Amitemun), 
their original abode. 

c. Amitebnum, the birthplace of the historian, Sallustius 
(85B.O.). 

QuKSTioNS. — Name some of the mountain peaks of Sabinium. — Of what 
nation were the original Sabini^ — ^What was the general character of the 
people? — What is said of their towns? — When did they eigoy the rights 
of Boman citizens ? — What part did they take in the Social War? — Into 
how many parts was the country divided ? — What was the name of the 
northern part ? — Name some of its nations and towns. — What was the 
capital of the Sabini ? — What was one of the first places they occupied 
after leaving Amitemum ? — What was their original abode ? 



SAMNIUM. • 243 

(2.) The VestCni, with the capital, Pinna. 

(8.) The Marst, with the capital, Mabrubium, situated op 
the Eastern shore of the lake Fuci'nas. 

(4.) The Pdiyni, with— 

cf. The capital, Corfinium (^Pelino), situated in the valley 
of the Aternus. At the opening of the Social War, it was 
selected hj the confederates as their common capital and the 
seat of government (90 B. o ). 

h, SuLMO, the birthplace of the poet Ovidius (43 B.o ). 

(5.) The Marruc^ni, with the capital, Tea'te, the birthplace 
of Asinius PoUio, the celebrated statesman and orator. 

(6.) The Frenta'ni, with the towns HiSTONlUM and Lari^ 

NUM. 

Samnium. 

It was originally inhabited by Oscans, who at an early period 
were subdued by four Sabine tribes : the Pentri, Hirpi'ni, Cara- 
ce'ni, and Caudi'ni, who soon broke off all political connection 
with the parent nation, and together formed the nation of the 
Samni'tes, so famous for their struggle with Rome, which eventu- 
ally decided whether the supremacy of Italy was to rest with the 
Romans or the Samnites. The wars commenced in 343 B. c.^ 
and ended in 272 B.C. with the entire submission of Samnium. 
They again revolted in the Social War (90 B. c), and once more 
became the terror of Rome under Pontius Telesi'nus, after whose 
death (82 B.C.) their whole country was devastated by Sulla. 

Towns. — (1.) JEsernia, a city of the Pentri, which, after the 
fall of Corfinium and Bovia'num, became the headquarters of the 
Italian allies (90 B.C.) : 

Questions. — ^What was the capital of the Vestini? — ^What of the 
Marsi ? — ^What of the Peligni ? — Where was Corfinium situated ? — What 
place did it occupy during the Social War ? — What was the birthplace 
of Ovidius ? — Of Asinius Pollio ? — What was the origin of the nation 
of the Samnites ? — What made them famous ? — During what period did 
those wars happen? — ^What was their result? — Who was their last 
successful general ? — ^When did he perish ?*<-Name some of the towns. — 
When did ul!semia become the headquarters of the Italian allies ? 



244 XUEOPA. 

(2.) Botia'num, a very wealthy aod powerful citj, the capital 
of the Pentri, which was entirely devastated by Sulla (89 b. o.) : 

(3.) Bknkvkntum (BenevenUo)^ formerly caJled Maleventam. 
The vicinity was the scene of the famous battle in which Pyrrhus 
was defeated by M. Curius (275 B.C.) : 

(4.) Caudium, the capital of the Gaudi'ni. In its neighbor- 
hood was the famous pass, called the Fu'rguue CAUDf njb^ the 
scene of ooe of the greatest disasters sustained by the Romans iu 
the whole course of their history (321 B.C.). 



§126. LATIUM. 

Vane. — ^The etymolc^ of Latium is unknown. By the 
ancients it was derived sometimes from latere, because here 
Saturn was concealed from Jupiter ; sometimes from the name 
of King LattnuM, 

Boundariet. — ^North, the Tiber ; East^ the Marsi and Sam- 
nium; South-Westy the Ttrbhxne Sea. The Liris separated 
it from Campania. 

Diviaions. — ^Latium Antiquum and Latium Adjectum. 

Latium Anti'quum. 

This was the smaller portion of the Latian territory. When- 
ever Latium is spoken of in the earliest Roman history, this 
portion alone must be understood. It extended from the mouth 
of the Tiber to the Girceian promontory. The coast line com- 
prises only about two hundred miles^ and its greatest breadth is 
not much more. 

Citiea. — ^A. In the caw^try of the Latent: 
Roma (see § 128) : 



QuisTiOMS.— 'What little took place near BeneTentnm ?— Wkat hap- 
pened in the neighborhood of Caudium ? { 126. What is said of the 

origin of the term Latium ? — Ho^ was the conntiy bounded ? — ^What 
were its divisions? — ^Where was Latium Antiquum situated? — ^Name 
'ome of its nations and towns. 



LATIUM. 246 

(1.) TiBTJR (^Tivoli), to the North-East of Rome, on the 
Adio, which there formed the celebrated cascade. The neigh- 
borhood was famous for its fruit-trees and orchards (pomosi Ti- 
huris arvd), and also for its grapes and figs. Its salubrity made 
it a favorite place of luxurious retirement for the wealthy 
Bomans. Its reputed founder was Catillus or Ca'tilus, hence it 
is often mentioned upder the name of Moenia Ca'tili : 

(2.) Ostia(-ae), which derived its name from its position 
at the mouth of the Tiber. Originally founded by Ancus Mar- 
tins, it formed the harbor of Rome : 

(3.) Tu'scuLUM (^Frascati), one of the favorite resorts of 
the wealthy Romans. Here were the country residences of 
Cicero, Cato, Lucullus, and other distinguished citizens : 

(4.) Prjenestb (Pale8trind)y situated East of Rome, 
opposite the Alban Hills. It was the stronghold of the party 
of Marius till 82 b. o., when it was taken and plundered by 
Sulla's general, Lucretius Ofella : 

(5.) BoviLL^, situated on the Appian Way, and one of 
the thirty cities which in 493 B. c. composed the Latin League. 
In its neighborhood Clodius was killed by Milo; hence, Cicero 
calls the affair, pugna BoviUana : 

(6.) Alba Longa, the parent city of Rome and the ancient 
head of the Latin League, destroyed by Rome about 666 b. o. 
Some of the first Roman families originated from this city (the 
Julii, TuUii, Servilii). Its epithet, hngay was derived from its 
occupying a long and narrow ridge between the mountain and 
the lake. 

B. In the country of the ToUci: 

(1.) Veli'tr^ (Velletrt)f on the Southern slope of the 

Questions. — Where is Tibur situated ? — ^Why is it so often mentioned 
as moenia Catilif — Whence did Ostia derive its name ? — What celebrated 
Ilomans possessed country seats near Tusculum ? — ^Where was Prssneste 
situated ? — What part did it take in the civil wars between Marius and 
Sylla ? — ^When and by whom was it plundered ? — ^What is said of Bovil- 
l9S ? — ^What was the ancient head of the Latin League ? — ^When was it 
destroyed? — By whom?— Why was it called Umgaf^-^h^X towns were 
situated in the country of the Volsci ? 
21* 



246 EuaoPA. 

Allnn Hills, near the Pontine Marshes. It was the natiye place 
of the Octayian family, from which the emperor, Augnstus, was 
descended : 

(2.) Lanuyium, the hirthplace of the emperor, Antoni'nus 
Pius, who frequently made it his residence, as did also his 
successors, M. Aurelius and Co'mmodus : 

(3.) NoRBA, originally a Latin city, which afterward fell 
into the hands of the Volsjcians. It was the last city which 
remained faithful to the party of Marius : 

(4.) SuESSA PoMETiA, which hordered on the Pompti'ous 
Ager, or Pompti'nsd PaluMes, Pontine Marshes, to which it is 
supposed to have given name : 

(5.) CoBi'OLi, celebrated from its connection with the 
legend of C. Marcius Coriola'nus (491 b. g.) : 

(6.) Antium, situated on a promontory South of Rome. 
Here Augustus first received the title of Pater Patrice, and it 
was the birthplace of Nero and Cali'gula. It possessed a very 
wealthy temple dedicated to the goddess Fortu'na. 

C. In the country of the Ru'tuli : 
A'&DEA, the chief city of the Pelasgian portion of the Latin 
nation, though in early times a very powerful place, finally 
declined in importance, until in Virgil's time its great name 
only remained : 

Loeut Ardea quondam 
ZHettu avia ; el nunc magnum manet Ardea nomen, 
Sed/ortunafuit, Mn, VII. 411 seqq. 



§ 127. Latium Adjectum. 

It comprised the countiy of the ^qui, He'rnici, Yolsci^ and 
Aurunci or Ausonii. 

Questions. — What was the natiTo place of the Octavian family? — 
What Roman emperors resided at Lanuvium ? — What is said of Norba ? 
— Where was Suessa Pometia situated ? — What Roman legend is con- 
nected with the town of Corioli ? — ^Where was Antium situated ? — ^What 

was the chief town of the Pelasgians in Latium ? { 127. Name some 

of the nations of Latium A<ycctum ? 



IrATIUM, 247 

. Towns. — A. In the country of the jEqui: 

(1.) CoRBio, situated North-East of the Alban Hills. It 
was destroyed by the Romans (456 B. c.) : 

(2.) BoLA, often mentioned in early Roman history. It 
was destroyed by the Romans (383 b. c.) : 

(3.) SUBLAQUEUM (^Subiaco), under the lakes formed by the 
Anio. Here were the country residences of Claudius and Nero. 

B.» ik the country of the Hie^mici : 

(1.) Anagnia, the chief city of the He'rnici. In its 
neighborhood was a country seat of Ci'cero. The territory 
belonging to the town was remarkably fertile. 

(2.) Ferenti'nuM; often besieged and taken in the earlier 
times of the Republic, but at a later period^ a quiet country 
town. Horace thus speaks of it : 

Si te grata guies et primam aomntu in koram 
Delectaty si teptdvis strepitusque rotarum, 
Si kedit caupona, Ferentinum irejubebo. 

Epist. I. 17, 6 seqq. 

C. In the country of the Volsci : 

(1.) Arpi'num, situated on a hill, rising above the valley 
of the Liris, near its junction with the Fibre'nus. It was the 
birthplace of two of the most famous characters in Roman 
history, Marius and Cicero: 

(2.) FREGELLiG, situated on the left bank of the Liris, 
often mentioned in the wars with the Samnites. It was razed to 
the ground by L. Opimius (125 b. c.) ^ 

(3.) Aqui'num, a populous and flourishing place during the 
latter period of the Roman republic. It was the birthplace of 
Juvenal (a.d. 42) : 

(4.) Priyernum, situated in the Yolscian mountains, and 
noted for the excellence of its wine : 

Questions. — Name some towns of Latium Adjectum. — What towns 
belonged to the ^qui ? — When was Corbio destroyed ? — Bola ? — What 
was the chief town of the Hernici ? — Name some towns of the Volsci. — 
Where is Arpinum situated? — What celebrated men were natives of 
Arpinum ? — What is said of Fregellae ? — Of Aquinum ? — Of Privernum ? 



248 xu&oPA. 

(5.) CiRCElly sitaated at the foot of Mods Circeius^ at a 
short distance from the sea, and often mentioned in the Great 
Latin War (340 B. o.), hat afterward known chiefly as producing 
fine oysters : 

(6.) Tarraci'na, situated at the extremity of the JPontine 
Marshes. Its Volscian name was Anzur, which last name is 
generally used hy the Roman poets; for instance, by Horace^ 
where he speaks of its important position : 

Impositum saxit late candmtibus Anxur. 

Sat. I. 5,26: 

(7.) Lau'tul^, a fortified mountain-pass, the scene of the 
mutiny of the Roman army, under Caius Marcius Rutilius 
(842 B. c.)* At a later period, the Romans were defeated here 
by the Samni'tes (815 b. o) : 

D. In the country of the Aurunci : 

(1.) Amt'cljb, founded hy Laoonian exiles from the city 
of the same name on the Euro'tas : 

(2.) Formic (Mala di Gaeta), Here was a celebrated 
villa of Ci'cero, from which many of his letters to A'tticus are 
dated. Near this villa he was captured and killed by his 
murderers (44 b. c.) : 

(8.) Caie'ta {Gaeta)y situated on the Tyrrhene coast, 
celebrated for its seaport. It afforded a place of retreat to 
Scipio Africa'nus and Laelius : 

(4.) MiNTURN^, on the right bank of the Liris, where 
C. Marius was imprisoned (88 B. c). Under the empire, it was 
a very populous town : 

(5 ) Sinuessa, in whose neighborhood were the celebrated 
Warm Springs, called Aquce Sinttessce, 

Questions. — In what war is Circeii often mentioned ? — ^What was the 
Volscian name of Tarracina? — What happened at Lautulss? — What 
towns belonged to the Aurunci ? — Who possessed a villa near FormisB ? 
— What celebrated Romans retired to Caieta? — Where was Mintumse 
situated ? — ^What were the Aquae SinuesssB ? 



BO MA. 249 



§128. IIOMA. (yPcufiT^.) 

RomCy said Pliny, u the mistress of the xoorld and the metro- 
polis of the hahUahU earthy destined hy the gods to unite, civilize^ 
and govern the scattered races of men. 

It was said to have been founded by Ro'mulas on the Palatine 
Mt. on the left bank of the Tiber (753 ff. c). The walls erected 
by Servius Tullius included already seven hills (urbs septicoUis'), 
viz. : the Quirina'lis, Vimina'lis, Esquili'nus, Cselia'nus, Aventi'- 
nus, Capitoli'nus, and Palati'nus. He divided the city into fojar 
parts: EsquUHna, CoUifna, Palati'nay and Suhurha'na, The 
city was twice almost entirely burnt down, first by the Oauls 
(339 B.C.), and the second time, under Nero (a.d. 64), who 
afterward caused the town to be rebuilt on a regular plan, with 
broad streets, open spaces^ and less lofty houses. The third 
conflagration of the greater part of the city took place in the 
reign of Titus, and the city rose again to magnificence. Home 
attained, however, its highest point of architectural splendor in 
the reign of Hadrian (a. d. 117-138). Aurelian fortified the 
city with a wall adorned with fourteen gates, but after his death 
(a. d. 275) the city declined rapidly, while the later emperors 
deserted the capital to fix their residence in the provinces. The 
transfer of the seat of empire to Byzantium by Constantine gave 
the last fatal blow to the civic greatness of Rome. 

PopnlatioiL — ^The population in the most flourishing epoch 
was about two millions, a greater part of whom were foreigners. 

Questions. — { 128. What does Pliny say of Rome? — Who founded 
Rome ? — When ? — ^Where ? — How many hills were included between 
the walls of Servius Tullius ? — Name those hills. — How was the city 
called after them ? — Into how many parts did Servius divide the city ? 
^Name those parts. — When was the city burnt down for the first time? 
— When again ? — How was the city rebuilt after the second conflagra- 
tion ? — When did .the third conflagration happen ? — When did Rome 
attain its highest splendor? — When did the city begin to decline? — 
What were the causes ? — ^What gave the last blow to the civic greatness 
of Rome ? — How large was the population in the most flourishing epoch? 



250 



EUROPA. 




§ 129. Capitoline Ht. — A. The Capitdium, in its restricted 
sense, denoted the temple of Jupiter Capitoli'nus, situated on the 
North-East summit of an elevation, Mons Tarpeius, the Tarpeian 
Rock, whose South- Western point was occupied hj the Arx 
Tarpeia, the Citadel, which were separated from each other bj 
the Intermontium : in a more extended sense, it designated the 
whole hill, including the temple and the citadel, hence called 
Mons CapitoUntLS, The original temple of Jupiter Capitoli'nus 
was planned by Tarquinius Prisons and built by Tarquinius 
Superbus. This building was burnt down 83 B. o. Sulla soon 
restored it, but before a century had passed, this structure also 
became a prey to the flames. Domitian again rebuilt it^ and this 
edifice stood till a very late period of the Empire. 



Questions.— J 129. What was meant by the Capitolium ? — ^Who 
planned the original temple of Jupiter Capitolinus ? — Who built it ? — 
When was it destroyed ? — Who restored it ?— Who a(c«in restored it ? 



ROMA. 251 

Beside this temple of Jupiter Capitoli'nus, there were several 
other temples and sacetta on the North-Eastern summit : 

(1.) The small temple of Jupiter Feretriusj one of the oldest 
in Rome : 

(2.) The temple of Fides, founded by King Numa, and often 
used for assemblies of the senate : 

(3.) The temples of Mens and Venus Eryci^na, erected accord- 
ing to sacred vows made after the battle at lake Trasime'nus. 

B. On the South- Western point, or Arx^ stood the temple 
of Juno Mon^ta, erected in 346 B. c. by Camillus, after he had 
heard the voice of the goddess advising (manens^ that expiation 
should be made. The Eoman coinage was subsequently executed 
in this temple. Hence the supposed origin of the English words, 
mintj m,oney. The only profane building on the summit of the 
Capitoline Mount was the TahulaHumj or Office of Eecords, 
which was afterward used for a salt- warehouse. 

Porum. — At the eastern foot of the Capitoline Mount, was a 
deep basin, called the Forum, which formed the great centre of 
Eoman life and business. Its northern boundary was formed by 
the celebrated Via Sacra. From its southern limit issued the 
two most remarkable streets of Rome, the Vicus Jugarius and 
Vicus Tuscus, in the latter of which the shopping of the city was 
chiefly done. A slightly elevated piece of ground at the north 
side of the Forum was distinguished by being appropriated to 
the most honorable uses. This was the Comitium, or the place 
where the comitia curidta were held, and the people were 
addressed by their leaders. South of the Comitium was the 
Rostra, or platform for public speaking, adorned with the heaks 
(rostra) of the ships taken from the Antia'tes (in 337 B.C.). 
TuUus Hostilius built on the Forum the Curia Hostilia, the 

Questions. — What other temples were at the north-eastern part of 
the Capitoline Mount ? — What temple was on its south-western summit ? 
— What connection may Juno Moneta have with our English words, mint, 
money ? — What was the only building not devoted to sacred uses on the 
Capitoline Mount? — Where was the Forum situated? — What streets 
issued ftom its southern limits? — What was the Comitium? — ^What were 
held here ? — What was the Rostra ? 



252 



EUKOPA. 



place where the senate usually met through the time of the 
Repuhlic. Thia huilding was rained by fire in the time of Sulla, 
and rebuilt by his son Faustus. Cadsar caused it to be pulled 
down, and his successor erected on its site the Curia Julia. 
Under the Empire, several new fora were constructed by differ- 
ent emperors (^Forum Cafsaris^ Augv^ti^ NervcBj Traja'ni\ to 
which the different courts of justice were transferred, while the 
political business continued to be confined to the ancient forum, 
§ ISO. Mount Palatine. — After the Capitolium and the Forum, 
the Palatine is the most interesting point of Rome, as having 
been the cradle of the Eternal City, the seat of its matured 
power, and also the residence of the emperors, when those 
emperors ruled the world. On its declivity toward the Capitolinc 
(called Ge^rmalus or Ce^rmaliLs) was the famous Ficus Rumina'- 
li$f or Sacred Ftg-tree, under which Ko'mulus and Remus were 
discovered suckled by the wolf. The mount itself; from its excel- 




BOMULVS Ain> RXXUS. 



Questions. — What was the Curia Hostilia ? — When was it built ? — 
When destroyed? — What was the Curia Julia? — After whom was it 

named ? — What fora were constructed under the emperors ? J 130, 

What two circumstances make Mount Palatine particularly interesting ? 
— Where was the Ficua Ruminalis f — What was it ? 



ROMA. 258 

lent and convenient situation^ early became a fashionable quarter. 
Here were to be found the residences of Ci'cero, Catili'na, Anto-. 
nius^ and many other celebrated Bomans. Augustus also had 
his residence on the Palatine, and, in process of time, the build- 
ings erected by successive emperors monopolized the hill and 
excluded all private possessions, and Palatium came to signify a 
royal residence in general, and has given us our word palace. 

K ount Aventine. — The Aventine, although regarded as an 
ill-omened neighborhood, contained several famous places. Here 
was the Temple of Dia^na, built by Servius Tullius as the 
sanctuary of all the cities belonging to the Latin League. These 
cities, by building their common temple on one of the Roman 
hills, tacitly acknowledged Rome's supremacy. Here also was 
the Temple p/Juno RegHncf, built by Camillus, after the conquest 
of Veii, to lodge the wooden statue of the goddess which was 
carried away from the last-named city. 

Circus K a'ximus. — ^Between the Palatine and Aventine was 
the Circus Ma'ximus, where the Roman population from the 
earliest times witnessed horse-races and chariot contests. It was 
founded by Tarquinius Priscus, but remained in a very rude and 
imperfect state till the time of Julius Caesar. Here the fire 
broke out that destroyed the city in the reign of Nero. The 
Circus was soon restored, then again burnt up ] and finally rebuilt 
on the most magnificent scale by the emperor Trajan, being so 
enlarged as to accommodate between three and four hundred 
thousand people. 

K onnt Esquiline. — ^North-East of the Circus Ma'ximus and 
North of Mons Cselius (the residence of Tullus Hostilius) is the 
Mons Esquili'nus, famous as the scene of the murder of Servius 

Questions. — What residences were on Mount Palatine ? — ^What was 
the common sanctuary of the Latin League ? — Who built it ? — Where was 
it situated ? — ^What other temple was on this mount ? — By whom built ? 
— For what purpose ? — Where was the Circus Maximus situated ? — For 
what was it used ? — ^Who was its founder ? — How many times was it de- 
stroyed? — ^Who rebuilt it on the most magnificent scale? — What number 
of people could it accommodate ? — ^Where was the residence of Tullus 
Hostilius ?— Where was this mount situated ? — ^Who was murdered there ? 
22 



254 XUEOPA. 

TolliiiB by bis inhuman dnigbter. Here was erected the Ti^um 
Sorofiumf by paoing under wbicb Horatins expiated the morder 
of bis Bister. On tbis bill also was tbe princely town-residence 
of Msooe'nas. 

Coloise'lun. — ^In tbe valley between Mens Gs^ns^ Esquili'nas, 
and tbe Yeliay was tbe Amphtihea'trum Flaviumy probably 
designed by Angnstns, but bmlt cbiefly by Flavius Yespaaa'nns, 
and called from tbe seventh century onward Coiosse'um, either 
from its uzCi or from tbe Ooloutu of Nero, a marble statue 
upward of one hundred feet in height, which stood near the 
Amphitheatre, and the basement of which is still to be seen. 
This building can be compared in magnitude only to the Pyra- 
mids of Egypt, and is perhaps the most striking monument at 
once of the material greatness and the moral degradation of Borne 
under the Empire. It became the spot where prince and people 
met together to witness those sanguinary exhibitions, the degrad- 
ing effects of which on the Boman character can hardly be over- 
estimated. It was a building of an elliptical form, founded on 
fourscore arches, and rising with four successive orders of archi- 
tecture to the height of a hundred and fifty-seven feet The 
outside of the edifice was incrusted with marble and decorated 
with statues. The slopes of the vast concave, which formed the 
inside, were filled and surrounded with sixty or eighty rows of 
seats, also of marble, covered with cushions, and capable of re- 
ceiving with ease about eighty thousand spectators. It occupies 
nearly six acres of ground. Ito ruins were (a. d. 1750) conse- 
crated to the Christians who were martyred in it. 

§ 131. The Three Korthem Hills.— The three northern hills 
of Eome were the Viminal, Quirinal, and Pincian Hills. They 
were called CoUeSy while the others were called Jlautes. After 
the Capitoli'nus and Palati'nus, the Quirina'liB was the most 

Questions. — What was the Tigillum Sororium? — Where was the Am- 
phitheatrum Flavium situated ? — ^Why was it so called ? — ^Why termed 
the Colosseum ?— For what was it intended ?— Describe it. — What area 

does it cover? — To what use are its ruins consecrated? J 131. Name 

• the three northern hills.— Were they called mantes, or coUeef 



ROMA. 255 

ancient quarter of the city. As the seat of the Sabine part of 
the popidation of BomO; it acquired importance in the period of 
its early history, which, however, it did not retain when the two 
nations had become thoroughly amalgamated. All its interesting 
traditions belong to the reign of Numa. 

ThermsB. — ^Afterward, the Quirina'lis was adorned with the 
magnificent Baths of Diocletia'nus, far surpassing in size and 
splendor those of Titus and Caracalla. They were called ThermcBy 
and were entirely different from the balnecB, or ordinary bathing 
houses. For, beside baths, the Thermse contained also gymnasiay 
for exercise and sport ; tfxedrcB^ where the rhetorician, the poet, 
and the philosopher might display their skOl; and splendid 
libraries for the learned. The library of the Thermss Diocletia'nao 
was the Zflpia Bibliotkefcay founded by Trajan. 

Pincian Hill. — ^Northof the Quirina'lis was the GoUis hortorumy 
or Mom PinduB^ with the famous Gardens ofLucuUus, the scene 
of Messali'na's infamous marriage with Silius, and also of her 
death by order of Claudius. 

Campus Martius. — ^Along the Tiber, West of the Quirinal 
and Pincian hills, and the Gapitoline, was a grassy plain called 
the Campus Martius, or, as was more common, simply the 
Campus, on which the principal part of modem Rome stands. 
After the expulsion of the Tarquins, the northern portion of this 
plain was assigned to public use, and, soon afterward, also the 
southern portion^ or Campus Flaminius. Here was the place 
of assemblage for the Roman people at the comttia centuriaUa, 
in which they exercised their right of electing the higher 
magistrates, of making laws, and of deciding upon war, and 
subsequently, of concluding p^ce with foreign nations. The 

QxTBSTiONS. — ^What hill was the seat of the Sabine portion of the 
population of Borne? — In what period of Borne did it e^joy the greatest 
importance ? — ^What baths were afterward situated on this hill ? — ^What 
other public baths adorned Borne? — ^Describe these public baths or 
ThermaB. — ^Where were the famous gardens of LucuUus situated ?— On 
what part of ancient Bome is the modem city principally built? — 
Where is it situated ?— When was it assigned to public use ?— What' 
meetings were held here ? — ^What were the eomitia eenturiata f 



256 EUROPA. 

Campofl was from the beginning of the republic adorned with 
seveial temples and altars^ bat its most magnificent ornaments 
were added daring the imperial era, and chiefly by Marcos Yip- 
sanios Agrippa^ son-in-law of Augostos. The most celebrated is 
the Pantheon o/Agrtppa, which is still in so good a state of pre- 
servation as to serve for a place of public worship. Augustus also 
erected a few monuments on th^ Campos. Among them was the 
Solartum AuguUi, which serred as a gigantic gnomon, and^ on 
an immense marble flooring that surrounded it, exhibited not 
only the hours, but also the increase and decrease of the days. 
In the Northern part of the Campus, between the Via Flaminia 
and the Tiber, he constructed the superb Mausole^umj the sepul- 
chre of the Csdsars up to the time of Hadrian, when it became 
completely filled. This emperor built a new one on the opposite 
side of the river, and this edifice, though stripped of its orna- 
ments, still forms the fortress of modem Rome (^Castello di S. 
Angela), 

§ 132. TranstibiirixLe District — ^This part of Rome did not 
belong to the Urh^j or city proper. It consisted of three parts : 
Jani'culum, Mons Yatica'nus, and Tnsula Tiberi'na. The island 
contained a celebrated Temple of jEsculapius. The Jani'culum 
and Yatica'nus contained but few temples, or other public build- 
ings. After the time of Aurelian, the city was surrounded on 
all sides by walls which were provided with fourteen gates leading 
into the highways of the empire. 

Boads. — The most celebrated was the Via Appia, the great 
southern road commenced by Appius Claudius Cascus when Cen- 

QuBSTiONS. — By whom was the Cayipus Martius chiefly adorned ? — 
Which of the buildings he erected is still standing ? — Describe the Sola- 
rium Augusti. — Where did Augustus build his Mausoleum ? — What was 
the Mausoleum? — ^Who built a second Mausoleum? — ^Why ? — ^Where? — 
Is it still in a state of preservation? — What is its present use? — ^What 

its present name ? J 132. What part of the city did not belong to 

the urbs proper ? — ^What were its three parts ? — At what period was the 
entire city surrounded by a wall ? — ^With how many gates was it pro- 
vided ? — How many highroads radiated from the city ? — ^Which is the 
most celebrated ? — By whom was it built ? 



BOMA. 257 

sor (312 B. 0.}. It issued from the Porta Cape'na^ and at first 
terminated at Capua^ but was afterward extended to Beneven- 
tum, and finally thence to Brundisium. Another highway to 
Beneventum was the Via Lati^na. Next in importance is the 
Via Flaminiaj the great northern road, begun in the censorship 
of C. Flaminius, and carried ultimately to Ari'minum. 

Bridges. — ^Eome possessed eight or nine bridges, the most 
celebrated of which was the Perns Suhlicius, built on piles 
(suhlicce), by Ancus Marcius, and which connected the Urbs 
with the Jani'culum. It was considered of such religious 
importance, that it was under the special care of the Fonti'fices, 
and was repaired from time to time even down to the reign 
of Antoni'nus Pius. 

Aquseductus or AqusB. — A great nuisance in Home was the 
unwholesomeness of the water, both of the Tiber and of the wells 
sunk in the city. This led to the construction of aqueducts in 
order to supply the town with the pure water from the hills 
which surround the Campagna. The first was made 313 b. c, 
and the number was afterward increased to fourteen. These 
Aqueducts were artificial channels, supported on solid masonry 
and carried across valleys, rivers, and hills, on arches and 
embankments, or through tunnels and bridges. This method 
of conveying water was adopted by the Bomans not because they 
were ignorant of the laws of hydrostatics, for they knew them, 
but because it was the best method where water was to be carried 
in large quantities, for a considerable distance, and over great 
inequalities of ground. This very plan has been preferred by 

Questions. — ^When was the Via Appia built ? — ^What direction did it 
take ? — ^What was crossed by it ?-^Whepe was its original termination ? 
— To what town was it afterward extended? — What other highway 
terminated at Beneventum? — ^What was the great northern road? — How 
many bridges did Rome possess ? — ^Which was the most celebrated ? — 
Who built it ? — To whose care was it intrusted ? — How long did it exist? 
— ^What great nuisance existed at Borne? — ^What was done to counteract 
it ? — ^When was the first established ? — ^What was the greatest number 
of aqueducts under the empire?— Describe a Boman aqueduct. — ^Why 
was it so built and what return to this method has recently been made ? 
22* R 



258 EUBOPA. 

modern Bcienee in tho case of the Groton Aqnednct, bnilt is 
1837-42, to oonyej the water of the river Groton a distance 
of forQr miles, for the supply of New York. The water^ after 
being nsed^ was disoharged, together with the foul water of the 
city, through the Gloa'c» into the Tiber. 

Cloa'oaa. — ^The most celebrated of these drains was the Gloa'ca 
JUa'xtmay which is said to have been the work of Tarquinius 
Priscus, and which was formed to cany off the waters brought 
down from the adjacent hilb into the yelan[>rum, a street on the 
Aventinci and the valley of the Forum. The mouth where it 
reaches the Tiber, nearly opposite one extremity of the Tnstda 
TiberHna, still remains in the state mentioned by Pliny (H. N. 
xxxvi. 15,25). It b about fourteen feet in diameter. 

The BasilioSD (for the name, comp. the Athenian ffzod fia^rt- 
Aceoc, the tribunal of the second archon, who was styled a/>/o»y 
fiafftho^), twenty-one in number, were buildings serving both as 
courts of law and also as exchanges, or places of meeting for 
merchants. The oldest and most celebrated was the Basilica 
Porcia, built in 184 B. 0. by Marcus Porcius Cato. 

ColumntB were columns erected to commemorate persons or 
events. The most important of these were the Golumna Bostra'ta, 
erected in honor of Gains Duilius, the first Eoman who conquered 
the Garthaginians on the sea (261 b. o.) ; and the column of 
Trajan, in the centre of the Forum Traja'num, one hundred and 
seventy feet in height, and the finest monument of the kind now 
existing in the world. 



§138. GAMPANIA. 

This region is one of the most beautiful and fertile in the 
world, and is unquestionably the fairest portion of Italy. Greek 
and Roman writers vie with each other in celebrating its natural 

QaESTiONS.—What was the use of the CloacsB 7 — Describe the Cloaca 
Maxima. — What were Basilicas ? — Which was the oldest? — What was 

the use of the Columnsa? — Name some of the most celebrated. 

2 133. Pescribe Campania. 



CAMPANIA. 259 

advantages^ the fertility of its soil^ the beauty of its landscapes^ 
the softness of its climatei and the excellence of its harbors. 

Boundaries. — ^North and East^ Samnium^ South-East, the 
Si'larus; South and West, TuscuM Mabe; North-West, 
Latium. 

Towns.T-(l.) LiTEENUM, situated on the sea-coast between 
Cumae and the mouth of the Vulturnus. Scipio Africa'nus here 
ended his life in voluntary exile (182 b. o.). He caused the 
following epitaph to be written on his tomb • 

Ingrata patria, ne ossa quidem mea habes: 

(2.) CuMiE, situated on the sea-coast, North of Promontorium 
Mise'num or Mise'ni. It was one of the most ancient, as well as 
celebrated, of the Greek colonies in Italy. The period of its 
greatest prosperity was probably from 700 to 500 b. c, when 
it was the first city in Southern Italy, and had extended its 
dominion over the whole of Campania. After 338 B.C. it 
enjoyed the Roman franchise. It was the residence of the 
famous Sibyl (Cumcea Sibylla, Virg. iBn. VI. 98) : 

(3.) Mise'num, a town near Promontorium Mise'num. This 
was made by Augustus the permanent station of the fleet of the 
Tyrrhene Sea. Before this time, it had become already a favorite 
site for the villas of wealthy Romans : 

(4.) Ba'ije, celebrated for its warm baths. It was also a 
favorite resort of the Roman nobles. The emperor Hadrian died 
here (a. D. 138): 

(5.) Pute'oli, formerly Dicaearchi'a {Atxaidp^sio), a colony of 
CumaB, on the sea-shore. Cicero had a villa in its neighborhood, 
called the Academia, or Puteola'num : 

(6.) Nea'polis (^NsaizokKZy Naples), formerly Parthe'nope, a 

Questions. — What are the boundaries of Campania ? — Name some of 
its towns. — Where is Liternum situated ? — Who died here in exile ? — 
Wh«n ? — ^Where was Cumss situated ? — ^When did it enjoy its greatest 
prosperity ? — ^When did it receive the Roman franchise ? — ^Where was 
the naval station in the Tyrrhene Sea? — For what was Baise celebrated ? 
— ^Where w'as Cicero's Academia situated ? 



260 lUBOPA. 

oolony of Gam». It was, for a oonnderable period^ the readence 
of Virgil, who finished his Oeorgics there. His remains were 
transferred thither from Brandisinm where he died : 

(7.) HbbculaneuM; at the base of Mount Yesuvitis. In 
the reign of Titus it was buried by an eruption of Yesuvins 
(a. D. 79). Its exact site remained long unknown. But in 
1738, the remains of the ancient theatre were accidentaUj 
discoTered in sinking a well in the Tillage of Besina : 

(8.) PoMPifii, overwhelmed by the same eruption of Yesa- 
vius. It was not till 1748 that an accidental discovery drew 
attention to the remains of Pompe'ii, and since 1755 it has been 
regularly excavated to a considerable extent : 

(9.) Salebnum (^Salemo), situated on the northern shore 
of the Oulf of Pondonia, now called the Gulf of Salerno. Its 
celebrated School of Medicine (^Schola Salernitana) belongs to 
the epoch of the Middle Ages : 

(10.) Capua, the capital of Campania, situated about two 
miles from the river Yulturnus, whence its Tuscan name, Vul- 
tumum. It was founded by the Etruscans (800 B. c), and fell 
(423 B. c.) into the hands of the Samni'tes, who, eighty years 
later, were compelled to implore the help of Bome against their 
more hardy brethren, who had continued to inhabit their native 
mountain-fastnesses. They received the help asked for, but at the 
price of their liberty. After the battle of Cannae (216 b. c.) the 
inhabitants of Capua opened their gates to Hannibal, who 
passed the following winter there. The luxurious quarters thus 
offered to the troops produced a highly injurious effect upon 
their discipline. Five years afterward, the faithless city was 

Questions. — ^Who resided at Neapolis ? — ^What did he finish there ? — 
Where is Herculaneum situated ? — ^When was it buried under the ashes 
of Vesuvius ? — ^When was it brought to light again ? — When was Pom- 
peii discoyered? — ^Where is Salernum situated? — Where Capua? — ^What 
is its Tuscan name ? — ^When and by whom was it founded ? — ^When did 
it fall into the hands of the Samnites? — How did it fall under the power 
of the Romans ? — ^What part did it take in the Second Punic War ? — 
What was the result of this sojourn upon Hannibal's army ? — How were 
they punished by the Romans ? 



MAGNA OBiBCIA. 261 

compelled to surrender to tlie EomanS; wlio butchered its nobles 
and removed its citizens^ and filled the city with strangers and 
Koman settlers, who were made subject to the jurisdiction of a 
Eoman prefect. It afterward became a Eoman colony. Capua 
was at an early period celebrated for its gladiatorial shows, and 
appears to have been a favorite training-place for those who took 
active part in them : 

(11.) NoLA, situated in the interior, in the plain between the 
Vesuvius and the Apennines. In its neighborhood the Romans, 
under Marcellus, gained their first victory over Ha'nnibal. Au- 
gustus died there (A. D. 14). According to a well-known anec- 
dote related by Aulus Gellius (VII. 20), it was originally men- 
tioned with great praise by Virgil in the Georgics; but the people 
of Nola having given offence to the poet, he struck out the name 
of their city, and changed the verse so as to read : 

Talem dives arat Capua tt vicina Vesevo 

Ora jugo et vacuU Clanitu non aquus AcerrU. — ^11. 224 seq. 

instead of Nbla jugo : 

(12.) NuOEBiA, situated on the banks of the river Samus. 
It was razed to the ground by Ha'nnibal (216 B. c). It was 
afterward rebuilt, and, at the beginning of the Christian era, was 
one of the most flourishing towns of Campania. 



§ 134. MAGNA GRiBCIA. QEXXd^^ fieydXrj,) 

Name. — ^The name Great Greece (first found in Polybius 
c. 160 B. c.) was given to the assemblage of cities on the Southern 
shores of Italy, in consequence of the numerous and flourishing 
colonies which were founded by the Greeks in that part of the 
country. The name seems to have been bestowed at an early 
period, while the Greek colonies in Italy were at the height of 

Questions. ^Whero was Nola situated? — ^Who died here? — What 

anecdote connects Nola and the poet Virgil ? — Describe the situation 

of Nuceria. — "What is said about it ? J 134. Why did Southern Italy 

receive the name of Magna Grsscia ? — ^When ? 



262 luaopA. 

their power and prosperifyy and before Hellas liad attained its 
fullest greatness. 

Boundaries. — ^North and East^ Adria'tioum Mare; Soath, 
Sinus Tabsnt^nus; West, Tusoum Mare and the Si'IiARUs; 
North-West, GampaniA| Hirpi'ni, SamnittM; Fbenta'ni. 

Siviiions. — ^Apulia, Calabrta, Luoania, Bruttii. 

APULIA, (nearly, 'laxurta.) 

Boundaries. — ^North and East, Adria'tigvm Mare; South, 
Calabria and Lugania; West, Samnium. 

Promontory.— Garga'nus (^Mante Gargano), a projecting 
headland, extending not less than thirty-five miles from West to 
East, formed by a mountain elevated more than five thousand 
feet above the sea. 

Bivers. — The Tuernus, the boundary toward the Frenta'ni ; 
the Frento, and Au'fidus. 

Productions. — ^The great plains of northern Apulia are ez- 
czceedingly fertile, and specially adapted to the rearing of sheep, 
which was one of the main sources of the country's wealth. 

Population. — It contained three different nations : 

(1.) A'ppuUy a branch of the great Oscan race. 

(2.) Dauniij a branch of the Pelasgian race. 

(3.) Pencetn, or PcedHculi^ also a branch of the Pelas^an 
race. 

The Daunii inhabited the country between the Frento and 
Au'fidus, and the Pencetii the country South of the Au'fidus. 

Towns. — (1.) Arpi, situated in the centre of the great Apu- 
lian plain. It was one of the most important places in the his- 
tory of the Second Punic War. It opened its gates to Ha'nnibal 
after the battle of Cannse, but was reconquered by Fabius Ma'zi- 
mus (213 B. 0.) : 

QuB8TiONS.-r-Give the boundaries of Magna Grsdcia. — ^Its diyisions.— 
How was Apulia bounded ? — Describe the promontory of Garganus. — 
Name some of its rivers. — ^What is said about its fertility ? — ^What na- 
tions did it contain? — ^Where did the Daunii live? — ^Where the Pen- 
cetii ? — ^Name some of its towns. — ^Where is Arpi situated ? 



CALABRIA. 263 

(2.) LuoEBiAy sitaated West of Arpi, Hie residence of the 
praetor of Apulia. Its neighborhood waS; and is yet, celebrated 
for the quantity as well as quality of its wool : 

(8.) Salapia, situated on the coast of the Adriatic, burnt to 
the ground in the Social War : 

(4.) Canusium, situated near the right bank of the Au'fidus. 
C. Norba'nus was defeated there by Sulla (83 b. c.) : 

(5.) CANNiB, a small town on the South bank of the Au'fidus, 
celebrated for the memorable defeat of the Romans by Ha'nnibal 
(216B.C.): 

(6.) As'ouLUM, situated in the interior; the scene of the 
great battle between Pyrrhus, king of Epi'rus, and the Romans 
(269 B. 0.) : 

(7.) Venusia, situated on the Appian Way, South of the 
Au'fidus. It was the birthplace of Horace (65 b. o.). 

§135. CALABRIA, (ij 'lairoria or Metrtram'a.) 

It was also called Messapia, lapygia, and Sallentia. It formed 
the South-Eastem peninsula of Italy. 

Productions. — Olives, grapes, and honey; it was celebrated 
also for its sheep and horses. 

Inhabitaiits. — ^Messapians and Sallentines, both Pelasgio races. 

Towns. — (1.) Beunbisium (Bpsvziinov, Brindisi)y situated 
on the Adriatic coast, the chief naval station of the Romans after. 
229 b. 0. Virgil died here on his return from Greece (19 b. c.) : 

(2.) Hydruntum (7^jOot><?, Otranto)y a port on the coast of 
the Adriatic, which derived importance from being the point 
of Italy nearest to the coast of Greece : 

QuBSTiONS. — ^Whore is Luceria situated ? — For what was it celebrated ? 
— ^Where is Salapia situated? — ^Where Canusium? — ^What battle took 
place here? — ^Where was Cannae situated? — ^What battle took place 

thwe ?— When ?— Where was Asculum situated ?— Where Venusia ? 

2 185. What part of Italy formed Calabria ? — ^What is said of its pro- 
ductions? — Inhabitants? — ^What was the chief naval station on the 
Adriatic coast? — ^Who died here? — ^What gave importance to Hy- 
druntum ? 



264 xu&opA. 

(3.) Tarkntum (Jdpoi, Taranio)y ntiiated on the Northeni 
slioie of the Sinm Tarenti'nas. It was a colony of Sparta^ and 
owed its rapid rise to the excellence of its harbor, which was the 
oolj safe harbor of any extent on the Tarentine Gulf. It thns 
became the chief emporinm for the commerce of all this part of 
Italy. In 272 b. c. it fell into the hands of the Romans. It was 
the biithplaoe of liyins Androni'cns, the earliest dramatic poet 
of the Romans (flooriahed 238 b.c.)^ and also of the Pythago- 
re'an philosopher, Aroh/tas : 

(4.) Mandubia, situated East of Tarentum, remarkable for 
the defeat and death of Archida'mus, king of Sparta (338 b. c.)., 
which occurred on the same day with the more celebrated battle 
of Ghsdrone'a : 

(5.) RuBiJi, South of Brundisium, where Ennius, the father 
of epic poetiy among the Romans, and indeed the parent^ of 
Roman literaturci was bom (239 B.C.). 

§136. LUCANIA. (^ Jewovw.) 

Boundaries. — ^North, the Sil^abus; East, Penoetia; South, 
Sinus Tabenti'nus, the Laits, and Bbutth; West, TuscuM 
Mare. 

Xnhabitants. — ^The original inhabitants were Pelasgians, sub- 
sequently subdued by the Greek colonists who gradually encircled 
the whole of its sea-coast. They were conquered at length by 
a Sabellian race known as the Luca'ni, whose name does not 
occur in Italian history until 396 B. o. 

Productions. — It was a very rough country, and large tracts 
were given up to pasture. Its herds of swine formed an import- 
ant part of the supplies of Rome. Wild boars roamed on its 

Questions. — ^Where was Tarentum situated ? — Of what city was it a 
colony ? — ^To what did it owe its rapid rise ? — ^When did it fall into the 
hands of the Romans ? — ^Name two famous persons bom at Tarentum. 
2 136. How is Lucania bounded ? — ^What were its original inhabit- 
ants ? — By whom were they surrounded ? — ^Who at length conquered 
this country ? — ^When does the name Lucani occur ? — ^What is the cha- 
racter of the country ? — ^What were its productions ? 



LUCANIA. 266 

mountaias, and also bears which were sent up to the imperial 
amphitheatres. Almost the only level region was the broad 
plain around the Gulf of Tarentum from the Bra'danus down to 
the Sirisy which was, in ancient times, one of the most fertile 
spots of Italy, but now desolate and unhealthful. Lucania also 
produced wine (»ina Thuri'na). 

Towns. — (1.) Mktapontum {Mtratcovnov) was situated 
on the Gulf of Tarentum, between the rivers Bra'danus and 
Casuentus. The city was an Acheean colony, settled about 
700 B. 0. It was one of the chief seats of the philosophy of 
Pytha'goras, and his tomb was shown heit in the time of Cicero : 

(2.) Heragle'a QHpdxXeta), situated on the Gulf of Tarentum, 
between the A'ciris and Siris, a colony of Tarentines and Thu- 
rians. The Congress (7rai^TJyopt<;) of the Italiot Greeks met here. 
In the neighborhood of this city, Pyrrhus defeated the Eomans 
for the first time (280 B. c). It is supposed to have been the 
birthplace of the celebrated painter Zeuxis : 

(3.) Sy'baris (loPapiq), situated on the Western shore of the 
Tarentine Gulf, between the rivers Crathis and Sy'baris. It was 
an Achdsan colony founded about 720 B. 0., and considered as the 
oldest of all the Greek colonies. In the sixth century b. c. it was 
. the wealthiest and most powerful of the Hellenic settlements, and 
ruled over more than twenty-five cities. The city was destroyed 
by the Crotoniats, who turned the course of the river Crathis, so 
that it inundated the site of the city and buried the ruins under 
its deposits (510 b. o.). The descendants of those citizens who 
escaped the destruction founded, seventy years afterward, in 
combination with the Athenians: 

Questions. — What is the difference between the ancient and present 
state of Lucania? — ^Name some of the towns of Lucania. — Where 
is Metapontum situated ?--When was it founded? — By whom? — 
Whose tomb was pointed out here ? — Where were the Romans for the 
first time defeated by Pyrrhus'— Where was this city situated ?— What 
famous artist was perhaps bom here ? — ^Where was Sybaris situated ? — 
When and by whom founded ?— When did it enjoy its greatest pros- 
perity? — When was it destroyed? — In what manner? — By whom? — 
When, and by whom, was Thurii founded ? 
23 



MVBOPJk, 

, 4 ) TacBii C^oupta^^X within M short <i£stMoao or Uie^ 

theM ciij' ^"^ "^l ^^"^ colonists irero £1^^^ '. 

TV^^. Mod Ljs^, M»e onior. The newr ^--icned its 

^l^^prv^pentj aboat 400 B,C. The »e of tbe Brattian 

^^ws the principal reason of Uie decay of the city. At 

length (204 B.C.) it was conquered by the Romans, and became 

aAerward a Boman colony, nnder the name of C!opi» : 

(5.) BuxsNTUM, aitnated on the West coast, on the Gulf of 
Laiis. Its Hellenio name was Pyzos (/To^ouc). It was a 
colony from Rhegiom, and the nsnal port of transit to Sicily : 

(6.) Elba, or YKLm QEAia)^ situated on the Tyrrhene Sea, 
between Posidonia and Pyzns, celebrated for its school of philo- 
sophy, generally known as the Ekaticy founded by Xeno'phanes 
of (Vlophon. It was the birthplace of his successors, Parme'- 
nidesand Zeno: 

(7.) PiBSTUM (/TaTifToy or /Za«<rroc), or POSIDONIA (Z7o<r«- 
dwvia)f situated on the Tyrrhene Sea, a little south of the mouth 
of the Si'lams. It was a colony from Sy'baris. The city was 
celebrated for its roses, which possessed the peculiarity of flower- 
ing twice a year (Jbiferique roiaria PcmH. Yirg. Georg. lY. 119), 
and surpassed all others in fragrance; roses now grow wild 
among the ruins and are said to flower regularly both in May 
and November. The ruins are still known as Pesto, and are 
much ybited. They consist principally of the walls of the city 
and three temples standing within them : 

(8.) NuMiSTBO, situated in the Northern part of the countiy, 
near the frontiers of Apulia. It was the scene of an undecisive 
battle between Ha'nnibal and Marcellus (210 b. o.) : 

(9.) Gbumentum, situated in the interior of the province. 

Questions.— Where was Thurii founded ?— Who were among its 
earliest colonists t — When did it reach its greatest prosperity ? — When 
was it conquered by the Romans ? — Where was Bruxentum situated ? — 
Where Elea? — What school of philosophy arose here? — ^Where was 
PflBStum situated ?— For whai was it celebrared ?— What is said of the 
ruins of PsBstum ? — ^What battle was fought near Numistro ? — What 
battle near Grumentum ? 



BRUTTII. 267 

r '^ 

Oarthaginian general, Hanno, was defeated under its walls 
«»'jKT "■ j^iberius Sempronius Longus (215 B. 0.). 

§187. BKUTTIL (^Bperria.) 

Boundaries. — ^North, the Laiis and Thurii; East, Sinus 
Tarenti'nus ; South, Mare Si'culum ; West, Tuscum Mare 
and Frktum Si'culum. 

The name Italy was originally confined to this peninsula. 

Inhabitants. — ^The original inhabitants were the Pelasgio tribe 
of the (Enotrians, among whom the Greeks settled (700 B. o.)* 
Three centuries after the first settlement of the Greeks, the 
(Enotrians were conquered by the Sabellian tribe of the Luca- 
nians. A portion of them fied to the mountains and there 
united with Lucanian exiles and fugitives and destroyed the 
Lucanian dominion, which had lasted only fifty years. The 
Lucanians called them Bruttii (said to have signified rebeU, in 
the Lucanian), which name was afterward adopted by themselves 
(356 B. c ), and in the classical Latin writers it designates as 
well the country as the people. They became a powerful nation 
about 282 B.C. They joined Pyrrhus, Ha'nnibal, and in fact 
every adversary of Eome, till at length they were subdued by 
the Romans at the close of the Second Punic War. 

Productions. — It was celebrated for its forests, which pro- 
duced both timber and pitch, which were in great request for 
ship-building. 

Towns. — (1.) Croto'na (Kportov, Crotone)j situated on the 
East coast of the peninsula, at the mouth of the ^sa'rus. It 
was founded by a colony of Achaeans, and became one of the 

Questions. — { 137. To what country was the name of Italy originally 
confined? — How is it bounded? — Name its oldest inhabitants. — ^Who 
settled among them ? — ^When ? — Who conquered the (Enotrians ? — 
When ? — How long did this foreign dominion last ? — Who destroyed it ? 
— ^What is said to be the origin and meaning of the name of Bruttii ? — 
When were they at the height of their power ? — When were they sub- 
dued by the Romans ? — What were its productions ? — Name some of its 
towns. — Describe the situation of Crotona. — By whom was it founded ? 



268 XUBOPA. 

most celebrated Oreek colonies in Sontbeni Italy. It rose 
rapidly to great prosperity, and extended its dominion across thr 
Bruttian peninsula. About the middle of the sixth century b.j. 
Pytha'goras established himself here, and he and his disciples 
soon exercbed the greatest political influence, which lasted till 
the general expulsion of the Pythagore^ans from the cities of 
Southern Italy. During the time of this Pythagore'an influence, 
the Crotoniats, headed by the athlete Milo, destroyed S/baris : 

(2.) LoGRi EpiZEPHTRn {Aoxpoi), situated on the South- 
Eastern coast of the Bruttian peninsula, a Locrian colony, chiefly 
celebrated for the legislation of Zaleucus, who published the 
most ancient written code of laws conferred on any Greek city 
(666 B. G ). It was the inhabitants of this city that fought in 
the famous battle of the Sagras (see p. 222) : 

(3.) Rhegium (Tiyy«oy), Situated near the Southern end of 
the peninsula, in the vicinity of a promontory of the same name, 
where Sicily was said by the ancients to have been torn from the 
mainland, Italy, ditoppapjvaif ^sch. ap. Strab. VI., p. 258. So 
Virgil : 

Maee loca vi quondam et vcuta convuUa ruina — 
Tantum avi longinqua valet mutare vetustas — 
Dimluisse feruntf cumprotentu utraque telltu 
Uha/oret. Mn. III. 414 seqq. 

Thus, the name ^Fijytov was connected with fiijy>ujii, to hreahy to 
hurst, Rhegium was a Chalcidian colony. The old city was 
destroyed by Dionysius and the inhabitants sold as slaves 
(387 B. G.). The site was soon reoccupied, and the place con- 
tinued to exist as a considerable city throughout the period of 
the Roman fempire. It was governed in accordance with the laws 
of Charondas until they were abolished by the tyrant Ana'xilas. 

Questions. — How far did Crotona extend its dominion ? — ^Who estab- 
lished himself here ? — ^When ? — ^When were his adherents expelled ? — 
Describe the situation of Locri Epizephyrii. — For what was the colony 
chiefly celebrated ? — ^Who were the conquerors in the battle of the Sa- 
gras ? — ^^'here was Rhegium situated ? — Whence did it derive its name ? 
— By whom was it founded ? — Whose laws did they use ? 



siciLiA. 269 

Until a late period of Uie middle ages^ the Greek language was 
spoken at Rhegium. 

(4.) The other Greek colonies were : 
a. iScyUacium, an Athenian colony. 
h. Gaulonia and TerHna, colonies of Croto'na. 
c, Me^dema and ffippomum, colonies of Locri. 
(6.) Other towns: Petelia, Consentia, and Pandosia, 
which was the ancient residence of the (Enotrian princes. 

§138. ISLANDS OF ITALY. 

SICILIA, SARDINIA, CO'RSICA. 
I. SICILIA. (^ StxeXta.) 

Situation. — South-West of Italy and North of Africa. 

Names. — This island seems to be designated Thrinacie (Spt- 
vaxiri) in Homer, and Trinacria {Tpivaxpia) is said by Thuc/- 
dides to have been its early name. These forms have commonly 
been thought to describe Sicilia as a triangular island, or island 
of three promontories (rpslq-AKSj axpov), just as the Romans 
used trUguetruSy three-cornered , to signify Sicilian, It was 
afterward called Sicania after its western inhabitants, the Sica^ni, 
who were probably from Iberia; and finally SicHia, after the 
SHculi {SixsXoi^y who are said to have immigrated from Central 
Italy. 

Capes. — The three promontories which are supposed to have 
given the name of Trinacria to the island were PELo'BUS,or-i£m, 
North-East ; Pachy'num or Pachy'nus, to the South-East, and 
LiLYBJEUM, on the West. Beside these, on the North-West was 
Dre'panipm, and just West of Pelo'rus Phalacrium. 

Rivers. — Most of the rivers are mere mountain torrents. 
The most important are : 

Questions. — ^What language was used at Rhegium? — Name some 

other Greek colonies. — Some other towns. J 138. Where is Sicilia 

situated ? — Give an account of its names. — ^Name the three capes. — 
What others are mentioned ? 
23* 



270 BUBOPA. 

(1.) STMJETHUSy which flows around the base of Moaat 
iEtoa. It formed the boandaiy between Leonti'ni and Ca'tana : 

(2.) Hi'mera : the name of two liyers both of which rise in the 
centre of the island, and which, by many ancient writers, were 
regarded as one and the same. The Sonthem river is the largest, 
and also the most remarkable. On its banks Aga'thocles com- 
pletely defeated the Carthaginians (311 B.O.): 

(3.) Ha'ltcus, the Eastern boundary of the Carthaginian 
dominions in Sicily : 

(4.) Htpsas, the name of two rivers, both in the Southern 
part of the island : 

(5.) Ana'pus, which flows into the great harbor of Syracn'sae. 
Its marshy borders always proved fatal to those laying siege to the 
city: 

(6.) Assi'naeus, a small stream South of Syracu'sae, memo- 
rable as the scene of the final catastrophe of the Athenian arma- 
ment in Sicily (Thuo. VII. 84) : 

(7.) Crimissus, situated in the neighborhood of Segesta, 
celebrated for the conquest of Timoleon over the Carthaginians 

(339B.C.). 

Fountain. — Arethu'sa, at the South-West extremity of Or- 
tygia, a small island lying before Syracu'sad, and forming its har- 
bors. This fountain is still visible as described by Ci'ceroj Verr. 
IV. 63 : In hac insula extrema est /ons aquce dvlds, cut nomen 
Arethttsa est, mcredibili magnitudine plenissimus piscium. It 
is now a copious spring, but perhaps not so large as in ancient 
times. It was famous in mythology, and was said by the poets 
to communicate with the river Alphe'us in Elis, which last was 
said to flow under the surface of the sea to this island : 

Extremum hune, Areikuaa, mihi concede laborem — 
Sic tihif cumfluctue tubterlabere SicanoSf 
DoTxt amara tuam non intermisceat undam. 

Virg. Eel. X. 1-4, 5. 

Questions. — Name some of the rivers of Sicilia. — What is remarked 
about the Himera? — What battle was fought on its banks? — What battle 
was fought near the Crimissus ? — Oiye an account of the Arethusa. 



SI CILIA. 271 

Extent. — The ancients generally regarded it as the largest 
island known to them; a view which turns out to be correct, 
since its area, being 10,536 square miles (about equal to that of 
the state of Vermont), exceeds that of the island of Sardinia by 
about 1200 square miles. 

Honntains. — The greater part of the island is mountainous, 
and the mountains seem to have been a continuation of the 
Apennines. The principal mountain range is formed by the 
Nebbo'des Mons. The highest and most remarkable mountain 
peaks are : 

(1.) jJEtna, situated in the North-East part of the island, 
adjoining the sea-coast between Tauromenium on the North and 
Ca'tana on th^ South. Its volcanic phenomena early attracted 
the attention of the ancients. The following description from 
the pen of Virgil is considered one of the very best, and as such 
often imitated, not only by ancient, but by modern poets : 

— sed horrificis juxta tonat u^tna rutnis, 
Inierdumque air am jn-orumpit ad csthera nubem, 
Turbine fumantem piceo et eandente favilla^ 
Attollit^ue globos flammarum, et ndera lambit : 
Interdum scopuloa avuUaque viscera montes 
Erigit erucianSf liquefactaque saxa sub auras 
Cum gemiiu glomerat, fundoque excsstuat imo, 

JEn. III. 671 seqq : 

(2.) Eeyx or E'rycus (/S. Giulano), situated on the Western 
side of Sicily, near the sea-coast. On its side was the town of 
Eryx, and on its summit stood the celebrated temple of Aphro- 
di'te ( Yenvs), who thence derived the name of Venus ErycHna^ 
as she is often styled by Latin writers, and even in Home a 
particular temple was dedicated to her. 

Climate. — The climate is intermediate between that of Italy 
and Africa. In ancient times it was generally considered health- 
ful, but it is now much subject to malaria. 

Questions. — What is the principal mountain range of Sicilia? — 
Where is Mount ^tna situated ? — ^What is said of its volcanic pheno- 
mena ? — What goddess was worshipped at Eryx ? — Describe the climate 
of Sicily. 



272 EUBOPA. 

Productioni. — ^It was celebrated Id antiquity for its exceet&ig 
productiyeness and fertility. It was eyen said to be the native 
country of wheat (Diod. V. 2). It produced excellent honey; 
alaOy saffron, grapes, oliyes, and other fruits. Its cattle, sheep, 
and, aboTe all, its horses, particularly those of Agrigentum, were 
Teiy celebrated. 

§ 188. Inhabitants. — ^The oldest inhabitants were the Siea'ni, 
who, three centuries before the settiements of the Greeks, were 
driyen to the North«Westem part of the island by the Si'culi, 
who had passed from the Bruttian peninsula to the island, to 
which they afterward gave their own name. There were among 
them three Phoenician settiements, the remnant of the once 
numerous colonies of that people in Sicilia who were withdrawn 
on the arriyal of the Greeks, a circumstance which opened a new 
era in the history of the island. The settlement of these Greek 
colonies began about the middle of the eighth century b. c, and 
was continued for above a century and a half. They rose to 
considerable power and importance, and enjoyed a high degree 
of wealth and prosperity, extending their dominion over a consi- 
derable part of the adjoining regions, and reducing to subjection 
a large population of native origin. 

Cities. — ^The Greek colonies established directiy by Greece 
were five in number, each of which sent forth other colonies : 

(1.) Naxos, which founded Leonti'ni, Ca'tana, Calli'polis, and 
Euboca: 

(2.) STBAOu'siE, which founded Acrsd, Gasme'naD, and Cama- 
ri'na: 

(3.) Me'oaba HTBLiEA, which founded Seli'nus : 

(4.) Gela, which founded Agrigentum : 

(5.) Zancle (afterward Messa'na), which founded Hi'mera. 

Questions. — Describe the productions of Sicilia. { 189. Who were 

its oldest inhabitants? — Who came afterward from Bruttii ? — ^What third 
race was living in Sicily ?— At what time did the Greeks begin to settle 
it? — ^What five colonies were sent out directly from Greece? — What 
colonies were founded by Naxos — What by Syracusse ? — What by Me- 
gara?— What by Gela?— What by Zancle? 



siciLiA. 273 

A.-- — Along the East coast between Pelo'rus and Pachynum 
were the follow! ag towns, enumerated in their order from North 
to South: Messa'na, Tauromenium, Naxos, Acium, Ca'tana, 
Tro'tilum, Me'gara Hyblasa, Syracu'sae, Calli'polis, and Euboea. 

(1.) Messa'na {MsatTTivT^ by Greek writers; Me<rffdya by the 
inhabitants), situated at the North-Eastern extremity of the 
island, nearly opposite Ehegium, from which it was divided by 
the Fretum Si'culum, in which were the famous Scylla and Cha* 
rybdis, two rocks, the former toward Italy, and the latter toward 
Sicily. This city was founded, under the name of Zancle, by 
Chalcidian settlers, about 735 b. g. Two centuries afterward, the 
inhabitants fell under the power of Ana'xilas, king of Rhegium, 
who chaDged the name from Zancle to that of Messa'na (493 b.o.) 
in remembrance of the land of his ancestors. A hundred 
years afterward the flourishing city was completely destroyed 
by the Carthaginians. It rose slowly again to prosperity, but 
only to undergo a yet more cruel fate. The mercenary troops 
of Aga'thocles, tyrant of Syracu'ssD, being compelled to leave the 
latter city, made themselves masters of the unhappy place by 
murdering its male inhabitants, who had received them with the 
utmost cordiality. They now assumed the name of Mamerti'ni 
(282 B.C.), and rapidly extended their power over the whole 
North-Eastern corner of Sicily. They came in collision with 
Syracu'sae, were defeated by its king, Hi'ero (270 B.C.), and, 
when they were on the point of surrendering their city, they 
invoked the help of the Komans, which circumstance ultimately 
brought about the celebrated Punic Wars : 

(2.) Taurombnium {Taopofiivtov). It was founded by the 
survivors of the Chalcidian colony of Naxos, after the destruction 
of Naxos by Dionysius : 

(3.) Ca'tana, in inscriptions, Ca'tina (KaTdvrj, Catania), 

Questions. — What cities were situated between Pelorus and Pachy- 
num ? — Where was Messana situated ? — By whom was it founded ? — Under 
what name ? — ^When was its name changed? — ^Why? — When was it de- 
stroyed ?--By whom ? — Who were the Mamertini ? — When did they im- 
plore the help of the Romans ? — What was the consequence of this ?— 
Who founded Tauromenium ? — ^AYhere was Gatana situated ? 

S 



274 BUEOPA. 

situated almost at the foot of Moant iBtna, famous as the head- 
quarters of the Athenian armament in the great Sicilian expe- 
dition : 

(4.) Syraci/s^ (see page 277). 

§ 140. B. West of Paeh/num were : Camari'na^ Gela, 

Agrigentum, Seli'nus, and LiljbsBum. 

(1.) Gela (HAa), founded (690 B.C.) by a joint colony of 
Cretans and RhodianS; on the banks of the river Gela. ^'schy- 
lus, when driven from Athens, retired to this city, where he died 
and was buried (456 B. c). The inhabitants of Gela paid great 
respect to his memory : 

(2.) Agrigentum QAxpdyaq^ founded by a colony from Gela 
(582 B. 0.). About 570 b. c. it fell under the power of the 
tyrant Fha'Iaris, the supposed author of a series of Letters, whose 
spurious character was demonstrated by Bentley at the close of 
the seventeenth century in his Dissertation upon the Epistles of 
Phallaris (1699), one of the most ingenious and learned works 
ever written. The city was taken and destroyed by the Cartha- 
ginians (405 B.C.), and never regained its former importance. 
It was celebrated for the beauty of its architecture, and the 
splendor and variety of its buildings, and was called by Pindar 
the fairest of mortal cities : 

(3.) Seli'nus (leAtvoDc), the most westerly of the Greek 
colonies, was founded by Me'gara Hyblaea. It was destroyed by 
the Carthaginians (409 b. o.) : 

(4.) LiLTBiEUM {AtXt>patov)f situated on the promontory of 
the same name, was the most westerly point of the island, and 
the nearest to Africa, being immediately opposite the port of 
Carthage. This led the Carthaginians to spare no pains for its 
defence, and it twice became the last bulwark of their power in 
Sicily. 

Questions. — J 140. What cities were situated west of Cape Pachy- 
num ?--Who founded Gela ?--When ?— Who was buried here ?— When 
was Agrigentum founded ? — ^When destroyed ? — For what was it cele- 
brated?— -Who founded Selinus ?--Who destroyed it?— What was the 
bulwark of the Carthaginian power ? — Where was it situated ? 



8I0ILIA. 276 

G. Between LilybsBum and Felo'rus were : Dre'panum, 

Eiyx, PanormuS; Thermae^ Hi'mera, and MjIsb. 

(1.) Dre'panum (J^^ttovov), situated at the NorUi- Western 
extremity of the island^ a few miles from Mount Eryx. It waa 
the scene of the funeral games, celebrated by iBne'as in honor 
of his father (Virg. ^n. V.) ; 

(2.) Panobmus (UdvopfUKy Falermo)j one of the chief seata 
of the Phoenician power on the isUnd, and the capital of the 
Carthaginian possessions. Under its walls Ha'sdmbal was de- 
feated by Metellus (250 b.X!.). Its Greek name, which signifies 
quite good /or anchorage, was probably given to it for the excel- 
lence of its spacious bay {Bay of Palermo) : 

(3.) Hi'meba Qlfiipa), a colony of Zancle. In its neighbor- 
hood, the Carthaginians were defeated by Gelo of Syracu'ssB, in a 
battle which was regarded by the Greeks of Sicily as worthy of 
comparison with the contemporary victory of Sa'lamis (480 b. c.) 
Seventy-two years afterward, the city was destroyed by the Car- 
thaginians, and the citizens who survived this calamity settled 
at ThermsB (Bipfiat) : 

(4.) MYLiE (^MoXai)y celebrated for^two important naval battles 
which were fought in its neighborhood : 

a. The victory of Builius over the Carthaginians, which 
was the first naval victoiy of the Eomans (260 b. g.) ; 

h. The victory of Agrippa, the naval commander of Oota- 
vian, over Sextus Pompeius (36 b. c). 

§ 141. D. The towns somewhat inland were : Segesta, 

Enna, Leonti'ni, Hybla. 

(1.) Segesta, or Egesta (^'iS/etrra), situated in the North- 
West part of the island, a few miles from the coast. The relief 
of this city from the oppression of Seli'nus and Syracu'sae was 
the avowed object of the Athenian expedition to Sicily (416 B.C.), 

Questions. — What cities were situated between Lilybseum and Pelo- 
rus? — Where was Drepanum situated? — What was the Carthaginian 
capital ? — ^Who was here defeated ? — What battle took place at the same 
time with the naval fight at Salamis ? — When was Himera destroyed ? — 

What naval battles were fought in the neighborhood of Mylss? { 141. 

What towns were situated in the interior? — Where was Egesta situated? 



276 EUROPA. 

which ended with the famous struggle between Sjracu'sae and 
Athe'naQ, and the total defeat of the latter : 

(2.) Enna (^Evva)j an anoient city, situated almost at the 
centre of Stcili/, and hence called, vij<rou 6/i^aX6^ (Callim.), 
umbilicus SiciUcB (Cic). It contained a veiy celebrated temple 
of Ceres, which was much yenerated by the Sicilians : 

(3.) Leonti'ni (of AsovTlvot)y situated between Syracu'sse and 
Ca'tana. It was a colony of ^axos, and chiefly remarkable for 
the great fertility of its territory. It was the birthplace of the 
celebrated orator or sophist, Gorgias, who was sent to the Athe- 
nians (427 B.C.) to implore their help, and who gave name to 
Plato's celebrated dialogue, the Gorgias, 



SMALLER ISLANDS NEAR SICILIA. 
I. ^oLi^ I'nsulje. 

This is a group of volcanic islands, lying in the Tyrrhene Sea, 
between Sicilia and Lucania. They derived their name from 
some fancied connection with the fabulous island of ^'olus, 
mentioned by Homer in the Odyssey, but were also called Vulca- 
nisB and Liparenses. They were seven in number ; the largest 
and most important of them was Li'para, which alone was 
inhabited. 

II. ^GA'tES I'NSULiE. 

These are three small islands, situated almost opposite to Dre'- 
and Lilybasum. Near these islands C. Lutatius Ca'tulus 
signally defeated the Carthaginian fleet, which action put an end 
to the First Punic War (241 b. c). 

Questions. — ^What was the professed object of the famous Sicilian 
expedition? — What was the result?— Where was Enna situated ?— -What 
was it called?— What temple was there?— Where was Leontini situ- 
ated?— Who was born here?— Where are the -aBolise Insulse situated? — 
Whence their name? — ^What was their number? — How many were 
inhabited ?— Where are the Agates Insulee situated? — Who were de- 
feated here ? — When ? — By whom ? 



SYRACUSE. 



'Sii 



III. Me'lita (i^ MeXiTT), Malta), with Gaulos (Gozo.) 

Melita is situated in the channel between Sicilia and Africa. 
It was early coloniised by Phoenicians, but subsequent to 218 B. c. 
it belonged to Home. It was most probably the scene of the 
shipwreck of St. Paul on his voyage to Rome, a.d. 60 {Acts 
xxvii seq.) ; but some early writers transferred it to the Me'lita 
on the East coast of the Adriatic. 

GrAULOS, a small island near Me'lita, is by some identified- 
with Homer's island of Calypso. 

§142. SYRACU'SiE. (allupdxouffat.) 

This most powerful and important of all the Greek cities in 
Sicily, was situated on a plateau on the Eastern coast of the 
island, about midway between Ca'tana and Pach/num. 




Questions. — Where is Malta situated ? — From what time did it belong 
to Rome ? — For what is it chiefly celebrated?— Where is Gaulos situated? 

2 142. Where was Syracusae situated? 

24 



278 EUROPA. 

Id the time of its greatest prosperity, it was the largest city 
in Sicily, and one of the most important of the ancient world 
It was founded about 735 B.C. by Archias, a Corinthian, who 
settled in the island of Ortygia. The descendants of the first 
settlers exercised a kind of aristocratic power till their expul- 
sion (492 B. c), when a democratic government was established, 
which, however, was soon overthrown by Gelo, tyrant of Gela 
(485 B. c). He was succeeded by Hi'ero, and then by Thrasy- 
bu'lus, his two brothers, the latter of whom was driven away by 
the people after a reign of one year (466 B. c). But the people 
knew not how to use with any degree of moderation their newly 
attained liberty. Instead of securing the happiness of Sicily, 
Syracuse excited factious discontents, and gave occasion to 
foreign interference. At length deputies from Egesta and 
Leonti'ni, being pressed by the Syracusans in favor of Seli'nus, 
invited the Athenians to their aid. The Athenian expedition of 
a hundred and thirty-six triremes, with a considerable land force, 
under Nicias, Alcibi'ades, and La'machus, sailed (415 B. G.) for 
Sicily. Alcibi'ades, the most able of the three commanders, was 
recalled, and the supreme command remained with Nicias, who, 
although a man of sound understanding, had not the necessary 
ability and energy to subdue Syracuse, which he had now invested 
(414 B.C.), and whose resources seemed to increase with its 
dangers. La'machus died, and his successor, Demo'sthenes, was 
not equal to his position. Better plans were required, and the 
forces were deficient in numbers, although Athens had sent to 
Sicily 40,000 men. The result was that all either perished, or 
were taken prisoners ; and the Athenians, thus defeated every- 
where, lost at once, in a single catastrophe, their arpaies and their 
fleets (413 b. c). This calamity, an important event in the 

, QuBSTiONS. — ^What is said of the rank of Syracusae ? — By whom was 
it founded ? — When ? — What was the first form of government ? — When 
was a democratic government established ? — When overthrown ? — By 
whom ? — When was the democracy restored ? — What was the origin of 
the war with Athens ? — Who were at the head of the Athenian expe- 
dition ? — Give an account of it. — What was the final result ? — When ? — 
Who has described it? 



SYRACUSE. 279 

history of the art of war, has been ably described by Thucydides 
with minute and painful particularity (Elist. VI seq.). 

.Ten years later Syracuse attained its greatest power and 
splendor under the government of Dionysius. He carried on 
long and successful wars with the Carthaginians, whom he at 
length entirely expelled from the island. They returned, how- 
ever (396 B.C.), and laid siege to the city without being able to 
take it. 

The city endured a third remarkable siege in 214 B.C.; two 
years later, it was obliged to surrender to the Roman general, 
Marcellus, who gave up the whole city to the indiscriminate 
pillage of his soldiers. Archime'des, one of the most famous of 
ancient mathematicians, who had contributed so much to the 
defence of the city, was accidentally slain in the confusion. 
From that time Syracuse was merely the capital of the Roman 
province of Sicilia ; but, although its political significance was 
gone, it yet remained one of the most beautiful cities of the 
Roman Republic. 

§ 148. Cicero (Verr. IV. 52) speaks of it as the greatest of 
Greek cities^ and the most heautiful of aU cities^ and enumerates 
four quarters of the city as being then inhabited Originally it 
consisted of five quarters, or wards, adjoining each other, but 
separated by walls. Those five towns formed together the city, 
which was of a triangular form. Their names were Ortygia, 
Achradi'na, Epi'polae, Tycha, Nea'polis. 

(1.) Ortygia QO pronto) , or Insula , the Island (yr^ffo^; Doric 
vd<ro(:, hence often called Nastts in Latin authors), was connected 
with the mainland in the time of Thuc/dides, probably by a 
causeway, but afterward, as now, by bridges, and formed the 
citadel of the city. It contained two celebrated temples of 

QmBSTiONS. — When did Syracuse reach its highest point of power? — 
With whom did it continually carry on wars? — When was the city 
besieged a second time?— By whom?— When a third time?— By whom? 

—What was the result ?— Who perished ? J 148, In what terms does 

Oicero speak of Syracuse ? — How many wards did the city contain at 
this time? — How many originally? — Name them — Of what form was 
the city ?— Describe Ortygia —What temples did it contain ? 



280 ETJBOPA. 

IHa'na and Minerva^ the latter of which was celebrated through- 
out the Hellenic world. Here was also the celebrated fountain 
of Arethu'sa (see p 270) : 

(2.) Achradi'na (^Axpo-divri), or the outer city, as opposed to 
Ortygia, was the most important and extensive of the quarters 
of Syracuse. Here was the A'gora, or Forum^ adorned with the 
temple of Jupiter Olympius, and the Prytane'um, with the 
celebrated statue of Sappho, which was carried away by Verres. 
Beneath the surface of this quarter is the extensive necropolis 
of the city : 

(3.) Tycha (TtOT), called after the ancient and celebrated 
temple of Fortune (^Tu^). It became in the times of the Empire 
the most populous part of the city : 

(4.) Nea'polis {Nia 7t6Xt^y Newtown) was a suburb which 
had originally grown up around the sanctuary of Apollo Teme- 
ni'tes, and hence was called Temeni'tis, and subsequently Nea'po- 
lis It was the most splendid portion of the city. Here was the 
theatre^ which was the largest in Sicily. Near this theatre are 
extensive quarries (al Xt^orofiiat), which form a part oi the 
celebrated Lautumice, so often mentioned by ancient authors. 
Originally designed merely as quarries, they were afterward 
employed as prisons; and after the failure of the Athenian 
expedition, all the captives, more than seven thousand in num- 
ber, were confined in them. They continued to be used for the 
same purpose under successive despots and tyrants. In the days 
of Ci'cero, they were used as a general prison for criminals from 
all parts of Sicily. The Tullia'num, or dungeon of the state- 
prison in Home, was also called Lautumice : 

(5.) Epi'poL^ (^Eiziizokat) was the name originally given to 
the table-land on the summit of the neighboring hills. Puring 
the siege of Marcellus, the castle Eurya'lus {Eupu7jXo<;) was here. 
This part of the city was the last settled. It was not, until the 

Questions. — Describe Achradina. — Describe the Agora.— Where was 
the necropolis of the city situated? — Why was the third part called 
Tycha? — Describe Neapolis. — ^What was its former name ? — Why was it 
called Temenitis? — Describe the Lautumiee. — Describe Epipolse. — When 
did it form a part of the city ? 



SARDINIA. 281 

reign of the elder Dionysius, incladed between the city walls, 
which was then done merely to secure the heights against 
military occu^tion by an enemy. Subsequently it grew to be a 
considerable town. 

These Jim tovms together formed the celebrated city, the 
Penta^polis of Syracuse, which, with its two harbors, was one of 
the greatest mercantile emporiums of the ancient world. 

§ 144. SARDINIA. {Iapd6, Sardinia?) 

Sitnation. — ^In the Tyrrhene Sea, West of Italia, South of 
Co'rsica, and East of Hispania. 

Name. — It waa known to the earlier Greeks by the name of 
Ichnu'sa (7/voD<ra), from the fancied resemblance of its outline 
to afoot-print. 

Extent. — Its general form is that of an oblong parallelogram, 
above a hundred and forty geographical miles in its greatest 
length, and sixty in average breadth. 

Moimtains. — ^The island is traversed from North to South by 
the Insa'ni Montes, which render the surface of the country 
rugged. The mountainous sections were the wildest and most 
uncivilized parts of the island. 

Capes. — Promontorium Ursi, the North-East point, and 
Gordita'num, the North-West point. 

Climate. — The climate was very unhealthful, and as such 
seems to have obtained among the Eomans an almost proverbial 
notoriety. This was owing mainly to the extensive marshes and 
lagoons on the coast, formed at the mouths of the rivers. The 
mountainous tracts inland were more healthful, but, being the 
abode of savage tribes were not visited by the inhabitants of the 
plains. 

Productions. — Although the greater part of the island is 
rugged and wild, it contains several plains of fertile land, rich in 
all kinds of produce, but especially in wheat. 

Questions. — § 144. Where was Sardinia situated ? — ^Whywas it called 
Ichnusa ? — What is its extent ? — Name its mountains. — Capes. — What 
is remarked about the climate ? — What about the products ? 

24* 



282 EUBOPA. 

Inhabitants. — ^The chief tribes of the island were : 

(1.) TohXy or Thensez; (2.) Ba'lari; (3.) Sardi or Pdli^tL 
The island was conquered by the Carthaginians about 500 B. c, 
who retained possession till 238 B.C., when they were forced 
to surrender it to the Eomans. After that time it furnished 
large supplies of wheat to the armies in Italy. 

Towns. — They were not numerous, and but few of them 
attained to any importance. 

Ca'raus (^Cagliari) was the most considerable city in the 
whole island, and is still the capital. 

§ 146. CCRSICA. (yj Kbpvo^, Corsica,) 

Situation. — North of Sardinia, from which it is divided by 
the narrow Fretum Taphros (now Strait of Bonifacio). 

Konntains. — A range of lofty and rugged mountains extends 
from North to South, called by the ancients, Aureus Mons, a 
Western branch of which was Mons Ehcetius. 

Capes. — Sacrum (^Capo Corso), the Northern point; Attium, 
the North- West point ; Mari'num, the South-West point. 

Froduotions. — The mountains are covered very generally with 
dense forests; their extent and the large growth and excellence 
of the timber which they produced, have been celebrated in all 
ages. The same forests produced resin and pitch, and abounded 
in wild bees, so that wax and honey were for a long period 
among the chief exports of the island. The country was also 
prolific in sheep, goats, and cattle, foxes and rabbits. Its mines 
were generally neglected in ancient times. 

Inhabitants. — They were partly of Ligurian, partly of Iberian 
extraction. The island was early known to the Greeks, and the 

Questions.— What were the chief tribes of Sardinia ?— When did it 
fall into the power of the Carthaginians ? — When into the power of the 

Romans? — ^What was its chief export? — Name some of its towns. 

2 145. How was Corsica called by the Greeks ? — Where was it situated ? 
— Name its mountains. — Capes. — What were the chief productions ? — 
What were the chief exports of the island ? — What is remarked about 
its mines ?— Of what extraction were its inhabitant^ ? 



SMALLEB ISLANDS NEAR ITALY. 283 

PhocaBans settled themselyes on its Eastern coast as early as 
564 B.C. But about a quarter of a ceutury later^ they were 
driven away by the Etruscans. Their supremacy fell with the 
decline of their naval power, and Co'rsica appears to have been in 
a state of dependence on Carthage at the time of the First Punic 
War. On this account it was attacked (259 B. o.) by a Roman 
fleet under L. Scipio, who took the city of Aleria, and compelled 
the inhabitants to acknowledge the sovereignty of Rome. 

The mountain tribes, however, remained unsubdued, and 
are described by Strabo as wUder than beasts. The Roman 
governors made, from time to time, an attack upon their fast- 
nesses, and carried off a number of prisoners whom they sold as 
slaves. Little or no pains was taken to civilize them, and at 
length the island was selected as a place of banishment for poli- 
tical exiles, among whom was Se'neca, the philosopher. 

Towns. — During the times of the Empire it contained thirty- 
three towns and two Roman colonies, Aleria and Maria'na. 



§ 146. SMALLER ISLANDS NEAR ITALY. 

A. In Mabe Adbia'ticum. 

(1.) I'NsrL^ DiOMEDE'-as {Isole di Tremiti), a group of three 
small islands off the coast of Apulia. One of them, Trimerus, 
was the place of exile of Julia, granddaughter of Augustas : 

(2.) Phabos, near Brundisium, with a lighthouse, and hence 
its name (see Phabos, p. 125). 

Questions. — At what time was Corsica colonized by Greeks? — By 

whom were they driven away? — In whose possession was the island 

during the First Punic War ? — ^When did it fall under the power of the 

'Romans? — ^Were the Romans masters of the whole island? — For 

what was the island afterward used ? — How many towns did it contain ? 

— How many Roman colonies? — Give their names. { 146. What 

islands were situated in Mare Adriaticum ? — Who was banished to Tri- 
merus ? 



284 BUBO PA. 



B. ^In Tuacum Mare. 

(1.) Ilya (^Elha)y is an island off the coast of Etmria, opposite 
to the promontory and city of Populonium. Its Hellenic name 
was jEthalta (^AiOaXia), which was regarded as derived from the 
smoke (^aWdXjj) of the numerous furnaces employed in smelting 
the iron, for which the island was celehrated in ancient, as it is 
also in modem times. The island has the advantage of several 
excellent ports, among which is Portus Argo'us. 

(2.) Planasia {Piatvosa^y is a small island South- West of 
Ilva, where Po'stumus Agrippa, the grandson of Augustus, spent 
the last years of his life in exile. 

(3.) PoNTiA was situated opposite the Circeian promontory. 
It is the most considerable of a group of three islands, the two 
others being Palmaria and Sinonia. Under the Roman Empire, 
they became a common place of confinement for state prisoners. 

(4.) Pandatoria, situated opposite the mouth of the Yultur- 
nus, was also a place of confinement for state prisoners. 

(5.) Capre^ ((7apri) was an island off the coast of Campania, 
lying immediately opposite MinervaB Promontorium. It owes its 
chief celebrity to the fact that Tiberius there spent the last ten 
years of his life. 

(6.) SiRENu'sjB rNSULiB were situated opposite Minerva^ Pro- 
montorium, off the coast of Campania, near Capresa. Tradition 
has represented these rocks as the abode of the Sirens (^Sirffnes), 

Questions. — ^Where is Ilva situated? — ^What was its Hellenic name? — 
From what was Uiis name derived ? — ^What is the chief produce of the 
island ? — ^What islands were situated in Mare Tuscum ? — ^Where was 
Planasia situated ? — ^What islands were situated opposite the Circeian 
promontory? — For what were those islands used? — Where is Panda- 
toria situated ? — ^Where CapresB ? — Which of the Roman emperors re- 
sided here ? — What was the traditionary abode of the Sirens ? 



HISPANIA. 285 

§147. HISPANIA. (A'lhp^a.) 
Spain and Portugal, 

When, in 236 B. o., Carthage had lost her two oldest provinces, 
Sardinia and Co'reica, Hamilcar, aware that the weakness of Car- 
thage consisted in her want of soldiers, turned his eyes to Hispa- 
nia, which he desired to transform into a Carthaginian possession, 
from which large national armies might he ohtained. His policy, 
therefore, was not only to subdue the Spaniards, but to win their 
sympathy. He succeeded in his plan, and acquired for Carthage 
a population of millions, which relieved her from the necessity 
of hiring faithless mercenaries, who had proved so fatal to the 
Carthaginian commonwealth. Thus Hispania became involved 
in the fate of the Roman world. 

Names. — (1.) The name in general use among the Greeks, 
was Iberia QffiT)pta), which was understood to be derived from 
the river Ih^rus, 

(2.) Eispania was the Roman name, the origin of which is un- 
certain, but W. Yon Humboldt maintains that Hispania is pre- 
served almost unaltered in the modern native designation, Espanay 
which he derives from the Basque, Ezpana^ a border j as denoting 
that this countiy was the border of Europe toward the ocean. 

(3.) Hesperia, Land of the West (see p. 89), was a poetical 
appellation. In contradistinction from Italy^ it was also called 
Mesperia U*ltima, 

(4.) Ce^Uica was a general name for the western parts of 
Europe, and more Sspecially for Spain, as originally peopled by 
Kelts. The name was however usually confined to the Keltic 
parts of the peninsula. 

(5.) The Southern part, especially beyond the Stndt, is often 
called Tartesns. 

Questions.— J 147. In what way did Hispania become a Carthagi- 
nian province ?— When ?— By whose genius was this result attained?— 
What are the different names of Hispania ? — Why was it called Iberia ? 
— ^What is said of the derivation of the name Hispania ?— What does 
it signify ?— Why was it called Hesperia ?— Why was it called Celtica ? 
— ^What part was called Tartessis ? 



284 EUBOPA. 



B. ^In Tuscum Mare. 

(1.) IiiYA (^Elba), is an island off the coast of Etraria, opposite 
to the promontory and city of Populonium. Its Hellenic name 
was jEthalta {Ai6akia)y which was regarded as derived from the 
imoke {aiOdhj) of the numerous furnaces employed in smelting 
the iron, for which the island was celebrated in ancient, as it is 
also in modem times. The island has the advantage of several 
excellent ports, among which is Portus Argo'us. 

(2.) Planasia (Pianosa), is a small island South-West of 
Ilva, where Po'stumus Agrippa, the grandson of Augustus, spent 
the last years of his life in exile. 

(3.) PoNTiA was situated opposite the Circeian promontory. 
It is the most considerable of a group of three islands, the two 
others being Palmaria and Sinonia. Under the Roman Empire, 
they became a common place of confinement for state prisoners. 

(4.) Pandatoria, situated opposite the mouth of the Yultor- 
nus, was also a place of confinement for state prisoners. 

(5.) Capre^ ((7apri) was an island off the coast of Campania, 
lying immediately opposite Minervao Promontorium. It owes its 
chief celebrity to the fact that Tiberius there spent the last ten 
years of his life. 

(6.) SiRENu'sjB I'NSULiB Were situated opposite Minervse Pro- 
montorium, off the coast of Campania, near Capresa. Tradition 
has represented these rocks as the abode of the Sirens (^Sirefnes). 

Questions. — ^Where is Ilva situated? — ^What was its Hellenic name? — 
From what was this name derived ? — ^What is the chief produce of the 
island ? — What islands were situated in Mare Tuscum ? — ^Where was 
Planasia situated ? — What islands were situated opposite the Circeian 
promontory? — For what were those islands used? — ^Where is Panda- 
toria situated ? — Where CapresB ? — Which of the Roman emperors re- 
sided here ? — What was the traditionary abode of the Sirens ? 



HISPANIA. 285 

§147. HISPANIA. (:i'I^p(a.) 
Spain and Portugal, 

WHen; in 236 B. o., Carthage had lost her two oldest provinces, 
Sardinia and Go'rsica, Hamilcar, aware that the weakness of Car* 
thage consisted in her want of soldiers, turned his eyes to Hispa- 
nia, which he desired to transform into a Carthaginian possession, 
from which large national armies might be obtained. His policy, 
therefore, was not only to subdue the Spaniards, but to win their 
sympathy. He succeeded in his plan, and acquired for Carthage 
a population of millions, which relieved her from the necessity 
of hiring faithless mercenaries, who had proved so fatal to the 
Carthaginian commonwealth. Thus Hispania became involved 
in the fate of the Roman world. 

Ifames. — (1.) The name in general use among the Greeks, 
was Iberia {*/firjpta)f which was understood to be derived from 
the river Ibefrus. 

(2.) Stapania was the Roman name, the origin of which is un- 
certain, but W. Yon Humboldt maintains that Hispania is pre- 
served almost unaltered in the modern native designation, EspaKay 
which he derives from the Basque, EzpaiUij a border, as denoting 
that this countiy was the border of Europe toward the ocean. 

(3.) Hesperiaj Land of the West (see p. 89), was a poetical 
appellation. In contradistinction from Itely, it was also called 
He»peria U'ltima, 

(4.) CdUica was a general name for the western parts of 
Europe, and more Sspecially for Spain, as originally peopled by 
Kelts. The name was however usually confined to the Keltic 
parts of the peninsula. 

(5.) The Southern part, especially beyond the Strait, is often 
called Tarteuis, 

Questions.— I 147. In what way did Hispania become a Carthagi- 
nian province ?— When ?-— By whose genius was this result attained?— 
What are the different names of Hispania ? — Why was it called Iberia ? 
— What is said of the derivation of the name Hispania ? — What does 
it signify ?— Why was it called Hesperia ?— Why was it called Celtica ? 
— What part wis called Tartessis t 



286 EUBOPA. 

Boundaries. — ^It was a peniasula, bounded Nortb-East by the 
MoNTES PYBENiBi; East and Soath^ bj Mabe Intebnum; 
West, by Oce'anus. 

Extent. — Its greatest length from North to South is about 
four hundred and sixty miles, and its greatest breadth from East 
to West about five hundred and seventy miles ; its area, including 
that of the Balearic Isles, is about 171,300 square miles. The 
numbers given by the ancients are generally much larger, 
because they founded their estimates of distances almost entirely 
on the itinerary measurements. 

Capes. — There are twelve large promontories on the coast, 
beside some others of less importance. We here enumerate only 
Pbomontobitjm Tbileucum {OrtegaTjy Nebium, or A'bta- 
BBUM (Finisterre), Sacbum (^St. Vincent), Caxpb {Gibraltar), 
DiANlUM (^St. Martin). 

Hountains. — The country is intersected throughout the great- 
est portion of its breadth by five great chains of mountuns, 
separated by extensive valleys. These five mountain chains 
are to a certain extent united toward the east by another chain 
intersecting them all. A seventh chain, branching off from 
the PyrensDi, runs along the entire north-east coast of the 
peninsula. These mountains do not rise from the plain, but 
from a high table-land, two thousand feet above the sea, like 
battlements on the summit of a huge tower. They did not all 
have distinct names in antiquity, but were called Montes 
PrBENiEi, Va'sconum Saltus {Mountains of Asturias), and 
Hebminius Mons (Sierra de la EstreUa) which was of some 
importance in Caesar's campaign in Lusitania. 

Biyers. — The six mountain ranges give Spain five large val- 
leys, through each of which flows a considerable river : DuBius 
(Douro), Tagus (Tajo), Anas (Guadiana), Bmtis (Guadal- 
quivir), and, through the Eastern valley, the Ibe'bus (Ehro), 

Questions. — Give the boundaries of Hispania. — ^Its extent. — How 
many capes did the peninsula contain ? — Name some of them. — By how 
many mountain chains is Spain intersected? — ^What is said about the 
physical aspect of the country in general? — Into how m^ny large valleys 
is Spain divided by those chains ? — What rivers flow through them ? 



HI8PANIA. 287 

§ 148. Climate. — Some of the valleys of Bse'tica which lie 
near the sea exhibit the ^getation of the tropics, while the 
interior consists of a bleak and arid table-land, very high, and 
piercingly cold and unhealthful. Lusitania enjoys, in general, a 
beautiful climate. 

FroductioiiB. — Its fertility is generally celebrated by the an- 
cients, who mention among its products, wheat, wine, oil, fruits, 
excellent grass for horses and mules, metals of all kinds, and 
precious stones. The mountains of the South contained rich 
silver mines, and yielded also in lesser quantities, gold, iron, 
quicksilver, cinnabar, rock*salt, and other valuable minerals. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Southern part of Spain, Bss'tica, is severed 
from the rest of Spain by the great chain of the Maria'nus Mens 
(Sierra Moreno), This was the original home of the Iberians. 
The Kelts lived north of the mountains. The Iberians expelled 
this ancient Keltic population wherever the nature of the country 
did not prevent them. But the Kelts maintained themselves in 
the mountains between the Tagus and the Ibe'rus, and the Ibe- 
rians only subdued them by settling among them, so that in 
course of time the two nations became amalgamated, and thus 
formed the CeUiherians (^CeUihe'ri), The Kelts in Lusitania 
remained always pure and unmixed. In historical times, the 
great bulk of the population was Iberian. They were an igno- 
rant, but cunning and mischievous race, addicted to robbery, of 
almost indomitable courage, fond of brigandage, though incapable 
of the higher combinations of regular war. 

From the time of Augustus, the influence of Roman civiliza- 
tion which had long existed in Hispania yearly increased, so that 

Questions. — J 148. What is the climate of the valleys of Bietica? — 
What is the climate of the interior? — What the climate of Lusitania? — 
What are its chief productions? — What did the mountains of the south 
contain? — What was the original home of the Iberians? — What moun- 
tains separated them from the rest of the peninsula ? — Where did the 
Kelts live ? — Who were the Celtiberians ? — In what part of the peninsula 
did the Kelts remain pure ? — What formed the bulk of the population iu 
historical times ? — What kind of people were they ? — When were tliey 
Romanized? — To what degree? 



288 EUBOPA. 

in the first centaiy of the Roman Empire, the people aboat the 
BiBtis had almost entirely adopted Aoman manners, and spoke 
the purest Latin; and in course of time Hispania became more 
thoroughly Roman than any other province out of Italy, furnish- 
ing many names distinguished in the literature of Rome, as 
Se'neca, Lucan, Quintilian, Martial. Spain thus had the advan- 
tage of having for the basis of her language, a pure classic Latin, 
which probably neither France nor Italy possessed iu like degree. 

Divisions. — From the expulsion of the Carthaginians till the 
time of Augustus, Hispania formed two provinces, often called 
Bispanice, or duce ffi^panice : 

I. The Eastern part, called Hispania Citerior, with the 
capital, Ta'rracOj and afterward Cartha'go Nova : 

IL The Western part, called Hispania Ulterior, with the 
capital, Cordu'ba, and sometimes, Gades. 

Augustus divided Hispania Ulterior into two parts, the two 
provinces of Bao'tica and Lusitania, and gave Hispania Citerior 
the name of Tarraconensis : 

I. Hispania Tarraconensis, so called after its old capital, 
Ta'rraco : 

II. Lusitania, the Westernmost part of the peninsula, the 
present Portugal : 

III. BiE'TlOA, the Southernmost part of the peninsula. 



§ 149. I. HISPANIA TARRACONENSIS. 

This province was larger than the other two provinces com- 
bined. 

Boundaries,— North, PYRENiEi and Mare Canta'bricum ; 
East, Mare Internum; West, the Durius, Oce'anus, and 
Lusitania 5 South, Lusitania and B^'tica. 



Questions.— What is said of the Spanish language ?— What was the 
division of Spain from the expulsion of the Carthaginians to the time 

of Augustus? — What was the division made by Augustus? { 149. 

Which was the largest of the three parts into which Augustus divided 
Spain ? — What were its boundaries ? 



HISPANIA TARRACONENSIS. 289 

Vations. — Of these a large Dumber is given by ancient autho- 
rities ; we mention the following : 

(1.) Basteta^nij who inhabited the country East of Ba^'tica : 

(2.) Bastij North-East of the Basteta'ni : 

(3.) Laleta!ni, the inhabitants of Laletania^ the capital of 
which was Ba'rcino : 

(4.) Galntahriy along the shores of Mare Canta'bricum : 

(5.) A'sturesy the Western neighbors of the Ca'ntabri : 

(6.) Galkeci, a KeUic people in the North- Western part of the . 
peninsula : 

(7.) Cdtibefrij between the boundaries of Lusitania and the 
Ibe'rus. 

Towns. — This large and populous province contained in the 
times of the Boman Empire a hundred and seventy-nine large 
towns, and about two hundred and ninety-three villages. The 
seven principal cities and capitals were : Ta'rraco, Cartha'go Nova, 
Caesar Augusta, Clunia, Astu'rica, Lucus Augusti, and Bra'cara 
Augusta : 

(1.) Cartha'go Nova (^Cartagena) ^ near the Southern ex- 
tremity of the Eastern coast, was a colony of Carthage, and was 
built (242 B. c.) by Ha'sdrubal. The city, on the land side, was 
entirely surrounded by elevated mountain peaks, two of which 
were very rugged ; on the eastern stood the temple of the chief 
deity, -^sculapius (EsmurC), on the western, the palace of Ha's- 
drubal. Thirty-two years after its foundation the city was taken 
by the Bomans under Publius Scipio. During the Empire, it 
was the winter residence of the Lega'tus Cse'saris, and was called 
Colonia Victrix Julia. 

(2.) Saguntum was situated on an eminence on the banks of 
the river Pallantias, between Sacro and Ta'rraco, not far from the 

Questions. — ^Name some of the nations of Hispania Tarraconensis. — 
How many large towns did it contain ? — How many villages ? — What 
were the principal cities ? — Describe the situation of Carthago Nova. — 
What temple adorned the eastern height ? — ^What palace the western ? — 
When was it founded? — ^When taken by the Romans? — Under whom? — 
Where was Saguntum situated ? — How was it the cause of the Second 
Punic War ? 

25 T 



290 SUBOPA. 

sea. The fact of its being besieged by Ha'nnibal^ wben it was in 
alliance with the Romans (218 b. c), was the immediate cause 
of the Second Punic War. 

(3.) Ta'rraco {Tarragona)^ a colony of the Phoenicians; 
was converted into a fortress^ for protection against the Garthagi- 
nianS; by the brothers Publius and Cneius Scipio. Subsequently 
it became the capital of the province named after it. 

(4.) Calaourris (jOaldhorra)^ situated upon a rocky hill 
near the right bank of the Ibe'rus^ obtained a horrible celebrity 
in the war with Sertorius, when its citizens slaughtered their 
wives and children, and after satisfying present hunger, salted 
the remainder of the flesh for future use ! The capture of the 
city put an end to the Sertorian war (72 B.C.). It was the 
native place of the rhetorician, Quintilia'nus. 

(5.) NuMANTiA, near the Durius, was famous for its siege 
and destruction by Scipio Africa'nus (134 B.C.). 

(6.) Seoo'brioa was the chief city of the Celtibe'ri. 

(7.) Bi'lbilis (BelhUi) was the birthplace of the poet 
Martial. 

(8.) Ilerda (Lerida)^ situated on the Western bank of the 
Si'coris, was the stronghold of the Pompeian party in Spain, but 
was taken by Caesar (49 b. c). 

(9.) OscA was the place where Sertorius was murdered 
(72 B.C.). 

(10.) Other cities: Valentia, C^sare'a August! (Sara- 
gossa), Derto'sa (^Tortosa)^ Ba'rcino (Barcelona), Pompe'lo 
(Pampduna), Legio Se'ptima Ge'mina (JDcow), Astu'rica 
Augusta (Astoria), Brigantium, Lucus Augusti {Lugo), 
Bra'cara Augusta (Braga), Contrebia, Tole'tum (Toledo). 

Questions. — ^What is said of Tarraco ? — Describe the situation of 
Calagurris. — ^What happened there during the Sertorian war? — ^Who 
was born there ? — ^Who destroyed Numantia ? — ^What was the chief city 
of the Celtiberi ? — ^What was the birthplace of Martial ? — ^Where was 
Ilerda situated ? — Where was Sertorius murdered ? — ^When ? 



B^TIOA. 291 

§ 160* IL LUSITANIA. 

It was tlie Western part of the peninsula. 

Boundaries. — West and Soutli, Oce'anus ; South-East, B^'- 
TICA (the Anas here formed the line); East and North, Hispa- 
NIA Taeeaconensis ; the Dueius being the boundary line on 
the North. 

It contained therefore the modem kingdom of Portugal, 
except the provinces Entre Dnero e Minho, Tras os Montes, and 
the South-East part of Akmtejoy but including the Spanish 
provinces Ustremadura^ Salamancaj and the western part of 
Toledo. 

Nations. — (1.) Lunta'm, who inhabited the country between 
the Tagus and the Durius : 

(2.) Vetto'neSf'who inhabited the country East of the Lusita'ni : 

(3.) Ce^lticif who inhabited the country South of the Tagus. 

Towns. — ^The province contained forty-six towns, among which 
were: 

(1.) South of the river Tagus: 
Balsa, My'rtilis, Pax Julia {Befa), Augusta Eme'bita 
(Mertda% NoRBA C-«:sare'a {Alcantara). 

(2.) North of the river Tagus : 
Olisippo {Lisbon), Sca'labis {Santarem), Salma'ntica 
{Salamanca'), 

III. BJE'TIOA. 

The valley of the Baetis was, and still is, the most beautiful 
part of the peninsula. 

Boundaries. — West and North, the Anas, which separates 
H from Lusitania and Hispania Tarraconensis ; East, Hispania 
Tarraconensis; South, Mare Internum. 

Questions. — J 150. What part of the peninsula was called Lusitania? 
— Name the boundaries. — ^What part does it form of the modern king- 
doms of Spain and Portugal ? — Name the nations. — How many towns 
did it contain ? — What towns were situated south of the Tagus ? — ^What 
towns north ? — How was Beetica bounded ? 



290 BUBOPA. 

sea. The fact of its beiug besieged by Ha'nnibal; wben it was in 
alliance with the Romans (218 b. c.)) was the immediate cause 
of the Second Punic War. 

(3.) Ta'reaco (^Tarragona), a colony of the Phoenicians; 
was converted into a fortress^ for protection against the Carthagi- 
nianS; by the brothers Publius and Cneius Scipio. Subsequently 
it became the capital of the province named after it. 

(4.) Calaourris (^Calahorra)^ situated upon a rocky hill 
near the right bank of the Ibe'rus^ obtained a horrible celebrity 
in the war with Sertorius^ when its citizens slaughtered their 
wives and children, and after satisfying present hunger, salted 
the remainder of the flesh for future use ! The capture of the 
city put an end to the Sertorian war (72 B.C.). It was the 
native place of the rhetorician, Quintilia'nus. 

(5.) NuMANTiA, near the Durius, was famous for its siege 
and destruction by Scipio Africa'nus (134 B.C.). 

(6.) Seoo'briga was the chief city of the Celtibe'ri. 

(7.) Bi'lbilis {BelhUi) was the birthplace of the poet 
Martial. 

(8.) Ilerda (Ler{da)j situated on the Western bank of the 
Si'coris, was the stronghold of the Pompeian party in Spain, but 
was taken by Cffisar (49 b. c). 

(9.) OscA was the place where Sertorius was murdered 
(72 B.C.). 

(10.) Other cities: Valentia, Cjesare'a August! (Sara- 
gossd), Derto'sa (^Tortosa), Ba'rcino (Barcelona), Pompe'lo 
(Pampelund), Leqio Se'ptima Ge'mina (Zeon), Astu'rica 
Augusta (Astorgd), Brigantium, Lucus Augusti {Lugo), 
Bra'cara Augusta (Braga), Contrebia, Toli/tum {Toledo). 

Questions. — ^What is said of Tarraco? — Describe the situation of 
Calagurris. — ^What happened there during the Sertorian war? — ^Who 
was bom there ? — ^Who destroyed Numantia ? — ^What was the chief city 
of the Celtiberi ? — ^What was the birthplace of Martial ? — ^Where was 
nerda situated ? — ^Where was Sertorius murdered ? — ^When ? 



B^TICA. 291 



§ 16a n. LUSITANIA. 

It was the Western part of the peninsula. 

Boundaries. — ^West and South, Oce'anus ; South-East, Bje'- 
TICA (the Anas here formed the line); East and North, Hispa- 
NIA Taeraconensis ; the Dueius being the boundary line on 
the North. 

It contained therefore the modem kingdom of Portugal, 
except the provinces Untre Duero e Minho, Tras os Monies, and 
the South-East part of Alemtejo, but including the Spanish 
provinces Ustremadura, Salamanca, and the western part of 
Toledo. 

Nations. — (1.) Ltmta'ni, who inhabited the country between 
the Tagus and the Durius : 

(2.) Vetto'nes, who inhabited the country East of the Lusita'ni : 

(3.) Ge'Uicif who inhabited the country South of the Tagus. 

Towns. — ^The province contained forty-six towns, among which 
were: 

(1.) South of the river Tagus: 
Balsa, My'btilis, Pax Julia (Bejd), Augusta Eme'bita 
(Meridd), Norba C^esare'a {Alcantara). 

(2.) North of the river Tagus : 
Olisippo {Lisbon), Sca'labis {Santarem), Salma'ntica 
{Salamanca). 

III. B^'TIOA. 

The valley of the Bsetis was, and still is, the most beautiful 
part of the peninsula. 

Boundaries. — ^West and North, the Anas, which separates 
jt from Lusitania and Hispania Tarraconensis ; East, Hispania 
Tabraconensis; South, Mare Internum. 

Questions. — § 150. What part of the peninsula was called Lusitania? 
^'Name the boundaries. — ^What part does it form of the modem king- 
doms of Spain and Portugal ? — Name the nations. — How many towns 
did it contain ? — What towns were situated south of the Tagus ? — ^What 
towns north ? — How was Bsstica bounded ? 



202 EUROPA. 

Nations. — (1.) Turdeta'ni, tlie most civilized people of the 
peninsula^ inhabitiDg the banks of the Badtis : 

(2.) Tu'rdult, East and South of the Turdeta'ni : 

(3.) Basleta'ni and Ba'stuliy inhabiting the southern coasts of 
the peninsula. 

Towns. — This thickly peopled province contained about two 
hundred towns, among which were : 

(1.) Gabes, built on islands (whence probably the plural form 
of its name) situated on the south-western coast, between the 
Strait and the mouth of the Baetis. The original Phoanician 
name, Gadir (^rddetpa), is preserved in the modern Cadix, or 
Cadiz. It was the chief Phoenician colony beyond the Pillars 
of He'rcules, having been established long before the beginning 
of classical history. It became at an early period the great west- 
em emporium of the known world, and in the time of Augustus 
the city was only second in point of population to Home. It 
possessed a famous temple and oracle of He'rcules : 

§ 151. (2.) Tabtessus, sometimes identified with Cadiz, lying 
to the West of the Pillars of He'rcules, and now believed by 
biblical critics to be the TarshUh of the Holy Scriptures, where 
it is spoken of as a region, rich in iron, tin, lead, silver, and other 
commodities. The Phoenicians are represented as sailing thither 
in large ships {Ezek. xxvii. 12 ; Jer, x. 9). Isaiah speaks of it as 
one of the finest Tynan colonies, and describes the Tyrians as bring- 
ing its products to the market of Tyre (xxiil 1, 6, 10). Classical 
authors use the name in a very loose and indefinite way. It has 
in fact the following various significations in diflferent writers : 
a. The whole of the peninsula : 
h. The river Baetis, or a town situated near its mouth : 
c. The country of the Tu'rduli. 

It fell into decay before the Komans came into southern Spain. 

Questions. — ^Name some of the nations of Bs^tica. — How many towns 
did it contain? — ^Where is Gades situated? — ^Whence is its modern name 
derived? — What is said of its origin? — Of its prosperity? — Of its inhab- 
itants ? — What was probably the Tarshish of the Holy Scriptures ? — 
What is the signification of Tartessus in classical authors ? — ^When did 
it fall into the hands of the Romans ? 



ISLANDS NEAR HISPANIA. 298 

(3.) iLLiTUBQiSy situated at the North side of the Bsdiia, was 
destroyed by Publius Scipio (206 b. c), but was soon afterward 
rebuilt. 

(4.) B-ffi'cuLA was the scene of Scipio's victories over Ha's- 
drubal (209 B. c); and also over Mago and Masinissa (206 b. c). 

(5.) MuNBiB was the place where Csesar conquered the sons 
of Pompey (45 B.C.). 

(6.) Ita'lica, situated on the right bank of the Ba&tis, oppo- 
site Hi'spalis (SeviUe), was the native place of Trajan^ Hadrian, 
and Theodosius the Great. 

(7.) Cordu'ba {Cordobd)y on the right bank of the Bffitis, 
was the birthplace of the poet Lucan^ and of the philosophers 
Marcus and Lucius Annaeus Se'neca : 

Duoaque Senec<u unicumque Lucanum 

Facunda loquitur Corduba. — ^Martial, I. 62. 

(8.) Ma'laca (^Malaga) has still a few remains of Boman 
architecture. 

ISLANDS NEAR HISPANIA.. 

(1.) rNSULJG Balea'bes were situated in the Mediterranean^ 
off the East coast of Spain, not far from the mouth of the Ibe'rus. 
The ancient authors generally mention two : 

A. Balea'ris Major, or Majo'rtca (^MaUorcd) ; 

B. Balea'ris Minor, or Mino'rica (Menorca). 

The inhabitants were chiefly celebrated for their skill as 
slingers, in which capacity they served, as mercenaries, first 
under the Carthaginians, and afterward under the Bomans. 

(2.) I'NSULiB PiTYu's^ Were two islands on the South coast 
of Spain, included in the Balearic group, in the modem sense 
of the word. The larger island was called E'busus (Iviza), and 
the smaller one Ophiu'sa (^Formentara). 

Questions. — ^Where is Illiturgis situated ? — ^When was it destroyed ? — 
By whom ? — ^Who conquered at Baacula ? — ^Who at Mundss ? — Where is 
Italica situated? — ^Who were born there? — ^Who at Corduba? — ^What 
islands were situated near Hispania ? — ^Where were the Insulse Baleares 
situated ? — How many are generally mentioned ? — For what were their 
inhabitants celebrated ?— Where are the Insulse Pityusw ?— Name them. 
26* 



294 EUSOPA. 



§ 152. GALLIA TRANSALPI'NA. 

If ames. — ^The Greek name, Ctfltice (ij KeXrixij), was earlier in 
nse than the Eoman name, from the fact that the Greeks were 
settled on its southern coast long before the Romans knew any- 
thing of the country; and Galatia (Jj FaXaTta) was employed by 
the Greeks from the time of the hbtorian Timaeus (300 b. c). 
The Romans gave it the name of Gallia, calling it sometimes 
Ulterior Gallia, to distinguish it from the North part of Italy ; 
sometimes, for the same reason, Gallia TransalpHna. It was 
also called Gallia Coma'ta, with the exception of the southern 
part, because the inhabitants wore their hair long. 

Bonndaries. — It is subdivided into Western and North-West- 
ern, and into Eastern and South-Eastem parts by natural well 
defined lines: North, Feetum Ga'llicum; West, Oce'anus; 
South, MoNTES Pyben^i and Mare Internum; East, the 
Varus, Alpes, and the Rhenus. 

Mountains. — PrnENiEi Montes, Gehenna (Sevennes), Jura 
with the MoNS Pertu'sus, a pass made by Caesar, Arduenna 
SiLVA (Ardennes). 

. Biyers. — (1.) Rho'danus (RhSne). This river was crossed 
by Ha'nnibal near the present situation of the village Beaucaire 
(218 B.C.). The principal branches of the Rho'danus are : 

a. On the left hank : 

TsARA (Isere), on the banks of which Q. Fabius Ma'ximus 
-^milia'nus conquered the Allo'broges (121 B. c.) : 
Druentia (^Durance) and Sulqas (Sorgiui), 

b. On the East hank : 

Arar, afterward called Sauconna (^Saone), and Vardo 
(^Gardon) : 

Questions.— J 152. What was the Greek name of Gallia Transalpina? 
— ^Why was this name earlier in common use ? — ^Why was it called Gallia 
Ulterior ?--Why Gallia Transalpina ?— Why Gallia Comata?— Name the 
boundaries.— Mountains.— Rivers.— Where was the Rhodanus crossed by 
Hannibal ?— When ?— What rivers are on its left bank ?— What rivers on 
its right bank ? 



QALLIA NARBONENSIS. 295 

(2.) Gaeumna (Garonne), the most southern of the three 
large rivers of Gaul : 

(3.) LiGER (Loire), Se'quana (Seine), Ma'trona (Mame), 
ScALDis (ScMde), MosA (Meuse), Rhenus (Rhine), Mosella 
(Moeset). 

Lake. — Lacus LeMANNUS (Lake Leman, or Lake of Geneva), 

Productions. — It is for the greater part a level country^ with 
a very large proportion of fertile soil^ which produces oorn^ wine^ 
and; in the South, olives. In the Eoman times, it was rich in 
forests, which have now, however, almost disappeared. 

Inhabitants. — The Galli of Csesar's time were an ingenious 
people, and had made some progress in the working of metals 
and in other useful arts. 

Divisions. — ^In the time of Augustus, it was divided into four 
parts: Gallia Narbonensis, Aquitania, Gallia Lugdu- 
NENSis, Gallia. Be'lgica. 

§ 163. I. GALLIA NARBONENSIS. 

Name. — ^It was called after its capital Narbo (Narhonne). 
This part of Gaul was conquered by the Romans before Caesar's 
time, and was called Provincia Roma'na, or simply Provincia; 
hence its present name, Provence. It was also called Gallia 
Bra/ca'ta, as opposed to Gallia TogoSta (see p. 225). 

Boundaries. — East, Gallia Cisalp^na; South, Montes 
PYRENiEi; West, Aquitania; North, Gallia Lugdunensis 
and Be'lgica. 

Nations and Towns. — (1.) So'rdcmes, who occupied the pre- 
sent territory of Roussillon, at the foot of the Pyrenees. Their 
% 

QtTESTiONS. — ^What is the most southern of the large riyers of Gaul? 
— ^Name other rivers. — Name its lake. — What are its productions? — 
What kind of people were the Gauls ?— Into how many parts was Gaul 

divided by Augustus? — ^Name those four parts. J 153. What part 

of Gaul was first conquered by the Romans ? — ^What name did it receive 
from its conquerors ? — ^What is derived from this name ? — ^Why was it 
called Gallia Narbonensis ? — Name the boundaries. — Name some of the 
nations. — Where was the territory of the Sordones ? 



296 EUBOPA. 

priocipal towns were : Ill^bebis {Elne) and Rus'CiNO (Perpig- 
nan). 

(2.) The Vokce ioliabited all the province from the Bhone to 
its Western limits. They were divided into two tribes : Volcas 
Areco'mici and Volcas Tecto'sages : 

a, ToLo'sA {Touhuse), the chief city of the Tecto'sages, 
situated on the right bank of the Qanimna. It possessed a cele- 
brated temple enriched by the offerings of Ghdlic superstition. 
It was plundered by Q. Servilius Csdpio (106 B.C.). 

6. Nabbo (Narhonne), a town of the Areco'mici on the 
river Atax (Aude). It was an important position during Oassar's 
wars in Gaul. 

c. Nemausus (Nimes), the chief city of the Areco'mici. 
No district in France is richer in Roman remains than the 
neighborhood of Nimes. Three or four miles from the city is a 
Roman aqueduct (now called Pont du Gard), which is the 
noblest Roman monument in France. The city itself still con- 
tains the remains of a large amphitheatre which could accommo* 
date 17^000 persons. 

(3.) The Salves inhabited the countiy between the Druentia 
(^Durance) and the Mediterranean. They were a mixed race of 
Gralli and Li'gures. Although a very warlike people^ they were 
the first of the transalpine nations who were subdued by the Romans : 

a Abela'te (Aries), situated on the left bank of the Rho'- 
daous, where the river divides into two branches. It contained 
the largest amphitheatre in Graul, which could seat more than 
20,000 persons. 

h. Aqum SEXTliB (Aix). In its neighborhood C. Marius 
defeated with immense slaughter (102 b. g.) the Cimbri and 
Teu'tones, which latter consisted of Germans mixed with Kelts. 

Questions. — ^Where was the territory of the VolcaB ? — Into what tribes 
were they divided? — ^What was the chief town ofthe Tectosages? — ^Where 
was it situated ? — What is said of it ? — ^Where was Narbo situated ? — 
Where Nemausus? — ^What remains of antiquity are in its neighborhood? 
— What territory was occupied by the Saly es ? — ^What cities are situated 
in their territory ? — ^Where was Arelate situated ? — Where Aquas Sex- 
tioB ?r-What battle took place in its neighborhood ? 



GALLIA NAKBONENSIS. 297 

c. Masbilia (^MarseiUei), founded about 600 B.C. by the 
PhocaDans. About fifty years later, the greater part of the Phocad- 
ans left their native land to avoid subjection to the Persians, and 
settled here. The worship of the Ephesian A'rtemis (Diafna) 
was cherished with peculiar reverence, both in Massilia itself and 
in its colonies. After its political independence was overthrown 
by Oassar, the inhabitants directed their attention to literature 
and philosophy. Their city became to the West of Europe what 
Athens was to the East. Even some of the most noble Eomans 
went thither to complete their education. The studies pursued 
there were Latin, Qreek, Rhetoric, and Medicine. Cicero calls 
this city Athe'nce Ga'UicoB, 

(4.) The Oxyhiiy a Ligurian people on the South coast of 
Gallia Narbonensis, East of Forum Julii (^Frejus), the birthplace 
of Agri'cola. 

(5.) The Calvaresy who inhabited the present district of Avig- 
non. Their towns were AvENio {Avignon) ^ Vi'ndaltjm, Arau- 
sio (^Orange), the scene of a defeat of the Romans by the Cimbri 
and Teu'tones. 

(6.) The DexnaUoRj East of the Oxybii, with the town Anti'- 
POLIS {Antibes). 

(7.) The Catu'riges inhabited the Alpine passes, and were 
among the Galli who entered Italy in the early period of Roman 
history; among their towns were Eburodu'nxjm or Ebrodu'num 
(Embrun) and Briqantium (^Brian^wi). 

(8.) The AWhroges, who inhabited chiefly the country be- 
tween the Rho'danus and the Fsara. They were conquered by 
Q. Fabius Ma'ximus (121 b. c). It was the ambassadors of this 

Questions. — Who founded Massilia ? — When ? — ^Why did they leare 
their native place? — ^What goddess was worshipped by them? — Who 
overthrew their political independence? — ^What became of Massilia 
after this ? — ^What studies were pursued there ? — What is it called by 
Cicero ? — ^Where was the country of the Oxybii situated ? — What country 
was inhabited by the Cavari ? — ^What towns were situated in their terri- 
tory ? — ^What country was inhabited by the Caturiges ? — What country 
by the AUobroges ? — ^Who conquered them ? — ^What had they to do with 
the conspiracy of Catiline ? 



298 EUBOPA. 

people that betrayed the conspiraoy of Catiline. Their capital 
was Vienna Allo'bbooum. 



ISLANDS BBLONGma TO GALLIA NAKBONENSIS. 

FNSULiE StOE'gHADES; Or rNSULJE Massiliensium {Ides de 
Hilres), are five ia number. They were occupied by the citizens 
of Massilia. 



§ 154. IL AQUITANIA. 

Boundaries. — East; Gallia Nabbonensis ; North; Gallia 
Luqdunensis; West, Oce'anus; South,>HisPANiA. 

Inhabitants. — The inhabitants were an Iberian race, differing 
entirely from the Keltic population of Gaul, haying settled in that 
part of the country at a much earlier period than the Kelts. 

Hations and Towns. — (1.) The Vasa'tes, with Bubdi'gala 
(^Bourdeauoc), the birthplace of the poet Ausonius (a. d. 309) : 

(2.) The Arvemt, who inhabited the valley of the B'laver 
(AUier), one of the most powerful of the Gallic nations, and 
the rival of the ^dui for the supremacy. Their capital was 
Augustone'metum. 

(3.) The Cadurciy a Keltic people who occupied the basin of 
the Oltis {Lot), a branch of the Garonne, with Uxellodd'num, 
conquered by Caesar. 

(4.) The Lemovi'ces, whose chief town was AuausTo'RiTUM 
{Limoges), 

(5.) The Pid tones, who were living South of the Loire and 
on the ocean. Their chief city was Limo'num {Poitiers), 

Questions. — ^What islands belong to Gallia Narbonensis ? { 154. 

What are the boundaries of Aquitania ? — ^What is said of the inhabit- 
ants ?— IName some of the nations. — Name some of the towns. — ^What 
was the birthplace of the poet Ausonius ? — To what people did this 
town belong ? — ^What country was inhabited by the Arrerni ? — ^What is 
said about them? — ^What country was occupied by the Cadurci? — 
Where did the Pictones live? 



GALLIA LUODUNENSIS. 299 

(6.) The BMriges Cuhi, who inhabited the basin of the 
Loire, were at one time the most powerful nation in Craul (about 
600 B. c). Their capital, Ava'ricum (Bourges), one of the 
finest towns of Oaul^ was plundered by Julius Caesar. 



III. GALLIA LUODUNENSIS; previously, Gallia Ce'ltica. 

Boundaries. — ^North and West, Oge'anus; East and South, 
Gallia Narbonensis ; South, Aquitania. 

Hations and Towns. — (1.) The SeguMni occupied the 
territory between the Rho'danus and the boundaries of Aqui- 
tania. The Boman settlement, Luqdu'num (^Lyani), at the 
junction of the Arar {SaSne) and Bho'danus, was in their 
territory. It was the most populous of the Gallic towns, after 
Narbonne, and was the centre of the Roman highways in Gaul. 
In the angle between the Arar and the Rho'danus was the Ara 
Augusti, dedicated to Augustus by all the Gallic states, sixty in 
number. It was the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis, the residence 
of the governors, and the native place of the emperor Claudius : 

(2.) The jEduiy who inhabited the Western banks of the 
Arar {Sa6ne)f were one of the most powerful of the Celtic 
nations, but before Caesar's proconsulship in Gallia, they had 
been brought under the dominion of the Se'quani, who had 
invited the Suevi from beyond the Rhine to assist them. 
Before this calamity happened, they had been styled friends 
by the Romans. For this reason Caesar restored them to their 
former independence. Their chief town, in Caesar's time, was 
BiBBAGTE, on which site afterward was built Augustodu'num 
(^Autun) : 

Questions. — ^Where was the country of the Bituriges? — What was 
their capital? — How was Gallia Lugdunensis bounded? — Name some 
of the nations and towns. — ^What territory was occupied by the Segu- 
siani? — Describe the situation of Lugdunum. — Describe the town. — 
What territory was inhabited by the -^dui ? — By whom were they 
subjugated? — ^Who restored them to their former power? — What was 
their chief town ? 



300 EUROPA. 

(3.) The Manduhiij a small people, with the town Alesia 
(Alise)j which was besieged by Caesar (52 b. g.) : 

(4.) The Seno'nez or Se^HoneSy one of the great Keltic nationa 
who bordered on the Belgas: their capital was Aqe'ndigum 
(Sem). 

(5.) The Parisii, a Gallic people about the Se'qnana; whose 
chief place was Lutetia ParUHorum (Caes. B. G. VI. 3), a 
small town on an island in the Se'quana, which was approached 
by means of two bridges. This town finally took the name of 
the people and was called cUvitas Paruio'rum (whence the 
modern Paris), During the Roman period it seems not to have 
been a place of any importance; though in the year 360, Julian 
was proclaimed Emperor there : 

(6.) The Aulerci, a generic name, which included several Keltic 
tribeS; among which were the Genomanni, Diablintes, and Ebu- 
rovi'ces : 

(7.) The Camvftes, who occupied the country between the 
Seine and Loire, and also a portion of the territory South of the 
Loire. Their principal town was Ge'nabuM; afterward called 
Urbs Aureliensium (Orleans), It was destroyed by Caesar : 

(8.) The Armo'rici, probably, the Dwellers near the Sea 
(ar, near; mor, the sea). They inhabited the coast between 
the Se'quana and Liger. They formed different states, of which 
the Ve'neti were the most powerful. The Armo'rici were a mari- 
time people, and commanded the seas and ports. In Caesar's 
time they formed a* kind of confederacy. 

ISLANDS BELONGING TO GALLIA LUGDUNENSIS. 

I'NSUL-ffi Vene'tic-s: : Numerous small islands near the coast, 
inhabited by the Ve'neti (the modem department of Morhihan), 

QuBSTiONS. — To what nation did Alesia belong? — To what nation 
Agendicum ? — ^Where was the territory of the Parisii ? — ^What is said 
of Lutetia? — ^What tribes were comprised in the Aulerci? — What 
country was occupied by the Carnuti ? — What does the name Armorici 
signify ?— Where did this people live?— What is said of it?— What 
islands belong to Gallia Lugdunensis? 



GALLIA BELOICA. 301 



§ 166. IV. GALLIA BE'LGICA. 

Hame. — ^This was the largest of tbe four provinces into wliicli 
Gaul was divided, and was the country of the BELOiB (a term 
preserved in the modern BelgiuTti), who gave name to the whole, 
but occupied only a portion of it. 

Boundaries. — North, Fbetum Ga'llicum and Mare Ger- 
ma'nicum; East, Germanla., Vindelicia, and Rh^tia; 
South, Gallia Narbonensis; West, Gallia Lugdunensis. 

Hations and Towns. — (1.) The HelvctUy a Keltic people, who, 
in Csesar's time, occupied the country between the Rhenus, Bho'- 
danus and Mount Jura. Their country was divided into four 
pagi (in French, pays), which contained twelve towns and four 
hundred villages. Their chief city was Ave'nticum {Avenches), 
which is, however, not mentioned by Caesar. It was originally 
the capital of the Tiguri'ni, one of the four Helvetic pagi : 

(2.) The RauWad inhabited the territory of the present 
bishopric of Bdle. Their chief town was Augusta Raura- 
co'rum (Augst) : 

(3.) The Se^ quant, a Keltic nation in the upper valley of the 
Arar (^SaSne). Their territory contained some of the best land 
in Gaul. Their chief town was Vesontio (J^esangon) . 

(4.) The Remi inhabited the shores of the Se'quana (Seine), 
Their capital was Durocorto'rum (Reims), which was the 
occasional residence of the Roman governors. They were a 
shrewd people, and contrived to be in great favor with the 
Romans : 

(5.) The Tre^viri inhabited the country between the Mesa and 
Rhenus. They are often mentioned by Csesar on account of 

Questions. — 2 155. Was the whole of Gallia Belgica inhabited by 
the Belgse ? — How was it boanded ?— Name some of the nations. — Some 
of the towns. — ^Whcre was the country of the Helvetii situated ? — Into 
how many paffi was it divided ?. — How many towns did they contain ? — 
How many villages ? — What was their chief city ? — Describe the country 
of the Rauraci?— Of the Sequani?--Of the Remi?— What was their 
capital ? — ^What country was inhabited by the Treviri ? 
26 



302 EUBOPA. ^ 

tbeir causing him mucli trouble. Their chief city, Augusta 
TRBvnto'auM ( Treves), was often the imperial residence; under 
the later Emperors : 

(6.) The Cbit, a German people, who in Caesar's time inhabited 
the Eastern banks of the Bhine, opposite the Tre'viri. In the 
time of Augustus, they crossed the Rhine, and received from 
the Bomans a territory on the Western banks of the river. In 
this new territory was situated the rich city, Ck)LONiA Agrip- 
pi'na (^Cologne), It was originally called O'ppidum Ubio'rum. 
Agrippi'na, the wife of the Emperor Claudius, prevailed on her 
husband to send a colony of veteran soldiers there, and from that 
time the place bore her name* 

(7.) The Bata'vi or Ba'tavt inhabited first the Tnsula Bata- 
vo'rum {Betuwe), an island situated between the Bhenus, Vaha'lis 
(^WaaT)f and Mosa, and subsequently went further South. 
Their chief towns were Lugdu'num Batavo'rum {Leaden) 
and Trajectum ( Utrecht) : 

(8.) The SuesMnes occupied an extensive and fertile country 
North of the Bemi. Their chief town was Noviodu'num, after- 
ward Augusta Suessio'num (^Soissons) : 

(9.) The Nervii, a mighty and warlike people, who inhabited 
the country near the river Sabis (Samhre). They were almost 
entirely exterminated by Csesar : 

(10.) Other nations were the Medioma'trict, with Divodu'rum 
(^Metz) as their chief town ) the Tribocci, with Argentora'tus 
(^Strasbourg); the JVe/wic^es, with Novio'magus (Spiers); the 
Gugemi, with Castra Ve'tera (Xanten) ; the Menapii, with 
Castellum Menapio'rum (Kassel) ; the Veromandui, with 
Augusta Veromanduo'rum (St. Quentin); the Toscandri, 
AduaUici, and Sungri. 

Questions. — ^What was the capital of the Treviri? — ^What portion 
of the country was inhabited by the Ubii ? — ^What city was situated in 
their territory ? — How did it deriye its name ?— -Describe the country 
of the Batavi. — Of the Suessiones. — ^Of the Nervii. 



GEllMANIA. 303 



§166. GERMANIA. 

Hame. — The origin of tlie names Germania, Germa'ni, is 
unknown, but tbey were not employed by tbe Germans them- 
selves, who seem to have had no common name for this region, 
or for its different tribes. These appellations were probably first 
employed by the Kelts in Gaul and from them adopted by the 
Romans. Some of the ancients regarded Germafni as the Latin 
appellation given to the Germans as brothers of the Galli or 
Celtae, and this view has been adopted by eminent German 
scholars. Some modern inquirers derive the name from the 
Persian, referring to the Persian tribe called Germanii (JCtpiidv^ 
lot, Hdt. I. 125) and the Persian district Carmania {Kerman). 
Since the ninth century the Germans have called themselves 
Deutsche (whence, Dutch'), and their country, Deutsch-land, This 
designation is supposed to have been derived from Diot or Dim/, 
signifying people, and as a general epithet to have denoted what 
was popular, national, as opposed to what was Roman, foreign. 

The country was called Germania Magna to distinguish it from 
the district on the West of the Bhine occupied by German tribes. 
The territories occupied by the latter received the name of Ger- 
mania Inferior, or Secunda, in the North, and Germania Superior, 
or Prima, in the South. 

Boundaxies. — ^North, Mare Sue'vicum and Mare Germa'- 
nicum; East, Sarmatia; South, Vindelioia, No'rioum, and 
Pannonia; West, Gallia. 

Mountains. — ^The North of Germany is flat and marshy; 
mountains exist only in the South; they were all thickly 
wooded, and therefore called Silvce, The principal ones were : 

(1.) Hercynia Silva (whence perhaps the modern name 
J7ar2;-Mountain), a general designation for almost all the moun- 

QuESTiONS. — J 156. What is said of the origin of the terms Germania 
and Germani ? — ^What are the modern designations and what is said of 
their origin? — ^Why was Germania called Germania Magna? — How was it 
bounded ? — What is the character of its northern part ? — Its southern? — 
Why were the mountains called Silvsa ? — ^What was the Hercynia Silva ? 



304 EUROPA. 

tains of Southern and Central Germany. In later times^ different 
ridges bore different names, as A'bnoba, Alpii Montes, Meli'bo- 
cus Mons and others : 

(2.) Gabri/ta Silva {BoJiTnerwaldj Woody Mountain)^ in 
■ the North of the present kingdom of Bavaria : 

(3.) Saltus Teutoburgiensis, a mountain forest in Western 
Germany, where, in A. d. 9, the Roman legions under Varus, 
suffered a memorable defeat, and where, six years later, their 
unburied remains were found by Drusus. 

Bivers. — (1.) Rhenus, the great barrier of the Romans 
against the German tribes ; in the time of Tiberius eight legions 
were stationed on it. It was supposed to have had originally two 
arms. A third branch was made by Drusus {Fossa Drmia*na), 
which was dug to avoid the navigation around the sea-coast of 
Holland, and thus to facilitate the passage of the legions which 
were sent to the North of Germany : 

(2.) Danubius (Germ. Donati), the largest river in South- 
Eastern Europe, and bounding Germania on the South. The 
Romans learned the name Danuhitts from the natives on the 
upper part of the river, and the Greeks called the lower part 
Istros {''/(TTpoq), Latin, Ister, Hister, which seems to have been 
its genuine name below the Savus. The Roman poets designated 
the whole river Ister and sometimes Danuhius, Its principal 
tributaries were : the Dravus, Savus, Pathissus, and Margus : 

(3.) Vi'sTULA ( Weichsel), the stream which separated Ger- 
mania from Sarmatia : 

(4.) Other rivers: Nicer (iVec7<:ar); Mcenus (ifai/i); Lup- 
PIA {Lippe)) Amisia {Ems); VisuRGis {Weser); Albis 
{Elbe)] Vi'adrus or Vi'ader {Oder)] Chalu'sus or Dra- 
VENNA {Trave), 

Questions. — Where was the Gabreta Silva situated? — Where was the 
Saltus Teutoburgiensis situated? — ^Who were defeated there?— When? 
— Name some of the rivers of Germany. — ^What was the great barrier of 
the Romans against the German tribes ? — By how many legions was it 
guarded ? — What was the Fossa Dnisiana ? — ^What was the greatest river 
in south-eastern Europe ?-A-What is said of its names ? — What were its 
principal tributaries ? — What river separated Germania from Sarmatia ? 



OERMANIA. 305 

Lake. — Flevo Lacus, a part of the present Znyder See, in 
the kingdom of the Netherlands. 

Climate. — ^The Eomans describe Germany as a wild and 
inhospitable country, covered with forests and marshes. Cold 
winds are said to have prevailed constantly, and the barren soil 
was said to be covered during the greater part of the year with 
snow and ice. 

Productions. — It produced little wheat, but luxuriant grass ; 
there were no fruit-trees, at least no cultivated ones. The im- 
mense forests were the abodes of a great variety of wild beasts, 
some of which appear to have since become extinct. 

Inhabitants. — ^The Germa'ni first became known to the civi- 
lized nations in the time of Caesar, who invaded the country 
55 B. c, and again 53 b. c. That they, as well as all the other 
nations of Europe, came originally from Asia, is a fact revealed 
in the language of the people, which bears the strongest organic 
resemblance to the languages of India and Persia. They belonged 
to the same great stock of nations as the Greeks, Eomans, and 
Kelts, to the last of which they are said to have had a marked 
likeness in stature, character, and manners. They are described 
by the classic authors as very tall and handsome men, of clear 
complexion, with blue eyes, and fair or red hair, on which they 
bestowed great attention, and the color of which they made still 
brighter by the use of a peculiar kind of soap. The red hair of 
the Germans was an article of commerce with the Komans during 
the period of the Empire, for it was a fashion among the Boman 
ladies to wear peruques or curls of red hair. Their chief depend- 
ence for the means of subsistence was on war, the chase, and the 
rearing of cattle. The women were occupied with spinning, 
weaving, and tilling the ground, but were nowhere so much 
honored as among the Germanic nations. The country, with 

Questions. — ^What lake was in north-western Germany? — How is 
Germany described by the Bomans? — ^What are its productions? — ^What 
is said of the origin of the inhabitants ? — How are they described by the 
classic authors? — ^What is said about their hair?— How were the women 
treated ? 

2C* U 



s. « N^i N *Vv^ wvttQtIaiooiis legioQSy was for the most part 

. . s^— N- V*^ tttttnerous nations are divided by Ta'citus 

..> x«^>n^' ^^ If^j^vonesy on the sea-ooast; the ^^r- 

^ ;^ >V t^t^rwr; and the Istaf vanes, in the East and 

;v v's'' ^^%UMII tai Towns. — ^The principal nations were : 

^ t K^ x^' <'su, who belonged to the IngaeVones. They inha- 

s ^ V »v ^Mfttttxj about Lake Flevo, between the riyers Rhenus 

V MAiviA^ Paring the fourth and fifth centuries^ they were 

. >si %iiK the Saxons, with whom they sailed across to Britain, 

«..x4 vVovd in their conqn^ts : 

^ ^ > The Chauciy who inhabited the country between the 
\<uK\i;jk and the Albis. They were distinguished navigators, but 
s.u>^(«$;^ also in piratical forays, sailing as far South as the coast 
v4 0«aul : 

^S.) The Sa'xoneSf one of the most important nations of the 
kttiddle ages, not mentioned in ancient history previous to 
A. D. 287, when they infested the coasts of Armo'rica. They 
inhabited, at that time, the narrow neck of the Chersone'sus 
Ot'mbrica (Jutland) between the Albis and Chalu'sus. 

(4.) The Aru/Ii, also North of the Albis, in the district slill 
called Angdn, in Schleswig. They joined the Sa'zones in their 
invasion of Britannia, which was hence called England, or Land 
of the Anglii 

(5.) The Cimhri inhabited the Chersone'sus CCmhrica. In 
connection with the Teu'tones and others they invaded the South 
of Europe, and successively defeated six Roman armies, until in 
the end they were conquered by C. Marius in the Campi Haudii, 
near Vercellaa (101 b. c.) : 

(6.) The Tey^toni or Teu'tones, who were almost entirely 
destroyed by Marius near Aquae Sextiae (102 b. c.) : 

(7.) The Sucvi, a generic name for a very large portion of the 

QuKSTiONS. — } 157. Name somo of the nations. — Some of the towns. 
—What is said of the Frisii ?— Chauci ?— Saxones ?— Angli ?— Cimbri ? 
^When, where, and by whom, were the Cimbri conquered? — ^When, 
ore, and by whom, the Teutoncs ? — ^What is said about the Suevi ? 



.GERMANIA. 307 

inhabitants of Germania from which the modern appellations 
Suahxa and Suabian are derived. The most illustrious among 
the Suevi were the Se^nonesor Sefmnones, who inhabited the 
territory between the Albis and Vi'adrus. This territory con- 
tained an ancient forest {Se^nonum Silvd), hallowed by super- 
stition and sacrificial rites. In this forest the general meeting 
of the different Suevic nations was held : 

(8.) The Langohardi or Longohardi^ who originally dwelt in 
Scandinavia, and afterward inhabited the banks of the lower 
Elbe, whence they are thought to have derived their name, as 
denoting inhabitants of the hng hord or plain of the river. 
They were not a numerous tribe, but their want of numbers was 
made up by their bravery. They were constantly emigrating 
toward the South, sometimes meeting with defeat, but often 
conquerors themselves, till, in the last half of the seventh cen- 
tury, they occupied the fertile plains of the country called from 
them Lomhardy, which still preserves the ancient name : 

(9.) The Va/ndalt, who comprised the Burgundio'nes or Bur- 
gundi, the Gothdnes or Gothi, and others. In the year 409 
they crossed Gaul and passed into Spain, where they founded a 
powerful kingdom, and where their name is still preserved in 
that of the province of Andalusia (for Yandaluda), The Bur- 
gundio'nes in the fifth century obtained a portion of Gaul where 
they founded the kingdom of Burgundy. The Gotho'nes dwelt 
originally on the coast of the Baltic, but in the third century 
appear on the coast of the Euxine, where they were often at 
war with the Eomans until Aurelian gave up Dacia to them 
(a.d. 272). They were soon afterward divided into Ostrogoths 
(East- Goths) and Vmgoths ( West- Goths), In the year 410, the 
Visigoths invaded Italy and the South-West of Gaul, and settled 
in Spain where they established a powerful kingdom, which was 
finally overthrown by the Moors. The Ostrogoths after harassing 

Questions. — What is said of the Langohardi? — In what direction 
were they constantly emigrating ? — rWhere did they settle at length ? — 
What is said of the Vandali ? — Of the Burgundiones ? — Of the Gothones ? 
— What is the meaning of the appellations Ostrogoths and Visigoths ? 



308 EUROPA. 

the Eastern Empire obtained permission from the court of Con- 
stantinople to invade Italy, which they completely conquered 
under their king, Theodoric the Great, a.d. 489, and where 
their dominion was maintained until it was overthrown by the 
Langobardi who invaded Italy a.d. 668 : 

(10.) The CheruMci, the most celebrated of all the German 
tribes. They occupied the country between the Weser and Elbe. 
They were at the head of the confederation of the different tribes 
who, having been provoked by the tyranny of Varus, finally, under 
the leadership of Arminius, better known under the more familiar 
name of Hermann, destroyed the Boman legions stationed in 
Germania (9 B. o.) : 

(11.) The Alemanni (probably AUe Manner, AU-Men') as their 
name indicates, formed a confederation of several tribes on the 
upper Khine and Danube. In the third century, they came in 
contact with the Romans, fought against them in Gaul and 
Southern Germany, and even invaded Italy. They finally 
established themselves in eastern Gaul and in Switzerland. 
From the Alemanni, Germany has been called by the French 
AUemagne; and by the Italians, Alemagna. 

(12.) Marcomanni (^Bordermen) was a name applicable to any 
nation or nations who inhabited and defended a border oountiy. 
Marcomanni are first mentioned in history as driven back from 
Gaul across the Ehenus by Caesar (58 b. c). The most powerful 
who bore this name were those who had founded a mighty king- 
dom on the Eastern frontier of Germany, in Bohemia. It was a 
mixed union of different nations, united by the strong hands of 
the conqueror Marobu'dus. The object of this confederacy was 
to defend the German nations against the Bomans in Pannonia. 
Among the towns of this confederacy were Mabobu'dum {Bud- 
ioeiss) and UsBiUM : 

(13.) Other nations were the Rugii; Bru'cteri, with the town 

QUE8TION8. — ^What is said of the Cherusci ? — Under whom did they 
•'Y the Roman legions? — ^When? — Give an account of the Alemanni. 
' does the name Marcomanni signify ? — ^What was the mightiest 
undcd by these Marcomanni ? 



THE DANUBIAN PROVINCES. 809 

Mediolantum {Meteleri)) UsH petes; Tenchthe* ri, with DiviTiA 
{Deutz) ; Sygamhri; MattCaci, with AQUiE Matti'ac^ ( Wies- 
haden) and Matti'acum (^Marburg) ; Chatti, with Mattium ; 
Quadi, with Eburodu'num; Tuhantes; and the Marsi, 

ISLANDS OF GERMANIA. 
, I'nsul^ Scandi^. 

Scandinavia {Sweden and Norway) was always regarded by 
the ancients as an island, thickly peopled; and its native inhabit- 
ants believed it to be a distinct continent. 

Ptolemy speaks of four islands East of the Chersone'sus Ci'm- 
brica, which he calls al Ixavdiat v^<roe. Their names are Scandia 
(probably, Sweden), Ne'rigos, Bergi, and Damna. 

§ 158. THE DANUBIAN PROVINCES. 

I. RafflTiA and Vindelicia, or RHiETiA Prima and Sectjnda. 

These two countries were separated in the time of Augustus, 
but after the close of the first century they were united. Later, 
however, they were distinguished by the names of Prima and 
Secunda, Vindelicia, or Rhaetia Secunda, was the North- 
western part. 

Boundaries. — ^Nprth, Germania ; East, No'RicrM and Ve- 
netia; South, GrALLiA Transpada'na ; West, Gallia, 

Mountains. — Alpes Rhje'tic^. 

Rivers. — ^I'sarus (Isar), ^nus (Inn), A'thesis (Adige). 

Lake. — Lacus Briganti'nus (Lake of Constanz). 

Towns. — Brigantixjm (Bregentz), Augusta Vindelico'rum 
(Augsburg), Regi'num (Regensburg), Castra Ba'tava (Fas- 
san), Tridentum (Trient). 

Questions. — ^What name was given to Sweden and Norw^ay ? — How 
was it always regarded by the ancients ? — Name the four Insulaa Scan- 

diae of Ptolemy ? J 158. What is said of Rhaetia and Vindelicia ? — 

When were they separated ? — When united ? — How is it bounded ? — 
What mountains are in it ? — ^What rivers ? — ^What lake ? — What towns ? 



310 EUROPA. 

II. No'rioum. 

The name was derived from Nore'la^ tlie capital of the country. 

Boundaries. — ^Nortli, Germania ; East, Pannonia; South, 

Pannonia and Gallia Cisalpi'na; West, RniETiA and Vin- 

BELICIA. 

Mountains. — Alpes No'Ric-a:, Alpes CA'RNiCiB, Mons Ce- 

TIU8. , 

Eivers. — Dravus {Drave)y MuRUS (MvJir). 

Productions. — The mines of No'rioum were celebrated for 
their iron, which supplied the renowned factories of arms in 
Pannonia, Moesia, and Northern Italy. 

Inhabitants. — The No'rici, formerly called Taurisci, were a 
Keltic race. After a short, but severe struggle, they were con- 
quered by Tiberius (13 b. c). 

Towns. — Nore'ia, famous as the scene of the destruction of a 
Roman army (113 B. c), Boiodu'rum (^Innstadt), Lauri'acum 
{LorcK), JuVAViA (^Salzburg). 

III. Pannonia. 

This was one of the most important provinces of the Roman 
Empire, its inhabitants always forming a considerable portion of 
the Roman legions. 

Boundaries. — North, Germania; East, Dacia; South, I'l- 
LYRis Roma'na; West, No'rioum and Gallia Cisalpi'na. 

Mountains. — The vast plain of Pannonia is enclosed on the 
West and South by the Alpes Panno'nic-s:. 

Rivers. — Danubius, Dravus, Savus {Save). 

Lake. — ^Lacus Pelso {Flatten See), 

Productions. — It was celebrated for its timber, which was 
imported into Italy in large quantities. 

Questions. — ^Whence is the name Noricum derived? — How is it 
bounded ? — Name its mountains. — Rivers. — Productions. — Inhabitants. 
— When were they conquered by the Eomans? — Name some of the towns. 
— In what did the importance of Pannonia consist? — ^Name the bounda- 
ries. — Mountains. — Rivers. — Lake. — Productions. 



PANNONIA. 311 

Inhabitants. — ^The Pannonians were probably an Illjrian 
race; they are described as a brave and warlike people wbo, 
wben the Romans first became acquainted with them, were noto- 
rious for their cruelty and love of bloodshed, as well as for their 
faithlessness and cunning. 

Divisions. — During the first century it formed one province ; 
in the second century it was divided into three parts : Panno- 
NiA Prima, Pannonia Secunda, Valeria. 

Towns. — ^Vindobo'na ( Ficwna), where the emperor M. Au- 
relius Antoni'nus died; -^mo'na, afterward Julia Augusta 
(JLaibacK)y SisciA or Segesta (Sisseck), Tauru'num {Semliny, 

IV. MossiA. 

The Greeks called it Mysia in Europe (JHoiria ^ iv EdpdtTrrj), 
to distinguish it from Mysia in Asia. 

Boundaries. — North, Dacia; East, Pontus Euxi'nus; 
South, Thracia ; West, Ill'yricum and Pannonia. 

Mountains. — OBE^mus {Balkan Mountains), ScARDUS. 

Bivers. — Drinus {Drino), Savus, Margus (^Morana), 

Inhabitants. — It was inhabited by Thracian tribes, a portion 
of whom afterward went to the North- West part of Asia Minor. 

Divisions. — ^In the reign of Trajan, it was divided into two 
parts ; the Western half being called Moesia Superior, and the 
Eastern half, Moesia Inferior. 

Towns. — As one of the frontier provinces of the Roman Em- 
pire, it was strengthened by a line of fortresses along the South 
bank of the Danube. The principal of these were Viminacium, 
Ratiaria, Nico'polis, Durosto'rum or Duro'stolum (^SUis- 
tria), the birthplace of the general Aetius, who with his rival 
Bonifacius was styled by the historian Procopius, the last of the 
Romans. On the Pontus Euxi'nus was ToMi or ToMis, whither 

Questions. — ^What is said of the inhabitants of Pannonia ? — Into how 
many parts was it divided in the second century? — Name some of the 
towns. — What was Moesia called by the Greeks ? — Why ? — Name the 
boundaries. — Mountains. — ^Rivers. — Inhabitants. — How was it divided ? 
— What ia said of its fortresses ? — Name some of the towns. 



312 EUROPA. 

Ovid was banished (▲. D. 8). In the interior of the North-West 
part were Naissus, the native pkce of Constantine the Great^ 
and Tatjrssiuh^ the birthplace of Justinian. 

§ 159. DACIA, or. The Land of the Daci or GsTiB, 
^ Tont Fezwv yr^, 

Dacia was the last of the Roman conqnests in Europe, and 
received certain definite limits by its incorporation with the 
Empire under Trajan, an event immortalized by the column 
which still stands in Home, bearing that Emperor's name. 
Though the dominion of the Romans lasted only for about a 
hundred and seventy years, yet in no country have they left a ' 
more lasting impression of their power, especially in the lan- 
guage. The present inhabitants, the Wallacks, style themselves 
Romani, and their tongue — the Wallachian — Romania; which, 
like the Italian, is soft, abounding in vowels, and deriving most 
of its words from the Latin, mixed up with many forms of Sla- 
vonic origin. 

Boundaries. — ^North, Ca'rpates Montes; East, Sarhatia 
EUROP.SA ; South, McEsiA ; West, Pannonia. 

Eiver.— The Tisia'nus or Tysia {Theiss) flowed into the 
Danube. 

InhabitaiLts. — ^The Getas, who at an unknown period changed 
their name into Daci, belonged probably to the Thracian group 
of nations. Being conquered by the Grauls, a great number of 
them were sold as slaves to the Athenians about 300 b. c, which 
appears from the names of slaves, Davus (i. e. Dacus) and Geta 
in the writers of the New Greek Comedy and their Roman imi- 
tator, Terence; with which usage may be compared our own 

Questions. — { 159. What was the last of the Koman conquests in 
Europe? — How long did this conquest last? — ^What boundaries were 
giTen to it after the Roman conquest ? — What rivers were in Dacia ? — 
What was the original name of the inhabitants ? — What name did they 
afterward adopt? — To what group of nations did they belong? — ^By 
whom were they conquered ? — How were they treated by their con- 
querors? — ^When? — ^What is an evidence of this? — ^Hlustrate it. 



SARMATIA EUROP-flSA. 313 

designation of a bondman, slave, Germ. Sklave, that is, a Slavo- 
nian in bondage. 

Town. — Sarmizeoethu'sa, the capital, set on fire by its 
inhabitants in order that it might not fall into the hands of 
Trajan. 

Trajan built a bridge over the Danube, which seventeen years 
afterward (120 b. C.) was destroyed by Hadrian to prevent the 
barbarians crossing over into the Thracian provinces. Remains 
of this work are still to be seen. Beside this bridge, Trajan 
constructed three roads, which were connected with the Via 
Traja'na, which ran along the South side of the Danube, partly 
out in the rock and partly supported on wooden beams. 

SARMATIA EUROPiEA. (^ lapfiaria.) 

This name was applied to the North-Eastem part of Europe. 

Boundaries. — ^North, Sue'yigum Mare and a tract of un- 
known country; East, the Tanais and Chersone'sus Tau'rica 
(CVmea); South, Dacia; West, the Vi'stula. 

Mountains. — Ca'rpates Monies, Sarma'tici Monies, 
Monies Hyperborei. 

Rivers.-^The Tanais, Bory'sthenes, Danubius, Yi'siula. 

Productions. — It served only for pasturage. 

Towns. — Olbia QOXpia), a Greek colony, on the right bank 
of the Hy'panis, founded about 666 b. c. by settlers from the 
Ionic Mile'tus. At an early period, it became a point of the 
highest importance for the inland trade, which, issuing thence, 
was carried on in an easterly and northerly direction as far as 
Central Asia. It was visited by Ilero'dotus, who obtained his 
valuable information about Scythia from the Greek traders of 
Olbia. The city was destroyed by the Goths (A. D. 250). 

QusSTiONS. — ^What is the capital of Dacia ? — What name was applied 
to the north-eastern part of Europe ? — ^Name the boundaries. — Moun- 
tains. — Rivers. — Productions. — Towns. — ^When was Olbia founded? — 
Where ? — By whom ? — ^When destroyed ? — ^What is said about its trade? 

27 



314 EUROPA* 



S 160. T AU'MCA CHEKSONirSUS. 
(^The Crimea or Ta^riea.^ 

This is a peninsoLi streichiDg into the Pontos Eiud'niis &om 
Sannatiay with which it is connected bj the Isthmus of Taphros 
or Taphne (^Perekop), 

Vaane. — ^It received the appelktion Tau'rica from its inhabit- 
ants, the TauH, and that of Scjfihica from the Scytha who 
dispossessed the TaniL Its modem name. The Crimea^ is 
probably deriTcd from Eski-JTrtm (Old CWm), which Forbiger 
identifies with ihe ancient town Cimmerium. Since its incorpo- 
xation with the Russian Empire, it has again been called Ta^rica. 

Extent — ^It contains an area of about 10,000 square miles, 
three-fourths of which consists of flat plains, little elevated above 
the sea ; the remainder toward the South is mountainous. 

Hountains. — ^Tau'bici Montes, the highest tops of which 
are Trapezus and Cimmerium. 

Capes. — CBrDMET(/POK (^Kpcou /jLiranroy, Ram's Bead; prob. 
Cape Aithodor)y on the Southern side of the peninsula ; Pro- 
MONTOBIUM Pabthenium (^Capt Khenonege), the westernmost 
point, famous for a temple of A'rtemis. 

Productions. — Between the mountains are many deep and 
warm valleys open to the South, and sheltered from the North 
wind, where the olive and vine flounsh, and the apricot and 
almond ripen to perfection. The present character of the countiy 
does not correspond with the description of the ancients. The 
very spots praised by ancient authors for their fertility, are now 
desolate and monotonous steppes. 

Inhabitants. — The original inhabitants were the savage Tauri, 

QuKSTiOHS. — 2 160. Describe the situation of Taurica Chersonesus. — 
What is said of its names 7 — How many square miles does it contain ? — 
Describe its physical appearance. — Name some of its mountains. — 
Capes. — What is said of its productions ? — ^What difference exists be- 
tween the former and present state of the peninsula ? — What were the 
native inhabitants ? — Who settled among them ? 



TAURICA CHERSONEBUS. 815 

who dwelt in the interior, which was but little known in anti- 
quity. The interest connected with the history of the peninsula 
is derived chiefly from the maritime settfements of the Greeks. 
The coast was early visited by the Milesians, who planted some 
flourishing colonies upon it. Beside this, there was a Dorian 
colony near the site of the present &ba8topoI, and the Athenians 
are said to have possessed the town of Nymphaeon on the Cim- 
merian Bo'sporus. 

Towns. — (1.) Chersone'sus ( Jre/o<roj/)y<roc), a colony from the 
Dorian city Heraclei'a in Pontus, situated at the Westernmost 
point of the peninsula, and conjectured to have been founded 
about the middle of the flfth century B. 0. The ancient city of 
Chersone'sus, of which considerable remains were to be seen as 
late as the end of the last century, had fallen into decay before 
the time of Strabo (born probably about 54 b. c.) ; but the new 
town was flourishing, which seems to have been situated on the 
West side of the present Quarantine Harbor of Sebastopol, and 
was one of the principal commercial cities of antiquity; under 
the name of Cherson, or Chorson, it flourished till a late period 
of the middle ages. East of Ghersone'sus was St'mbol6n 
PoRTUS (^Gvlf of Balaklava)y a harbor with a narrow entrance, 
which was anciently the chief station for the pirates of the Tauric 
peninsula : 

(2.) Theodosia (Seodoffta, Caffd), situated in the South- 
Eastern part of the peninsula, a flourishing colony of the Mile- 
sians, which had an extensive commerce, particularly in grain : 

(3.) PANTiCAPiEUM (UavTixditaiov) was situated on the Western 
side of the Cimmerian Bo'sporus, and not far from the entrance 
to the Lacus Maeo'tis (ly Maccjrtq). It is now called Kertch, and 
in the tumuli around this place many valuable works of ancient 

Questions. — Name some of the towns of Taurica Chersonesus. — Who 
founded the earlier Chersonesus ? — ^When ? — Where ? — What is said of 
the later town ? — What is said of Symboldn Portus ? — ^Where was Theo- 
dosia situated ? — Bj whom was it founded ? — ^Where was Fanticapadum 
situated ? — ^What is it now called ? 



316 EUROPA. 

art have been discovered. Panticapaeum was the capital of Bo's- 
porosy a Greek kiogdom which existed till near the end of the 
fourth century, and whose territory in its palmiest days extended 
as far North as the Tanais; while to the Westward it was bounded 
on the land side by the mountains of Theodosia. This fertile but 
narrow region was the granary of Greece, especially of Athens, 
which drew annually from it a supply of four hundred thousand 
medimni (about 600,000 bushels) of com. Beside this territory, 
the kings of Bo'sporus possessed a tract of land on the Asiatic 
side of the strait 

Questions. — Of what kingdom was Pantici^num the capital ?— What 
was the extent of this kingdom ? — ^What is said of its fertility ? 



BBIIANNIA. 817 



§ 16L ISLANDS OF NORTHEBN EUROPE. 

I'NSULJE BRITA'NNICiE. (.N^cot BptrranxaL) 

They comprised Britannia {Great Britain), Hibebnia 
(Ireland)^ and some smaller islands. 

I. Britannia. 

Ifame. — ^Tbe name rnsulae Brita'nnicaeis older than Britannia. 
The distinction between Britannia as Great Britain and leme 
begins with Caesar, and that between Britannia as South Britain 
and Caledonia as North Britain, is later still. The origin of the 
designations Britannia and Britanni is uncertain, but there is 
no evidence that any part of the population of the British Isles 
called themselves Britons, They were called so by the Gaub 
and the Gallic name was adopted by the Komans, the term 
being probably Iberic and Gallic as well. The name Albion 
(in Ptolemy, 'AXoutmv) is first found in Pliny (H. N. IV. 16). 
Some derive it from the Keltic alb or dip, high (compare Alpes, 
the Alps) with reference to the lofty coasts of the island as it 
faces Gallia; others connect it with the Latin albusj white, 
supposing the name to have been given to Britain on account 
of its chalky cliffs. 

Konntains. — Mons Grampius (the Grampian EiUs; in the 
Gaelic, Grantz-bain), rendered memorable by the victory over 
Ga'lgacus by Agri'cola in the last year of his government 
(a. d. 84), which entirely broke the spirit of the Britons. 

Capes. — Cantium (North Foreland)^ Bolerium (Lands 
End), Damnonium or Ocrinum (Lizard Point). 

Questions.— § 161. What islands did the InsulsB Britannicao com- 
prise? — What is said of the names of Britannia? — Derive Albion. — 
What mountains of Britannia are mentioned by the ancients ? — ^Name 
some of the capes. 
27* 



818 EUBOFA. 

Biverg and Inlete. — Boderia JEstuaeium (^Frith ofF&rtK)^ 
Tina (the Tlne)^ Abus (the Humher), Me'tabis ^stuabium 
(the Wash), Ta'mesis or Ta'mesa (the Thames), Sabri'na (the 
Severn), Itu'na JSstuarium (Solway Frith), Glota JEstu- 
ABIUM (^Frith of Clyde). 

Climate. — The island; almost always wrapped in fogs^ was 
believed to have a mild climate^ and to be covered with large 
forests and marshes. 

Froductions. — ^The articles of foreign commerce were tin and 
lead; chiefly the former. The most ancient Greek designation 
of the British Isles is CassM rides (^Tin Islands), found in 
Hero'dotos (III. 115) : — islands, caUed Ca^sitef rides, from which 
tin (xaatrtrepo^) comes to us. The historian learned this from 
the Phoenicians; and indeed this name of tin is of Oriental origin; 
being in Sanskrit; kasttra, and in Arabio; kasdir. The Phoe- 
nicians carried on the traffic in tin with the Britons probably as 
early as 1000 B.C.; the Britons taking in exchange salt; furs, 
and bronze vessels. Other productions were lumber, wheat; and 
also irou; silver; and gold. 

Inhabitants. — ^The population of South Britain was British 
(aboriginal); Britanno-KomaU; with a Gaelic element; and Ger- 
manic; the latter destined to replace all the rest. The inhabitants 
of North Britain were British and Gaelic with Pict elements and 
only a slight Roman admixture. The occasion is taken to add 
here the various designations showing how wide-spread the 
Keltic element was in Western Europe : K^Xroi, later; Kikrai, 
FaXdrat, Celtoe, Galli, Gauls, Gael, Welsh (French; GaMois), 
CeUib^ri, 

The civil history of Britain begins with the invasion by the 

Questions. — Name some of the rivers and inlets of Britannia. — 
Describe its climate. — ^What were its productions? — ^What were the 
British Isles called by the early Greeks? — Give an account of this 
designation. — What other productions are mentioned? — ^What is said 
of the inhabitants ? — ^Which of the intrusive elements has shown itself 
the most powerful ? — Repeat the designations of the Kelts in western 
Europe. — ^When does the civil history of Britain begin ? 



BRITANNIA. 310 

Romans. DariDg one of Csesar's campaigns in Gallia, the 
Ve'neti (in the vicinity of tlie present town of Vannes) obtained 
assistance against Caesar from the Britons. To chastise them for 
the succor they were accustomed to send to the enemies of the 
Eomans, Caesar made his first descent (in the Summer of 55 b. c). 
He is opposed on his landing, but overcomes the Britons and 
retires to Gallia. In the spring of the next year he makes a 
second invasion, is resisted by Cassivelaunus and withdraws his 
whole army. His operations in the first instance were confined 
to the south-west comer of the island ; in the second, he pushed 
on as far westward as the modern county of Herts, a distance of 
about eighty miles. In the reign of Claudius the Romans 
returned to Britain under Plautius (a. d. 43). The Britons led 
on by Cara'ctacus and Togodumnus make a brave resistance but 
are overpowered. Plautius' successor, Osterius, defeats and 
captures Cara'ctacus (c. A. D. 51). The Britons afterward 
(a. d. 62) rise in revolt to the number of 230,000 under the 
great and brave Boadice'a, Queen of the Ice'ni, and give battle to 
the Roman general, Suetonius, but are conquered with a loss of 
80,000 dead on the field. Several generals are then successively 
sent to the command of Britain, but the Romans make little 
progress till the time of Yespasian (a.d. 70-78), when the 
Brigantes and the Silu'res are subdued. The glory of com- 
pleting the conquest of Britain was reserved for Cnaeus Julius 
Agri'cola whose exploits there achieved (a. d. 78-84) are recorded 
in the Agr^cola by his son-in-law, the historian Ta'citus. To 
check the incursions of the barbarians from the north, Agri'cola 
(a. d. 79) built a wall from Solway Frith to the mouth of the 
Tine; and (a.D. 81) constructed another far north of the first, 
from the Frith of Clyde to the Frith of Forth. These proving 
insufficient, Hadrian (a.d. 120) planned and executed a much 
stronger work where Agri'cola's first wall had been drawn. 

Questions.— Describe the two descents of Csesar. — ^What further 
xnoyement was made in the reign of Claudius? — ^What did Plautius* 
successor achieve? — What is said of Boadicea? — Who accomplished the 
conquest of Britain ? — Give an account of the Walls of Agricola. — ^Of 
that of Hadrian. 



820 EuaoFA. 

Twenty years afterward the second wall of Agri'oola was restored 
under Antoni'nos and called Vallum ArUanHni (still traced, and 
called Grimes Dyke), But the greatest work of all was that 
constructed by the Emperor Seve'rus (a.d. 209-10) a few yards 
north of Hadrian's Wall. It was seventy-four miles long, twelve 
feet in height, and eight in thickness, built of stone laid in the 
most durable mortar. This stupendous work was garrisoned by 
10,000 men. The Roman power gradually decaying in Britain 
and the distresses of the Empire rendering the withdrawal of 
the troops necessary, near the middle of the fifth century, or 
according to some, about the year 420, nearly five hundred years 
after their first invasion under Julius G»sar, the Romans finally 
abandoned the island. 

Divisions. — I. Britannia; also called, Britannia Ro- 
ma'na, or Provincia Inferior. 

II. Caledonia; also called, Britannia Ba'rbara, or Pro- 
vincia Superior. 

The boundaiy of Britannia Roma'na in the time of Claudius 
(a. d. 41-54) was the Abus on the north, and the Sabri'na on 
the west, but Agri'cola conquered the island as far north as the 
Frith of Clyde and the Frith of Forth. During the reign of 
Hadrian, this acquisition was abandoned, and the boundary line 
between Britannia Roma'na and Britannia Ba'rbara was fixed by 
the wall erected between Solway Frith and the Tyne. 

If ations and Towns. — ^A. In Britannia Roma'na were eight 
important tribes : 

(1.) Those who inhabited Cantium (now Kent and a part of 
Surrey). They carried on the chief traffic with Oaul, and were 
the most civilized people of the island; In their territory was 

Questions. — Describe the Wall of Antonine. — That of Severus. — ^When 
did the Romans abandon the island ? — ^Why ? — Name the diyisions of 
Britain. — Hov was Britannia Bomana bounded when formed into a 
proTince? — How far north did Agricola push his conquests? — Where 
was the northern limit fixed under Hadrian? — How manj important 
tribes wore in Britannia Romana ? — What is said of the people of Can- 
tium? 



BRITANNIA. 321 

CaDtium Promontorium. Among their towns tbo most cele- 
brated were : 

a, LoNDiNiUM (London)^ called also in the fourth century 
Augusta, the capital of Britannia Koma'na, originally situated 
on the south bank of the Ta'mesis, but soon extended over the 
northern bank of the river. Londinium is first mentioned by 
Ta'citus (c. A. D. 60) who calls it a much frequented commercial 
town. It was the central point from which the military roads 
of the country started^ for which reason it had the mUUarium ox 
mt?6-stone, by which the length of roads was measured : 

h. Other places: Dubbje or Dubbis Portus {Dover), 
DUBOVEBNUM {Canterbury), Dubobbi'v^ {Rochester), RuTU- 
Pi^ {Richborough), about which Caesar probably fixed his camp 
in his second descent on Britannia : 

(2.) The Trinohantes, a warlike tribe, who inhabited the 
country North of the Ta'mesis. Their chief town was Camalo- 
du'num ( Colchester), the oldest Roman colony on the island : 

(3.) The ice'ni, who inhabited the country North of the 
Trinobantes {Norfolk and Suffolk, i. e. Norihrpeople and South- 
people) : 

(4.) The Bdgce, South- West of the Ta'mesis. Here were 
Aquas Solis or Aquas Ca'lidaB, ''Tdara ^epfid, in Ptolemy {Bath^ 
specially celebrated for its Roman remains), the waters of which 
were highly valued and often used by the Romans; Venta 
Belqa'rum ( Winchester, where Roman remains are still found); 
and Magnus Pobtus {Portsmouth) : 

(5.) The Dumnonii or Damnonii occupied the south-west 
part of the island and gave their name to Damnonium Promon- 
torium. They were the inhabitants of Devon, Cornwall, and the 
western part of Somerset. Their name Dumn probably still 
subsists in the modern Devon. The Damnonians traded in tin, 
for which they received salt, skins, and bronze vessels: 

(6.) The Cornavii were settled along the banks of the Sabri'na. 

Questions. — Give an account of Londinium.— Name other places. — 
"What is said of the Trinobantes ?— Of the Iceni?— Of ilie Belg«.— Of 
the Damnonii ? — Of the Cornavii ? 

X 



S22 EuaorA. 

AmoDg their towns were Uboconium (^Shrewsbury), and DsYA 
{Chester), at the mouth of the Deva (Dee) : 

(7.) The Conlafni on the east coast, soath of the Abns, with 
the towns of Lindum {Lincoln), and Ratjs {Leicester) : 

(8.) The country aboTO the Abus to the wall of Hadrian was 
occupied by the Brigantes, Their chief town was Ebora'cum 
{York), next to Londinium, the most important place on the 
island, and the seat of goTemment under the Koman dominion. 
Here two Roman emperors, Sere'rus and Constantius resided till 
their death. Other towns among the Brigantes were Luguval- 
LUxM {Carlisle), Lutuda'rum (probably, Leeds), Manounium 
{Manchester, i. e. Man-castra). 

The only British tribes mentioned by Csesar are the people of 
Cantium, the Trinohantes, the Genimagni, the Segont^aci, the 
Anca'lites, the BCbroct, and the Gasst, all which probably dwelt 
in the south-eastern part. 

The northern part of Britain was termed Caledonia^ a name 
which first occurs in Pliny (c. A. D. 50), and which is variously 
derived. The native critics regard it as a Romanized form of the 
Welsh celeddon, the plural of celyd, a retreat, a woody shelter 
(compare the Latin ceh). The Scots of the present day call 
their division of Britain, Gael-doch from Gael, Gallic or Keltic, 
and doch, a district, and from this designation other authorities 
suppose the Romans to have formed the word Caledonia. 

The Caledonii are mentioned in the fourth century as the 
PiCTi (perhaps so called as being picti, painted on going into 
battle) and the SooTi (compare the word Scytlice). They were 
defeated by the Romans, but were never incorporated into the 
Empire. 

QuBSTiOHS.—What is said of the Coritani?— Of the Brigantes?— 
What British tribes are mentioned by Cnsar ?— What was the northern 
part of Britain called?— What is said of the origin of the nam^? — 
What is said of the Picti and Scoti? 



\ 



HIBERNIA. 323 

§162. IL HiBERNIA. 

This island is called Iebne (j^ ^Upvr[) by Aristotle ; by Mela, 
IvERNA, and by Caesar and Pliny, Hibernia, which are pro- 
bably mere variations of leme, which seems closely akin to the 
present Gaelic name Eri or Erin, supposed to be of Phoenician 
origin, and for which, on account of its resemblance, the Greeks 
employed their word ^lipa to designate the island, and hence the 
Boman Sacra (Insula). In Keltic lar or Eir means western, 
and may have been applied to the island to designate its 
position relative to Europe. From Eri we have Irish and 
/rc-land. Toward the end of the third century the name Scotia 
was applied to Hibernia, from which time till the beginning of 
the eleventh century it denoted that island exclusively ; so on 
the other hand, the Gaelic, or ancient language of the Scots, is 
also called Erse {Irish), both facts indicating the close relation 
of Scotland and Ireland in past times. Little was known of 
Hibernia by the ancients, and that chiefly by the Iberians, the 
Phoenicians, and the Greeks, but monuments and relics attest the 
presence of a people considerably advanced in civilization in 
Ireland before the fifth century, such as Cyclopian buildings, 
sepulchral mounds containing stone chambers, mines, and bronze 
instruments and weapons of classic form and elegant workman- 
ship. Agri'cola gathered some scanty information respecting the 
island from the Britons who traded with its inhabitants, but the 
Romans never attempted to conquer or invade it. 

Questions. — § 162. What is said of the ancient names of Ireland ? — 
What is said of the ancient use of the term Scotia ? — What is the Gaelic 
also called ? — ^What may be inferred from these two facts ? — To whom 
was Hibernia known? — What is said of its antiquities? — How did 
Agricola learn something of the island ? 



824 EUROPA. 



in. Smaller Islands. 

(1.) Cassite'ribes ; by thb designation must have been 
specially meant the em-oonnty of Cornwall^ with which the 
SctUif hies were more or less confounded : 

(2.) Vectis or Vecta (i»fe of Wighf), first known to Massilian 
merchants who went thither for tin, which was brought over to 
the island from Cornwall by Britons. It was conquered by 



(3.) MoNA (Anglesey), off the coast of the Ordovi'ces. This 
densely populated island was the chief strong-hold of the Druids 
and Bards : 

(4.) MoNARfNA, or MoNACEDA (IsU of Man), situated half- 
way between Britannia and Hibemia : 

(5.) Eeu'DiE, or Hebu'd^ (the Hebrides), North-West of 
Britannia : 

(6.) CKrcades (^Orkneys), North of Britannia : 

(7.) Thule or Thyle, a celebrated island discovered and 
described by the Greek navigator Pytheas of Massilia (prob. 
300 B. c). From the time of its discovery it was regarded as 
the most northerly point of the known world (vltima Tliule, 
Virg. Georg. I. 30), though no further knowledge was obtained 
respecting it. According to some it is the modern Mainland, 
the largest of the Shetland Islands ) according to others Iceland; 
some believe it to be the part of Norway now called Thile or 
ThiUmviTls. ; some, the extreme point of Jutland now known as 
Thy or 7%land ; and some, the whole Scandinavian peninsula. 
With its name compare the Gothic Tiel or Tiuh (riXog, end, 
goal) which denoted (he remotest land. 

Questions.— What did the Cassiterides specially denote ?— What is 
said of Vectis ? — Who conquered it * — ^What is the modern name of 
Vectis?— What of Mona?— What is said of Mona?— What was the 
ancient name of the modern Isle of Man? — What two island groups 
were situated to the north-west ?— What is said of Thule ?--What are 
the various opinions in respect to its application ? 



ATLANTIS. 326 

ATLANTIS. (^ 'ArXavrU v?tfoc.) 

Plato, in his TimsBus (c. VI.)> relates a conversation between 
Solon and an JBgyptian priest; in which this priest says : 

That sea (i. e. the Atlantic) was then navigable, and had an 
island /renting that mouth which you in your tongue call the 
Pillars of Hercvles; this island wa>s larger than Libya and 
Asia put together; and there was a passage hence for travellers 
of that day to the rest of the islands, as well as from those islands 
to the whole opposite continent that surrounds the real, sea. For 
as to what is within the mouth now mentioned (i. e. the Mediter- 
ranean), it appears to be a bay with a narrow entrance ; and 
that sea is a true sea, and the land that entirely surrounds it m>ay 

most correctly be called a continent. Subsequently by violent 

earthquakes and floods, which brought desolation in a single day 
and night — the Atlantic Island was plunged beneath the sea and 
entirely disappeared; whence even now that sea is unnavigable 
by reason of the shoals of mud created by the subsiding island. 

Whether this opinion was founded on the vague records of 
some actual discovery in early times, or on mythical or poetical 
representations, it is impossible now to determine. But the 
following lines of Se'neca are said to have made a powerful 
impression on the mind of Columbus, and may thus have really 
contributed to the discovery of the Western Continent : 

Venient annis scecula teriSf 
Quibtu Oeeanus vineula rerum 
Lazet, et ingmspateat tdlus, 
Tethysque novos detegat orbes ; 
Nee sit terris ulUma ThuU. 

Medea, Act II. 876-379. 

Questions. — What Greek philosopher speaks of Atlantis? — What 
does he say of it ? — Has this statement any real foundation ? — In which 
of the Latin poets do we find an anticipation, as it were, of the dis- 
covery of our continent ? 

28 



INDEX. 



Abdera, 213. 
Abel-Bethmaachah, 78. 
Abilene, 74. 
Abus, fl. 318. 
Abydos, 17. 
Abydus, 117. 
Aca, 69. 
Acabene, 57. 
Academia, 167. 
Acampsis, fl. 66. 
Acanthus, 116. 
Acarnania, 150. 
AchsBUS, 184. 
Achaia, 183. 
Acharnse, 162. 
Achelous, fl. 144, 147. 
Acheron, fl. 147. 
Acherusium, prom. 48. 
Achradina, 280. 
Acra, m. 86. 
Acritas, pr. 177, 143. 
Acroceraunia, prom. 

143. 
Acrocorinthus, m. 185. 
Acropolis, 164. 
Actium, pr. 143, 160. 
Adana, 38. 
Addua, fl. 222. 
Ades, 131. 
Adonis, fl. 68. 
Adramyttenus Sinus, 

107. 
Adria, 228, 241. 
Adriaticum Mare, 139. 
Aduatica, 302. 
Adule, 128. 
^dui, 299. 



MgBb, 209. 
Agates, ins. 276. 
iEgeeum Mare, 139. 
iEgialus, 183. 
^gina, ins. 198. 
^giplanctus, prom. 

169. 
^gium, 185. 
^gospotami. 211. 
iEgyptus, 112. 
^gyptus Inferior, 114. 
iElana, 9t. 
^laniticus Sinus, 91. 
Miisk Capitolina, 86. 
iEmona, 311. 
.^niadse, 150. 
iEnoanda, 52. 
iEnus, fl. 309. 
^olise, ins. 276. 
^olis, 15, 21. 
^qui, 247. 
^sepus, fl. 16. 
iEsernia, 243. 
iEsis, fl. 226. 
^Ethiopia, 126. 
iEthiopici, mts. 126. 
Min&, m. 271. 
iEtolia, 151. 
Africa, 130. 
Africa Provincia, 130. 
Aganippe, 158. 
Agendicum, 300. 
Agora, 167. 
Agrigentum, 274. 
Aigaleon, m. 177. 
Alabanda, 30. 
Alba Longa, 245. 



Albana, 55. 
Albania, 54. 
Albanus, m. 218. 
Albis, fl. 804. 
Albius, m. 215. 
Album, prom. 68. 
Alcyonicus Sinus, 169. 
Alemanni, 308. 
Alesia, 800. 
Alexandria, 123. 
Alexandropolis, 98. 
Algidus, m. 217. 
AUobroges, 297. 
Alopeee, 163. 
Alpes, mts. 140. 
Alpes Carnicas, mts. 

310. 
Alpes MaritimsB, mts. 

233. 
Alpes NoricsB, mts. 310. 
Alpes Pannonicse, mts. 

310. 
Alpes BhsBticae, mts. 

309. 
Alpheus, fl. 144. 
Altinum, 228. 
Amanus, m. 35. 
Amastris, 43. 
Amathus, 104. 
Ambracia, 147, 150. 
Ambracius Sinus, 143. 
Ameria, 239. 
Amisia, fl. 304. 
Amisus, 41. 
Amiternum, 242. 
Ammonium, 128, 129. 
Amnius, fl. 42. 
(327) 



328 



INDEX. 



Amorgos, ins. 20G. 
Amorium, 50. 
Amphipolifl, 213. 
Amphissa, 152. 
Ampsflga, fl. 135. 
Amyclae, 175, 248. 
Anactorium, 150. 
Anagnia, 247. 
Anamares, 282. 
Ananes, 232. 
Anapus, fl. 270. 
Anas, fl. 286. 
Anathoth, 83. 
Anazarbus, 88. 
Ancalites, 822. 
Ancobaritis, 57. 
Ancona, 241. 
Ancjra, 47. 
Andania, 178. 
Andropolis, 115. 
Angli, 306. 
Annibi, ints. 101. 
Anthemus, 58. 
Anthemusia, 57. 
Anticirrha, 155. 
Anticites, fl. 54. 
Antilibanus, m. 68. 
Antiochia, 51. 
Antiochia Marsiana, 

99. 
Antiochia ad Orontem, 

65. 
Antiochia ad Taurum, 

64. 
Antipatris, 82. 
Antipolis, 297. 
Antirrhium, prom. 148. 
Antissa, 107. 
Anti-Taurus, m. 18, 38. 
Antium, 246. 
Anurogrammum, 110. 
Anxur, 248. 
Aornos, 101. 
Aous, fl. 144, 147, 214. 
Apamea, 65. 
Apamene, 65. 
Apenninus, m. 217. 
Aphroditopolis, 117. 
Apidanus, fl. 148. 
ApoUoniatis, 1. 43. 
ApoUonia, 180, 214. 
ApoUonis, prom. 186. 
Appuli, 262. 



{Apsos, fl. 214. 
'Apulia, 262. 
JAqujB Mattiacn, 309. 
Aqus Sextiae, 29G. 
iAquileia, 228. 
JAqulnum, 247. 
Arabia, 89. 
Arabia Deserta, 92. 
Arabia Felix, 92. 
Arabia Petnea, 90. 
Arabici, mts. 113. 
Arabicns Sinus, 112. 
Arachnsus, m. 190. 
Arachosia, 98. 
Aracthus, fl. 144. 
Aradus, 69, 93. 
Ato Philsenorum, 134. 
ArsDthyrea, 189. 
Aragus, fl. 65. 
Aram, 62. 
Arar, fl. 294. 
Arausio, 297. 
Araxes, fl. 55. 
Arbela, 94. 
Arcadia, 171. 
Archelais, 40. 
Ardea, 246. 
Arduenna Sylya, 294. 
Areiopagus, 166. 
Arelate, 296. 
Arethusa, 270. 
Argsus, m. 38. 
Argeia, 190. 
Argentoratus, 302. 
Arginusse, ins. 109. 
Argob, 85. 

Argolicus Sinus, 148. 
Argolis, 190. 
Argos Amphilogicum, 

150. 
Argos, 190, 192. 
Aria, 98. 
Aria, 1. 98. 
Ariana, 97. 
Arimathea, 84. 
Ariminum, 240. 
Arisba, 107. 
Armenia Major, 55. 
Armenia Minor, 40. 
Armorici, 300. 
Armosata, 56. 
Amus, fl. 228. 
Aroer, 85. 



Arpi, 262. 
Arpinum, 247. 
Airetium, 237. 
Arsene, 1. 56. 
Arsinoe, 115, 130. 
Artabrum, prom. 286. 
Artaxata, 56. 
Artocoana, 98. 
Arvemi, 298. 
Arxata, 56. 
Ascanius, 43. 
Ascra, 160. 
Asculum, 241, 263. 
Ashdod, 83. 
Ashtaroth, 85. 
Asia: Boundaries, 11. 

DiTisions, 12. 
Asia Intra Taurum, 12. 
Asia Extra Taurum, 12. 
Asia Minor, 14. 
Asia Orientalis, 53. 
Asia Proconsularis, 15. 
Asopus, fl. 158, 189. 
Aspendus, 84. 
Assinarus, fl. 270. 
Assyria, 98. 
Astaboras, fl. 126. 
Astacus, 150. 
Astapus, fl. 126. 
Astures, 289. 
Asturica Augusta, 290. 
Athamania, 147. 
Athens, 113. 
Athesis, fl. 221, 309. 
Atintania, 147. 
Atlantis, 825. 
Atlas, m. 136. 
Atropatene, 95. 
AttaUa, 84. 
Attica, 160. 
Attium, prom. 282. 
Aurese Chersonesi, 

prom. 100. 
Auxacii, mts. 101. 
Ayaricum, 299. 
Ayenio, 297. 
Ayentinus Mons, 258. 
Ayenticum, 801. 
Ayernus, 1. 221. 
Axius, fl. 208. 
Aufidus, fl. 222, 262. 
Augusta Emerita, 291. 
Augusta Pretoria, 229. 



INDEX. 



329 



Augusta Bauracorom, 

801. 
Augusta Suessionum, 

302. 
Augusta Taurinorum, 

229. 
Augusta Trevirorum, 

302. 
Augusta Veromanduo- 

rum, 302. 
Augusta Vindelicorum, 

809. 
Augustodunum, 299. 
Augustonemetum, 298. 
Augustoritum, 298.. 
Aulerci, 300. 
Aulis, 159. 
Aulon, 216. 
Aurasius, m. 135. 
Aureus, m. 282. 
Aurunciy 247. 
Ausonium Mare, 139. 
Auxume, 128. 
Azanus, fl. 110. 

Baalbec, 65. 
Babylon, 60. 
Babylonia, 58. 
Bactra, 100. 
Baotriana, 100. 
Baecula, 293. 
Bsstica, 291. 
Bsetis, fl. 286. 
Bagrada, fl. 131. 
Baise, 259. 
Balari, 282. 
Balbura, 52. 
Baleares, ins. 293. 
Balearicum Mare, 139. 
Balsa, 291. 
Barca, 130. 
Barcino, 290. 
Bardines, fl. 63. 
Basilicsa, 258. 
Bastetani, 289, 292. 
Basti, 289. 
Bastuli, 292. 
Batanea, 84. 
Batayi, 302. 
Batinus, fl. 240. 
Batnffi, 57. 
Bautes, fl. 101. 
Bautisus, fl. 13. 
28* 



Bebii, mts. 215. 
Bebryces, 48. 
Bedriacum, 231. 
Beersheba, 84. 
Belgse, 321. 
Benacus, lac. 220. 
Beneyentum, 244. 
Berenice, 129. 
Berenice Panchrysos, 

128. 
Bergi, ins. 309. 
Beroea, 64. 
Berytus, 69. 
Besbicus, ins. 110. 
Bethabara, 85. 
Bethel, 74, 83. 
Bethlehem, 82, 84. 
Bethrehob, 77. 
Bethsaida, 79, 85. 
Bethshemesh, 83, 115. 
Bethulia, 78. 
Bezer, 86. 
Bezetha, 87. 
Bibracte, 299. 
Bibroci, 322. 
Bilbilis, 290. 
Billseus, fl. 43. 
Bituriges, 299. 
Bithynium, 45. 
Boderia iBstuarium, 

818. 
Boebeis, lac. 145. 
Boeotia, 157. 
Boeum, 158. 
Boii, 232. 
Boiodurum, 310. 
Bola, 247. 

Bolerium, prom. 817. 
Bononia, 288. 
Borion, prom. 129. 
Borsippa, 60. 
Borysthenes, fl. 140, 

818. 
Bosporus Cimmerius, 

12. 
Bosporus Thracius, 12. 
Bottissis, 209. 
Bovianum, 244. 
BoyillsB, 245. 
Bubtasus, 114. 
Bubon, 52. 
Bucephala, 101. 
Bucephala, pr. 191. 



Busiris, 114. 
Buthrotum, 147. 
Butica, 1. 118. 
Buxentum, 266. 
Bracara Augusta, 290. 
Brauron, 163. 
Britannia, 317. 
Britannia Barbara, 820. 
Britannia Romana, 320. 
Britannicae, ins. 817. 
Britannicum Fretum, 1. 
Britannicum Mare, 189. 
Brigantes, 322. 
Brigantinus, lac. 809. 
Brigantium, 290, 297, 

809. 
Brixellum, 288. 
Brixia, 230. 
Bructeri, 308. 
Brundisium, 268. 
Bruttii, 267. 
Burdigala, 298. 
Burgundiones, 307. 
Byblus, 69. 
Byzacium, 131. 
Byzantium, 218. 

Cadi, 50. 
Cadurci, 298. 
Caelius Mons, 258, 254. 
Caere, 237. 
Csesarea, 81. 
CsBsarea Augusta, 290. 
Gaesarea Philippi, 85. 
Caicus, fl. 16. 
Caieta, 248. 
Calabria, 363. 
Calagurris, 290. 
Calauria, ins. 198. 
Calbis, fl. 30. 
Caledonia, 320, 822. 
Calinga, 101. 
CallipoUs, 212. 
Calpe, prom. 286. 
Calycadnus, fl. 35. 
Calydon, 151. 
Calymna, ins. 109. 
Camalodunum, 321. 
Cambunii, mts. 142. 
Cambyses, fl. 66. 
Camerinum, 240. 
Camirus, 27, 105. 
Campania, 258. 



330 



INDEX. 



Campus MartiuB, 256. 
Cana, 79. 
Canaan, 68. 
Canatha, 86. 
Candayii, mts. 214. 
Candidum, pr. 181. 
CanniB, 263. 
Canobus, 114. 
Canopus, 114. 
Cantabri, 289. 
Caniabricum Mare, 189. 
Cantium, prom. 817. 
Canusium, 268. 
Capernaum, 78. 
Caphy», 178. 
Capitolium, 250. 
Capitolinus Mona, 260. 
Capotes, mts. 66. 
Cappadocia, 88. 
Cappadocia ad Pontum, 

40. 
Cappadocia ad Taurum, 

Cappadox, fl. 88. 
Capreee, ins. 284. 
CapruB, fl. 93. 
Capsa, 131. 
Capua, 260. 
Caralis, 282. 
Carchedonia, 132. 
Cardia, 212. 
Caria, 15, 80. 
Carmana, 99. 
Carmania, 99. 
Carmel, m. 68. 
Carmelus, fl. 89. 
Cama, 98. 
Carnia, 227. 
Carnic», mts. 227. 
Carnutes, 300. 
Carpasia, 104. 
Carpates, m. 140. 
Carpathus, ins. 109. 
Carrhae, 58. 
Carthago, 182. 
Carthago Nova, 289. 
Casius, m. 62, 118. 
Cassi, 322. 
CassiQpe, 195. 
Cassiterides, ins. 818, 

824. 
Cassope, 147. 
Castabala, 40. 



CastaUa, 164. - 
Castellum Menapiorum, 

802. 
Castra Bataya, 309. 
Castra Vetera, 802. 
Catana, 278. 
Cataonia, 40. 
Catarrhactes, fl. 83. 
Caturiges, 297. 
Caucasus, m. 18. 
Caucasus Indicus, m.l8. 
Caucones, 44. 
Caudium, 244. 
Caulonia, 269. 
Caunus, 30. 
Cayares, 297. 
Cayster, fl. 22, 28. 
Caystri prata, 22. 
Cebenna, m. 294. 
Ceos, ins. 204. 
CelsBnsB, 60. 
Celenderus, 88. 
Celtica, 286. 
Celtice, 294. 
Celtici, 291. 
Celtiberi, 287, 289. 
Cenchre», 186. 
Cenimagni, 822. 
Cenomani, 280. 
Centrites, 66. 
Cephallenia, ins. 197. 
Cephisus, fl. 158. 
Cephale, pr. 181. 
Cepus, 64. 
Cerameicus, 167- 
Ceraunii, mts. 142. 
Cerasus, 41. 
CercasoruB, 116. 
Cercina, ins. 131. 
Cestrus, fl. 38, 61. 
Cetius, m. 810. 
Chaboras, fl. 67. 
Chalcedon, 44. 
Chalcetis, 67. 
Chalcia, ins. 109. 
Chalcidice, 209. 
Chalcis, 200. 
Chaldsea, 68. 
Chains, fl. 68. 
Chalusus, fl. 804. 
Charadrus, fl. 147. 
Charybdis, 220. 
Chatti, 309. 



ChflBronea, 169. 
Chauci, 806. 
Chaonia, 147. 
Chelidonium, pr. 81. 
Chelonatas, pr. 143. 
ChersonesuB, 315. 
Chersonesus Magna, 

128. 
Chersonesus Taurica, 

814. 
Chersonesus Thracica, 

212. 
Cherusci, 808. 
Chios, 23, 107. 
Chinalaph, 136. 
Choaspes, fl. 97. 
ChonsB, 60. 
Chrysa, 17. 
Chrysaoreum, 80. 
Cibotus, 60. 
Cibyra, 60.. 
Cilicia Proper, 84. 
Cilicia Aspera, 36. 
Cilicia Campestris, 86. 
Cimbri, 806. 
Cimbricum Mare, 138. 
Cinyphus, fl. 131. 
Circseum, prom. 
Circeii, 248. 
Circesium, 68. 
Circus Maximus, 268. 
Cima, m. 181. 
Cirrha, 166. 
Cirta, 186. 
Cithseron, 168. 
Citium, 104. 
Clastidium, 282. 
Claudiopolis, 88. 
Clazomensa, 28. 
Cleonss, 191. 
Climax, m. 51. 
Clitor, 172. 
Clusium, 237. 
Cnemides, 162. 
Cnidus, 27. 
Codanus Sinus, 138. 
Coele Syria, 64. 
Colchis, 64. 
Colias, pr. 100, 161. 
Colonia Agrippina, 802. 
Colossse, 50. 
Colosseum, 264. 
Colophon, 26. 



INDEX. 



831 



ColumnaB) 258. 
Comana, 40, 41. 
Comaria, pr.-lOO. 
Commagene, 64. 
Gomitium, 251. 
Consentia, 269. 
Contrebia, 290. 
Copais, 1. 145, 158. 
Coptus, 117. 
Coracesium, 38. 
Coraxioi, mts. 54. 
Corbio, 247. 
Corcyra, ins. 196. 
Corduba, 293. 
Corfinium, 243. 
Corinthus, 186. 
Corinthius Sinus, 143, 

150. 
Gorioli, 246. 
Coritani, 822. 
Corone, 179. 
Goronea, 159. 
Coronavii, 821. 
Cortona, 237. 
Gorycus, 37. 
Coryphasium, pr. 177. 
Grocodilopolis, 116. 
Gos, ins. 27, 106. 
Gosa, 238. 
Goty8Bum, 50. 
Gragus, m. 31. 
Grania, m. 150. 
Gpathis, fl. 184. 
Gremona, 230. 
Greta, ins. 201. 
Greticum Mare, 189. 
Gretopolis, 52. 
Grimissus, 270. 
Grissa, 155. 
Griumetopon, prom. 

314. 
Grotona, 267. 
Gtesiphon, 94. 
Gumas, 21, 259. 
Gunaxa, 60. 
Guria Hostilia, 251. 
GurisB, 176. 
Gures, 242. 
Cyaneae, ins. 110. 
Cybistra, 40. 
Gyclades,'in8. 203. 
Gydnus, fl. 35. 
Gydonia, 203. I 



Cyllene, m. 142, 17. 
Gyme, 21. 
Gynosarges, 168. 
Gynuria, 193. 
Gyparissus, 179. 
Gyparissius Sini^s, 177. 
Gy parrissium, pr. 177. 
Gyprus, ins. 103. 
Gyrenaica, 129. 
Gyrene, 129. 
Cyrrhestioe, 64. 
Cyrus, fl. 96. 
Cyta, 55. 

Gythera, ins. 198. 
Gythnos, ins. 204. 
Gy tinium, 153. 
Cytorum, 48. 

Dacia, 312. 
Daix, fl. 13. 
Dalmatia, 215. 
Damascus, 65. 
Damnonii, 321. 
Damnonium, prom. 317. 
Dan, 83. 

Danapris, fl. 140. 
Danastris, fl. 140. 
Danubius, fl. 140, 304. 
Dardanus, 17. 
Dascylium, 45. 
Daulis, 154. 
Daunii, 262. 
Dead Sea, 75. 
Decapolis, 85. 
Decelea, 168. 
Deciatae, 297. 
Delium, 159. 
Delphi, 155. 
Delos, 203. 
Delta, 115. 
Demetrius, 149. 
Demonesi, ins. 110. 
Derbe, 50. 
Dertosa, 290. 
Deva, 322. 
Deva, fl. 322. 
Dianium, prom. 286. 
Dibon, 85. 
Dicsea, 213. 
Dindymus, m. 45. 
Diomedess, ins. 283. 
Dioryctus, 150. 
Dios, 85. 



Divitia, 809. 
Divodurum, 302. 
Doanas, fl. 100. 
Dodona, 147. 
Doliche, 64. 
Doris, 26, 153. 
Doriscus, 213. 
Doryleeum, 50. 
Dotham, 78. 
Drangiana, 98. 
Drayenna, fl. 804. 
Drayus, fl. 810. 
Drepanum, 275. 
Drepanum, pr. 113, 184, 

269. 
Drinus, fl. 311. 
Druentia, fl. 294. 
DubraB, 321. 
Dubris Portus, 321. 
Dumna, 309. 
Dumnonii, 321. 
Durius, fl. 286. 
Durocortorum, 301 
Durobrivas, 321. 
Durostolum, 311. 
Durostorum, 311. 
Durovernum, 321. 
Dyardanes, fl. 100. 
Dyrrachium, 214. 

Eboracum, 322. 

EbudaB, ins. 324. 

Eburodunum, 297, 309. 

Ebusus, ins. 293. 

Ecbatana, 95. • 

Echina, 149. 

Echinades, ins. 196. 

Eden, 93. 

Edessa, 57. 

Egesta, 275. 

Ekron, 83. 

Eiaeus, 212. 

Elah, 74. 

Elaion, 177. 

Elatea, 155. 

Elath, 92. 

Elea, 266. 

Elephantine, 117. 

Elephas, m. 126. 

Eleusis, 162. 

Eleutherus, fl. 68. 

Elis, 179, 180. 

Emathia, 209. 



mvMX, 



,65. 

EoHMli, mU. 18, too. 
Endor, 80. 
Enipeos, fl. 148. 
Emu, 276. 
Eons, 18. 
Ephms, 25. 
EpidjuDnoB, 214. 
Epidftnria, 190. 
Epidannu, 176, 102, 

216- 
EpipoUe, 280. 
Epinu, 146. 
Epinu NoTa, 214. 
Erechtbeani, 166. 
EresBos, 107. 
Eretris, 201. 
EryeuB, 271. 
ErTinaiithiu, m. 148, 

171. 
ErjneoB, 163. 
Erythne, 24. 
Eryx, m. 271. 
Esquilinns Modb, 268. 
Etniris,284. 
Etrusci, 224. 
Enboea, ins, 200. 
Endoxopolis, 218. 
Eamenia, 60. 
Euphrates, fl. 18, 66. 
Europa, 138. 
Eurotas, fl. 144, 174. 
Eurymedon, 88, 61. 
Euxinus, 12. 
Erenns, fl. 16, 144. 
Eziongeber, 92. 

F»sul», 23& 
Falerii, 288. 
Fanum VoltumnsB, 286. 
Ferentinum, 247. 
Fescennium, 238. 
Ficus Ruminalis, 262. 
Flanaiicus Sinus, 226. 
FleTo, 1. 806. 
Florentia, 238. 
FormisB, 248. 
Fortunatss, ins. 136. 
Forum, 261. 
Forum Cornelii, 233. 
Forum Julii, 227. 
Forum Lirii, 283. 



Frcgdl»,247. 
FrcBtau, 248. 
Frento, iL 262; 
Frisii,806. 
• Fnciniu, L 248. 

I 

.6alnreUS7bra»804. 
jGadan, 85. 

Gadcs,292. 
' GadiUanm FreCmi^lSO. 

Gjetolia, 137. 
lOalasa, 86. 
iOalatia, 45, 294. 
jGalilsea, 76. 

I 



Galibi, mts. 110. 
Gallia, 225. 
Gallia Belgiea, SOL 
Gallia Celtic^ 299. 
Gallia Cisalpina, 225. 
Gallia Gispadana, 232. 
Gallia LogdoncDBis, 

299. 
Gallia KarboncDBis, 

295. 
Gallia Propria, 229. 
Gallia Tnuupadana, 

229. 

Gallia Tran8alpiBa»294. 
Gallicum Fretum, 188, 

801. 
Gallicus Sinus, 189. 
Gallo-Gnscia, 46. 
Galloeci, 289. 
Gamalitica, 84. 
Ganges, fl. 13. 
Gangra, 47. 
Garbata, m. 126. 
Garganus, prom. 262. 
Garganus, m. 218. 
Garumna, fl. 296. 
Gath-Hepher, 78. 
Gaulos, ins. 277. 
Gaulonitis, 84. 
Gaurus, m. 218. 
Gauzanitis, 67. 
Gedrosia, 98. 
Gela, 272, 274. 
Genabum, 300. 
Genua, 284. 
Geraneia, mts. 169, 

185. 
Gerizim, m. 74. 
Germania, 303. 



64. 

18^ 
I 801. 
-GcRlia,98. 
.Gcahnr, 86. 
.Getse, 812. 
Gibcah,83. 
GibeoB,83. 
Giglioa, m. 181. 
Gilgal,83. 
iGindaina, 64. 
GloU JEatnariiiii, 8ia 
jGnossus, 208. 
jGolgos, 104. 
Gonnna, 149. 
jGordinm, 47. 
GordiUaum, pronu 281. 
Gort7na,203. 
GoUii,807. 
GotboncB, 807. 
Grascia, 141. 
Graecia Magna* 26L 
Grampios, m. 817. 
Granicus, fl. 16. 
GraTisce, 238. 
Gmmentom, 266. 
Gngemi, 802. 
Gurgnres, mts. 242. 
Gythium, 176. 

Hadria,241. 
Haemos, m. 140. 
Haliacmon, fl. 208. 
Haliartus, 160. 
Halicamafisns, 26. 
Halone, ins. 110. 
Halycos, fl. 27a 
Halys, fl. 13. 
Harmozia, 99. 
Harmozica, 66. 
Hazor, 78. 
Hebron, 82. 
Hebrus, fl. 211. 
HebudflD, ins. 324. 
Hecatompylos, 98. 
Helice, 186. 
Helicon, m. 142. 
Heliopolis, 65, 115. 
HeUas, 149. 
Hellespontus, 18, 16, 41. 
Helvetu, 301. 
Heptanomis, 112, 116. 
Heraelea, 95, 265. 



INDSX. 



333 



Haemus, m. 811. 
Heraclea Pontica, 45. 
Heraclcopolis, 116. 
Heras, pr. 186. 
Herculaneum, 260. 
Herculeum Fretum, 

139. 
Hercynia Silva, 140, 

308. 
Herminius, m. 286. 
Hermione, 193. 
Hermionis, 190. 
Hermon, 74. 
Hermopolitane Phy- 

lace, 116. 
Hermopolis, 115. ♦ 
Hermus, fi. 28. 
Hernici, 247. 
Heroopolis, 91, 115. 
Heroopolites, 91. 
Heshbon, 85. 
Hesperia, 285. 
Hesperidum InsulsB, 

136. 
HestisBotis, 148. 
Hibemia, 323. 
Hierapolis, 50, 64. 
Hierosolyma, 86. 
Himera, fl. 270, 275. 
Hippi pr. 135. 
Hippici, mis. 54. 
Hippocrene, 158. 
Hipponium, 269. 
Hippo Regius, 135. 
Hispania, 285. 
Hispania Citeiior, 288. 
Hispania Tarraconen- 

sis, 288. 
Hispania Ulterior, 288. 
Hispellum, 289. 
Historium, 243. 
Horeb, m. 91. 
Hostilia, 232. 
Hydaspes, fl. 100. 
Hydruntum, 263. 
Hylica, lac. 158. 
Hyllus, fl. 28. 
Hymettus, m. 161. 
Hypata, 149. 
Hyperborei, m. 13, 

54. 
Hyphasis, fl. 100. 
Hypsas, fl. 270. 



Hyrcania, 99. 
Hyria, 151. 

labadius, ins. 110. 
ladera, 215. 
laxartus, fl. 13. 
Iberia, 54, 285. 
Ibericum Mare, 139. 
Iberus, fl. 286. 
Icarium Mare, 139. 
Icarus, ins. 109. 
Iceni, 821. 
Ichnusa, ins. 281. 
Iconium, 50. 
Icosium, 136. 
Icthys, pr. 170. 
Ida, m. 16. 
Idalium, 104. 
lerne, 323. 
Igilgilis, 186. 
Ilerda, 290. 
Ilium, 19. 
Ilva, ins. 284. 
Illiberis, 296. 
Illiturgis, 293. 
lUyris Barbara, 215. 
Illyris Grseca, 214. 
Illyricum, 214. 
Imaus, m. 13, 100. 
Inachus, fl. 150, 191. 
Indus, fl. 13, 100. 
Insani, mts. 281. 
Insubres, 230. 
Insulaa Satyr orum, 110. 
Interamna, 240. 
Ionia, 22. 
Ionium Mare, 139. 
lolcos, 149. 
Ipsus, 50. 
Ira, 178. 
Iricca, 149. 
Iris, fl. 39. 
Isara, fl. 294. 
Isarus, fl. 309. 
Isaura, 52. 
Isauria, 51. 
Ismaros, 218. 
Ismenus, fl. 158. 
Issus, 37. 
Ister, fl. 140, 804. 
Istria, 226. 
Italia, 216. 
Italica, 293. 



Ithaca, ins. 196. 
Ithome, m. 176. 
Ituna ^stuarium, 318. 
Iturasa, 84. 
lyerna, 823. 

Jabesb Gilead, 85. 
Janiculum, 256. 
Jericho, 83, 84. 
Jerusalem, 83, 84, 86. 
Jezreel, 74, 78, 80. 
Jokneam, 78. 
Joppa, 80, 82. 
Jordan, 74. 
Judaea, 82. 
Julia Augusta, 311. 
Julium Carnicum, 227. 
Jura, m. 294. 
Juyavia, 310. 

Katakaumene, 48. 
Eedemoth, 85. 
Eedesh, 78. 

Lacedsemon, 175. 
Lacinium prom. 220. 
Laconica, 173. 
Laconicus Sinus, 148. 
Ladon, fl. 171. 
LsBvi, 229. 
Laletani, 289. 
Lamia, 149. 
Lampsacus, 17. 
Lanuyium, 246. 
Laodicea, 50, 65. 
Laodicea Combusta, 51. 
Lapethus, 104. 
Larinum, 243. 
Larissa, 149. 
Larius, lac. 220. 
Lathon, fl. 129. 
Lathrippa, 93. 
Latini, 244. 
Latium, 244. 
Latium A^jectum, 246. 
Latium Antiquum, 244. 
Latopolis, 117. 
Lauriacum, 810. 
Laurion, m. 161. 
Laus, fl. 267. 
Lautulae, 248. 
Lebadeia, 160. 
Leben, 203. 



834 



INDEX. 



Lebedus, 25. 

Legio Septima Gemina, 

290. 
Leleges, 178. 
LemannuB, lac. 295. 
Lemnos, ins. 206. 
LemoYices, 298. 
Leontes, fl. 68. 
Leontini, 276. 
Lepsia, 109. 
Lepie, pr. 118. 
Leptis Magna, 131. 
Lema, 198. 
Lema, lac. 191. 
Leros, ins. 109. 
Lesbos, ins. 107. 
Leucas, ins. 195, 196. 
Leuce-Come, 98. 
Leucopetra, prom. 220. 
Leuctra, 160. 
Libanus, m. 62. 
Libici, 229. 
Libumia, 215. 
LiburnicsB, ins. 215. 
Libya, 111. 
Libyssa, 44. 
Liger, fl. 295. 
Ligusticum Mare, 139. 
LilybsBum, 269. 
Lilybseum, 274. 
Limera, 176. 
Limnaea, 150. 
Limonum, 298. 
Lindum, 822. 
Lindus, 27. 
Lingones, 238. 
Liris, fl. 228. 
Liternum, 259. 
Locri Epizephyrii, 268. 
Locri Ozolse, 152. 
Locris, 151. 
Londinium, 321. 
Longobardi, 807. 
Luca, 238. 
Lucania, 264. 
Luceria, 263. 
Lucus August i, 290. 
Lugdunum, 299. 
Lugdunum Batavorum, 

302. 
Luguvallum, 322. 
Luppia, fl. 304. 
Lusitani, 291. 



Lusitania, 288. 
Lutetia Pari8iorum,800. 
Lutudarum, 322. 
Lycabettus, m. 161. 
LycsBUS, m. 171. 
Lycaonia, 48, 51. 
Lyceum, 168. 
Lychnidus, 215. 
Lychnitis, lac. 56. 
Lycia, 81. 
Lycopolis, 117. 
Lycosura, 172. 
Lyctos, 203. 
Lycus, fl. 89. 
Lydda, 82. 
Lydia, 15, 28. 
Lydias, fl. 208. 
Lyndus, 105. 
Lystra, 50. 

Maagrammum, 110. 
Macedonia, 206. 
Macela, 89. 
Macoraba, 98. 
Macra, fl. 223. 
Mseander, fl. 30. 
Maenalus, m. 171. 
Magarsus, pr. 85. 
Magdala, 85. 
Magna Grsecia, 261. 
Magnesia, 29, 148. 
Magnum pr. 100. 
Magnus Portus, 321. 
Mahanaim, 85. 
Mi^orica, ins. 298. 
Malaca, 298. 
Malea, m. 110. 
Malea, pr. 143, 170. 
Maliacus Sinus, 148. 
Mallus, 38. 
Mamre, 74. 
Mancunium, 822. 
Mandubii, 300. 
Manduria, 266. 
Man tinea, 172. 
Mantua, 231. 
Maracanda, 100. 
Marathon, 168. 
Marcomanni, 808. 
Mare Mg2d\im, 13. 
Mare Caspium, 13. 
Mare Cilicium, 13. 
Mare Hyrcanium, 13. 



Mare Inferum, 189. 
Mare Internum, 13. 
Mare Pamphylium, 18. 
Mare Phoenicium, 13. 
Mare Rubrum, 13. 
Mareotis, lac. 113. 
Maresha, 83. 
Margiana, 99. 
Margus, fl. 99, 811. 
Marianus, m. 287. 
Mariandyni, 44. 
Marinum prom. 282. 
Marium, 104. 
Marobudum, 808. 
Maronea, 213. 
Marmarica, 128. 
Marrucini, 248. 
Marrubium, 248. 
Marsi, 248, 309. 
Marsyas, fl. 49. 
Masca, fl. 57. 
Masius, m. 57. 
Massilia, 297. 
Massiliensium, 298. 
IVfatrinus, fl. 240. 
Matrons, fl. 295. 
Mattiacum, 809. 
Mattiaci, 309. 
Mattium, 809. 
Mausoleum, 256. 
Mauretania, 186. 
Mazaca, 40. 
Medeba, 85. 
Medema, 269. 
Media, 95. 
Mediolanium, 809. 
Mediolanum, 230. 
Mediomatrici, 802. 
Medus, fl. 96. 
Megalopolis, 172. 
Megara, 169. 
Megara Hyblsea, 272. 
Megaris, 169. 
Megiddo, 77. 
Melas, fl. 33. 
Melita, ins. 277. 
Melitene, 40. 
Memphis, 116. 
Menapii, 802. 
Meninse, ins. 181. 
Mercurii pr. 131. 
JMeroe, 127, 128, 
iMerus, m. 100. 



INDEX. 



335 



Mesembria, 213. 
Mesopotamia, 57. 
Messana, 273. 
Messene, 178. 
Messenia, 176. 
Messeniacus Sinus, 143. 
Messogis, m. 28. 
Metapontum, 265. 
Metaris iEstuarium, 

318. 
Metaurus, fl. 222. 
Methone, 193. 
Methone, 179. 
Methynma, 108. 
Metulum, 215. 
Meyania, 239. 
Miletus, 26. 
Miljas, 52. 
Minorca, 293. 
Mintumse, 248. 
Misrephoth-Maim, 77. 
Misenum prom. 219. 
Misenum, 259. 
Mitylene, 108. 
Modiana, 93. 
Moenus, fl. 304. 
Moeris, lac. 120. 
Moesia, 311. 
Molossia, 147. 
Mona, ins. 324. 
Monaoeda, ins. 324. 
Monarina, ins. 824. 
Montes Lunse, 126. 
Mopsucrene, 88. 
Mopsuyestia, 38. 
Moriah, m. 86. 
Mosa, fl. 295. 
Moschici, mts. 55. 
Mosella, fl. 295. 
Mycale, pr. 29. 
My cense, 191 
Mygdonia, 57, 209. 
Mygdonia, 209. 
MylsB, 275. 
Mylas, pr. 35. 
Myra, 33. 
MyrtiUs, 291. 
Myrtoum Mare, 139. 
Mysia, 15. 
Mysia Major, 15. 
Mysia Minor, 15. 
Myus, 26. 
Mundas, 293. 



Munychia, 168. 
Murus, fl. 310. 
Museum, 166. 
Mutina, 233. 

Naarmalcha, 59. 
Naarsares, 59. 
Nain, 79. 
Nussus, 312. 
Napata, 128. 
Narbo, 296. 
Narnia, 239. 
Naroth, 83. 
Naucratis, 115. 
NaupactuB, 153. 
Nauplia, 192. 
Naxos, 272. 
NaxoB, ins. 205. 
Nazareth, 79. 
Nazianzus, 40. 
Neapolia, 259, 280. 
Nebo, m. 74. 
Nebrodes, m. 271. 
Nemausus, 296. 
Nemetes, 302. 
Nerigos, ins. 309. 
Nerium prom. 286. 
Neryii, 302. 
Nestus, fl. 211. 
Nicsea, 44, 101. 
Nicssum, 234. 
Nicepborium, 58. 
Nicer, fl. 304. 
Nicomedia, 44. 
NicopoUs, 40, 115, 147, 

311. 
Niger, fl. 187. 
Nilus, fl. 118, 126. 
Nineyeh, 93. 
Ninus, 93. 
Nissea, 169. 
Nisibis, 58. 
Nisyrus, ins. 109. 
Nola, 261. 
Nora, 40. 
Norba, 246. 
Norba Gaesarea, 291. 
Noreia, 310. 
Noricum, 310. 
Noyiodunum, 302. 
Noyiomagus, 302. 
Noyum Comum, 230. 
Nuoeria, 261. 



Numidia, 135. 
Numidicus Sinus, 13& 
Numantia, 290. 
Numistro, 266. 
Nysa, 40. 

Ochus, m. 96. 
Ocriculum, 239. 
Ocrinum prom. 317. 
(Ea, 131. 

(Echardes, fl. 101. 
(Enotria, 216. 
(Eta, m. 142. 
Olbia, 34. 
Olbia, 313. 
Olgassys, 42. 
Olisippo, 291. 
OlmiaB, pr. 186. 
Olympia, 180. 
Olympus, 32. 
Olympus, m. 16, 46, 103. 
Olynthus, 210. 
Onchesmus, 147. 
Oneion, 115. 
Ophiusa, ins. 293. 
Ophiussa, ins. 110. 
Ophrah, 80. 
Opica, 216. 

Oppidum Ubiorum, 302, 
Opunticus Sinus, 152. 
Orcades, ins. 324. 
Orchoe, 60. 
Orchomenus, 159. 
Orchomenus, 173. 
Oricum, 147, 216. 
Orontes, fl. 63. 
Oropos, 163. 
Ortospana, 98. 
Ortygia, 279. 
Osca, 290. 
Osci, 224. 
Osrhoene, 57. 
Ostia, 245. 
Ostrogothi, 807. 
Ossa, m. 148. 
Othrys, m. 142, 148. 
Oxus, fl. 13, 99. 
Oxybii, 297. 

Pachynum, prom. 269. 
Pactolus, fl. 28. 
Pactye, 212. 
Psdania, 168. 



336 



IKDEX. 



Psfltum, 266. 
Pados, fl. 221, 227. 
PftgiMns Sinofl, 148t 
Paberofl, 150. 
Palcstina, 72. 
PaUtinos Mods, 252. 
Palindromiis, pr. 89. 
' Palmyn, 66. 
Pallmntiimi, 173. 
Paliifl Maeotis, 12. 
PaluB Oxiana, 102. 
Pambotis, lac. 144. 
Pamiaiu, fl. 148, 177. 
Pamphjlia, 33. 
Paiuetolns, 151. 
Pandatoria, ina. 284. 
Pandoria, 269. 
Pandosia, 147. 
Paneas, 85. 
Panopolifli 117. 
Pannonia, 310. 
Panticapflenm, 315. 
Pantheon, 256. 
Panormufl, 275. 
Paphos, 104. 
Paphlagonia, 42. 
Paracheloitis, 151. 
Parachoathras, m. 96. 
Panetoniam, 128. 
Parapomiaadse, 98. 
Parisii, 300. 
Parmas, 232. 
Parnassus, 40. 
Parnassus, m. 142, 153. 
Pames, m. 158, 16L 
Pamon, pr. 174. 
Paropamisus, 11. 13. 
Paropamisus, m. 13, 

100. 
Paros, ins. 205. 
Parorios, 48. 
Parthenius, fl. 43. 
Parthenon, 164. 
Parthenium prom. 314. 
Parthia, 98. 
Pasargada, 96. 
Paryadres, m. 88. 
Patara, 82. 
PatmoS; ins. 109. 
Patavium, 227. 
Pax Julia, 291. 
Pedi»u8, fl: 103. 
Perius, fl. 184. 



Peb^ods, 14& 
Pelaagi,224. 
Peligni,243. 
PeUoB, m. 148. 
Peloponnesus, 170. 
Peloms, prom. 269. 
Pella,209. 
Pelliti,282. 
Pelso. lac. 810. 
Pelnsiunif 114. 
Peneetii, 262. 
Peneus, fl. 144. 
Penens, fl. 144. 
Pentelicus, m. 161. 
Per»a,84. 
Percote, 17. 
Pergamus, 19. 
Perge, 33. 
Perimnla, 101. 
Perinthus, 218. 
Permessns, fl. 158. 
Pertusus, m. 294. 
Perusia, 237. 
Persepolis, 96. 
Petelia, 269. 
Petra, 91. 
Pessinns, 46. 
Pentapolis, 129. 
PhflBstus, 203. 
Phalacrinm prom. 269. 
Phaleron, 168. 
Phanagoria, 54. 
Phamacia, 41. 
Pharos, ins. 288. 
Pharsalns, 149. 
Phasis, fl. 55. 
Pheneus, 173. 
Phene, 149. 
Phigalia, 173. 
Philadelphia, 29. 
Philaj, 117. 
Phliasia, 188. 
PhUus, 189. 
Phocsoa, 23. 
Phocis, 158. 
Pboenice, 67. 
Phoenicia, 67. 
Phoenix, 80. 
Pholoe, m. 179. 
Phrygia, 48. 
Phrygia Major, 48. 
Phrygia Minor, 48. 
Phrygia Pacatiana, 15. 



Phrygia Salntaxia, 15. 

Phtkia, 149. 

PhtliiotiB, 14a. 

Phuth, fl. 136. 

PhycQS, pr. 129. 

Phyle, 163. 

Pice&tes, 241. 

Pieennm, 240. 

Picti,322. 

Pietones, 298. 

Pieria,209. 
.Pietas Jnlia» 226. 
iPinum, 31. 

Pincius Mods, 254. 

Pindus, m. 146, 147, 
153. 

Pinna, 243. 

Piraeus, 16a 

Pisa, 180. 
,Pis», 238. 

Pisaurnm, 240. 

Pisata^ 179. 

Pisidia,51. 

Pistoria, 238. 

Pityusae, ins. 54, 293. 

Pontia, ins. 284. 

Pontus, 40. 

Pontus Cappadocins, 
41. 

Pontus Galaticus, 41. 

Pontus Polemoniacus, 
41. 

Pola, 226. 
Polemonium, 41. 
Pomptinae Paludes, 221. 
Pompeii, 260. 
Pompelo, 290. 
Populonium, 238. 
Poseidonium pr. 89. 
Posidium pr. fy. 
Posidium pr. 147. 
Potidasa, 210. 
Placentia, 232. 
Planasia, ins. 284. 
Plataeas, 160. 
Pnyx, 166. 
Pneneste, 245. 
PrasiaB, 163. 
Priene, 26. 
Priyemum, 247. 
Proconnesus, ins. 110. 
Propontis, 11. 
Propthasia, 98. 



INDSX. 



337 



Prusa ad Olympum, 44. 
Prytaneum, 167. 
Psophis, 173. 
Psyra, ins. 109. 
Ptolemais Theron, 128. 
Ptolemais, 69. 
Puteoli, 259. 
Pydna, 209. 
Pylae Albaniaa, 55. 
Pylae Caspiae, 55. 
PylsB CiliciflB, 35. 
Pylus, 179, 180. 
Pyramus, fl. 35. 
Pyrensei, mts. 140, 286. 
Pyrrha, 107. 

Quadi, 809. 
Quirinalis Collis, 254. 

Ramnus, 163. 
Ramoth Gilead, 85. 
Raise, 322. 
Ratiuria, 811. 
Rauradi, 301. 
Ravenna, 233. 
Reate, 242. 
Begillus, lac. 220. 
Reginum, 309. 
Regio Syrtica, 129, 180. 
Remi, 301. 
Rephaim, 74. 
Rha, fl. 13, 54. 
Rhagae, 95. 
Rhegium, 268. 
Rhenus, fl. 140, 222, 

296, 304. 
Rbitymnia, 203. 
Rhium pr. 143, 184. 
Rhodanus, fl. 294. 
Rhodus, 105. 
Rhodus, ins. 105. 
Rhoetia, 809. 
Rhoetius, m. 282. 
Rhymnus, fl. 13, 102. 
Rhyndacus, fl. 16. 
Roma, 249. 
Rubicon, fl. 222. 
Rubricatus, fl. 135. 
Rudise, 264. 
Rugii, 308. 
Ruscino, 296. 
Rusellse, 238. 
Rutuli, 246. 

29 



Rutupiss, 321. 

Saba, 93. 
Sabbatha, 93. 
Sabbaticus, fl. 68. 
Sabina, 242. 
Sabini, 241, 242. 
Sabelli, 224. 
Sabis, fl. 302. 
Sabrata, 131. 
Sabrina, fl. 318. 
Sacer m. 218. 
Sacrum prom. 282, 280. 
Sagras, fl. 222. 
Saguntum, 289. 
Sais, 114. 
Salamis, 104. 
Salamis, ins. 199. 
Salapia, 263. 
Salassi, 229. 
Saldse, 136. 
Salernum, 260. 
Salges, 296. 
Salmantica, 291 
Samaria, 79, 80. 
Samicum, 180. 
Samnium, 242, 243. 
Samos, ins. 26, 106. 
Samosata, 64. 
Samothrace, ins. 205. 
Sangarius, fl. 43. 
Sardes, 29. 
Sardemises, m. 51. 
Sardi, 282. 
Sardinia, ins. 281. 
Sardoum Mare, 139. 
Sarepta, 69. 
Sarmatia Asiatica, 58. 
Sarmatia Europsea, 313. 
Sarmaticum Mare, 188. 
Sarmizegethusa, 818. 
Saronicus Sinus, 143. 
Saronicus Sinus, 169. 
Sarsina, 240. 
Sarus, fl. 35. 
Satala, 40. 
Sauconna, fl. 294. 
SaYus, fl. 810. 
Saxones, 306. 
Scalabris, 291. 
Scaldis, fl. 295. 
Scamander, fl. 16, 19. 
Scandia, ins. 809. 

Y 



Scandise, ins. 809. 
Scandinavia, 809. 
Scardus, m. 215, 811. 
Scepsis, 17. 
Scillus, 180. 
Scoti, 822. 
Scotussa, 149. 
Scylax, fl. 89. 
Scyllacium", 269. 
Scyllaeum, 191. 
Scyllaeum, pr. 143, 219. 
Scythia, 101. 
Scythicum Mare, 138. 
Sebaste, 80. 
Sebastia, 41. 
Segesta, 275, 311. 
Segobriga, 290. 
Segontiaci, 822. 
Segusiani, 299. 
Selah, 91. 
Seleucia, 59. 
Seleucis, 65. 
Selge, 52. 
Selinus, 274. 
Selinus, 87. 
Sellasia, 176. 
Seluccia Pieria, 65. 
Seluccia Trachia, 87. 
Selymbria, 213. 
Semanthini, mts. 100. 
Sena, 238. 
Sena Gallica, 240. 
Senones, 300, 307. 
Senonum Silva, 807. 
Sepias, pr. 143. 
Seporis, 79. 
Sequana, fl. 295. 
Sequani, 301. 
Sera, 101. 
Serica, 101. 
Seriphos, ins. 204. 
Sesamus, fl. 42. 
Sestus, 212. 
Sevo, m. 140. 
Sheba, 98. 
Shechem, 74. 
Shiloh, 80. 
Shunam, 78. 
Sichem, 80. 
Sicilia, 269. 
Siculum Mare, 139. 
Siculum Fretum, 267. 
Sicyon, 189. 



338 



INDEX. 



Sicyonia, 189. 
Side, 83. 
Sidon, 69. 
Siga, 136. 
Silarus, fl. 234. 
Simois, fl. 16, 19. 
Sinai, m. 91. 
Sinda, 54. 
Singara, 58. 
Singiticus Sinus, 207. 
Sinope, 42. 
Sinuessa, 248. 
Sinus Ceramicus, 26. 
Sion, m. 86. 
Sirbonidis lac. 118. 
Sirenusae, 284. 
Siris, fl. 222. 
Siscia, 811. 
Sitace, 60. 
Sminthium, 17. 
Smyrna, 21. 
Sodom, 75. 
Sogdiana, 100. 
Sogdii mts. 101. 
Soli (Cilicia), 87. 
Soli (Cyprus), 104. 
Soloe, 37. 
Soracte, m. 217. 
Sordones, 295. 
Sorek, 74. 
Sparta, 175. 
Spercheus, fl. 144. 
Sphacteria, ins. 197. 
Spoletium, 239. 
Sporades, ins. 205, 
Stenyclarus, 178. 
Stoborrum pr. 135. 
Stoechades, ins. 298. 
Stratonicea, 30. 
Stratus, 150. 
Stryme, 213. 
Strymonicus Sinus, 207. 
Stymphalus lac. 171. 
Sublaqueum, 247. 
Subur, fl. 136. 
Suessa Pometia, 246. 
Suessiones, 302. 
Suevi, 306. 
Suevicum Mare. 138, 

303. 
Sulgas, fl. 294. 
Sulmo, 243. 
Sungri, 302. 



Snnium pr. 143, 163. 
Superum Mare, 189. 
Susa, 97. 
Susiana, 97. 
Syagrus, 89. 
Sybaris, 265. 
Sychar, 81. 
Syene, 117. 
Sygambri, 309. 
Syllium, 34. 
SymsBthus, fl. 270. 
Synnada, 50. 
SyracussB, 272, 277. 
Syria, 62. 
Syrtis Major, 131. 
Syrtis Minor, 131. 

Tabumus, m. 218, 242. 
Tadmor, 66. 
Teenarus, pr. 143. 
Tagrus, m. 93, 95. 
Tagus, fl. 286. 
Tamesis, fl. 318. 
Tanagra, 159. 
Tanais, fl. 12, 54, 113, 

313. 

Taphros, 282, 314. 
Taposiris, 128. 
Taprobane, 110. 
Tapydia, 215. 
Tarentinus Sinus, 189. 
Tarentum, 264. 
Tarpeius, m. 250. 
Tarquinii, 236. 
Tarracina, 248. 
Tarraco, 290. 
Tarsis, 98. 
Tarsus, 36. 
Tartessis, 285. 
Tartessus, 292. 
Tatta, lac. 49. 
Tauresium, 312. 
Taurica, 314. 
Taurica Chersonesus, 

814. 
Taurici mts. 314. 
Taurini, 229. 
Tauromenium, 278. 
Taurunum, 311. 
Taurus, m. 13. 
Tavium, 47. 
Taygetus, m. 174. 
Teate, 243. 



Tectosages, 46. 
Tegca. 172. 
Tekoah, 83. 
Telos, ins. 109. 
Temnus, Temnon, m. 

16, 49. 
Tenedos, ins. 108. 
Tentyra, 117. 
Tergeste, 226. 
Tergestinus Sinus, 226. 
Terina, 269. 
Termessus, 52. 
Teos, 24. 
Teuthrania, 15. 
Teutoburgiensis, 804. 
Teutones, 806. 
Thambes, m. 135. 
Thasos, ins. 205. 
ThebsB, 122, 159. 
Thebais, 112. 
Thelpusa, 173. 
Thenses, 282. 
Theodosia, 315. 
Theodosiopolis, 66. 
Therapne, 176. 
Therma, 209. 
ThermsD Diocletian», 

266. 

Thermodon, fl. 39. 
Thermum, 151. 
Theseum, 166. 
Thespisd, 160. 
Thesprotia, 147. 
Thessalia, 148. 
Thessaliotis, 148. 
Thessalonica, 209. 
Thirza, 80. 
Thorax, m. 174. 
Thracia, 210. 
Tbracium Mare, 139. 
Thronium, 162. 
Thule, Thyle, ins. 324. 
Thurii, 266. 
Thyamis, fl. 144. 
Thyatira, 29. 
Thynias, ins. 110. 
Thyreum, 150. 
Tiberias, 78. 
Tiberias, lac. 75. 
Tiberina, ins. 256. 
Tiberis, fl. 223. 
Tibur, 245. 
Ticinum, 229. 



INDEX. 



339 



Ticinus, fl. 222. 
Tifernum Tiberinum, 

239 
Tifernus, fl. 262. 
Tigranocerta, 56. 
Tigris, fl. 13, 66. 
Timavus, fl. 226. 
Tina, fl. 818. 
Tiryns, 192. 
Tisianus, fl. 312. 
Tlos, 31. 
Tmolus, m. 28. 
TolsB, 282. 
Toletum, 290. 
Tolistobogi, 46. 
Tolosa, 296. 
Tomi, 311. 

Toronaicus Sinus, 207. 
Toscandri, 302. 
Trachonitis, 84. 
Trjgectum, 302. 
Transtiberinum, 256. 
Trapezus, 41. 
Trasimenus lac. 220. 
Trebia, fl. 221. 
Treviri, 301. 
Tribocci, 302. 
Trichonis lac. 146. 
Tridentum, 309. 
Trileucum prom. 286. 
Trinobantes, 321, 322. 
Triphyllia, 179. 
Tripolis, 69. 
Tripolitana, 130, 131 
Triton, fl. 181, 168. 
Troas, 16. 
Trocmi, 46. 
Troezen, 192. 
Troezenia, 190. 
Troja, 17, 19. 
Tropaeum Augusti, 234. 
Truentus, fl. 240. 
Tubantes, 309. 
Turdetani, 292. 
Turduli, 292. 



Tusca, fl. 186. 
Tuscia, 234. 
Tusculum, 245. 
Tyana, 40. 
Tycha, 280. 
Tyras, fl. 140. 
TyruB, 69, 70. 
Tyrrhenia, 216. 
Tyrrbenum Mare, 189. 
Tysia, fl. 312. 

Ubii, 302, 

Umbri, 224. 

Umbria, 238. 

Umbro, fl. 223. 

Ur, 67. 

Urbs Aureliensium, 

300. 
Uroconium, 322. 
Ursi prom. 281. 
Usbium, 308. 
Usipetes, 309. 
Utica, 131. 
Uxellodunum, 298. 

Vadimonis lac. 220. 
Vaga, 186. 
Valentia, 290. 
Vallum Antonini, 820. 
Vandali, 307. 
Vardo, fl. 294. 
Varus, fl. 223. 
Vasates, 298. 
Vasconum Saltus, 286. 
Vaticanus Mons, 266. 
Veii, 236 
Vecta, Vectis, ins. 

324. 
Velia, 266. 
Velitrae, 246. 
Veneti, 300. 
VeneticsB ins. 300. 
Venta Belgarum, 821. 
Venusia, 263. 
Verbanus lac. 220. 



Vercellae, 229. 
Veromandui, 802. 
Verona, 232. 
Vesontio, 301. 
Vestini, 243. 
Vesuvius, m. 218. 
Vettones, 291. 
Vetulonia, 237. 
Via Appia, 256. 
Via Egnatia, 216. 
Via Flaminia, 257. 
Via Latina, 257. 
Via Sacra, 261. 
Viadrus, fl. 804. 
Vien&a AUobrogum, 

297. 
Viminacium, 311. 
Viminalis CoUis, 254. 
Vindalum, 297. 
Vindelicia, 309. 
Vindobona, 311. 
Visigothi, 307. 
Vistula, fl. 140, 304. 
Visurgis, fl. 304. 
Volaterrae, 237. 
Volsci, 245, 247. 
Volsinii, 237. 
Vomanus, fl. 240. 
Vulci, 238. 
Vultumus, fl. 228. 

Xanthus, 82. 
Xanthus, fl 16, 19. 

Zabatus, fl. 93. 
Zacyntbus, ins. 197. 
Zadracarta, 99. 
Zama, 135. 
Zancle, 272. 
Zarephatb, 77. 
Zebulon, 74. 
Zela, 41. 
Zeugina, 64. 
Zeugitana, 131. 
Zoster, pr. 161. 



THE END. 



HEARS k DUS£NB£IIT, XLECTROTTPEBS. 



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